WAPP - Waltham Abbey Personnel Project

About WAPP
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WAPPFirst NameLast NameBirth DateSubjectBiographyPRO Ref
1GeorgeAbrahamList of Officers Employed1. George Abraham was employed as a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week (WO/54/512 dated September 1812)WO54/512
2John (1)AdamsList of Officers & Other Employees1. John Adams was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner with pay of 2/-d per day. All Refiners received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch", which on average was every 5th night. (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804). 2. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) states that John Adams was a Collar Maker who earned 3/6d per day, with an additional 'Watch' allowance of 2/-d every third night. These details remained the same at the 13th February 1814, according to Supply 5/230.Supply 5/222
3GeorgeAdams00/00/1778List of Foreman Artificers & Labourers Employed1. George Adams was a Punt Man earning 2/-d per day. At that date he had one year's service dated the 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224). In June 1807 and August 1808 he was still working as a Punt Man earning the same 2/-d per day, but allowed to Watch in Turn (Supply 5/227). 2. Employed as a Millman in 1810, his pay increased to 2/3d per day, and he was allowed 1/6d per night when on duty (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810). 3. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) stated that George was still a Millman, but that he earned 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d per night when on duty. This was still the case on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230). 4. Supply 5/231 and WO 54/524 dated the 25th June 1818, stated that George Adams was then a Saltpetre Refiner. He was a married man, aged 40, with three children, living in Waltham Abbey, then earning only 2/4d per day. He was allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night. 5. A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) shows the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December, 1818. George Adams' name was on the List with his pay unchanged, but he was then not allowed to Watch. 6. List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) indicates that Adams was then employed as a Brimstone Refiner. He was still paid 2/4d per day and was still allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. 7. List of Officers on Employment dated 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) stated that George was working as a Saltpetre Refiner. His rate of pay remained at 2/4d per day, but he then received 1/6d per night when allowed to watch. 8. List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) indicated that George was still a Saltpetre Refiner. All other entries remained the same as previously. 9. List of Employees at the Royal Powder Mills (Supply 5/232 dated 23rd January 1822) gave the age of George Adams as 33 and that he was working as a Saltpetre Refiner, with 19 years' service and pay per day of 2/4d. 10 Returns showing the pay, allowances, length of service and giving every description of the persons in the employment of the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822 and the 23rd January 1822) recorded that George Adams, Saltpetre Refiner, was appointed on the 1st September, 1804 to work in the Corning House at Waltham Abbey. His position on the Establishment as a Brimstone Refiner was confirmed by orders of the Board dated the 4th September, 1818 and the 4th October, 1819. He was allowed to Watch in Turn to guard the works, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night, giving him a total wage for the year of £41.14.4d. According to this Return, he had just over 17 years' service, was aged 41 years, and was a married man with 3 children living in Waltham Abbey. He had previously trained as a Brazier. 11 In the spring of 1822 the Ordnance Board decided to reduce the production and regeneration of gunpowder, and the Establishment at Waltham was to be reduced accordingly. Empson Middleton and James Wright drew up a list of people who were to leave (Supply 5/232 dated the 21st March, 1822) and the men were subsequently dismissed on the 1st June. Several Petitions were submitted by the men asking for financial assistance; many were long-service employees in their middle age, and they pointed out that they had little hope of finding employment after the hay and corn harvest had been gathered. The Storekeeper at Waltham was sympathetic, forwarding their Petitions to the Board for consideration. George Adams was one of 4 men who signed (with a cross) a second Petition on the 12th July, saying that he had been away unsuccessfully looking for work. He was consequently awarded two weeks' pay to ease his financial burden. 12 A transcript of the 1841 Census shows that he and his wife, Phoebe, were living in Green Yard. In addition, it appeared that he was then working as a Labourer.Supply 5/224
4William (2)Adams00/00/1789List of Foremen, Artificers & Labourers Employed1. William Adams (2) was first employed as a Labourer on the 26th March, 1805 (WO56/623). After six months' service he was made a Punt Man earning 2/-d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). 2. Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807 stated that Mr. Adams (2) was now employed as a Corning House Man, with an increased salary of 2/2d per day. In addition, Corning House men were allowed to "Watch in Turn", for which they received 1/-d each time. 3. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Adams was still a Corning House Man then earning 2/6d per day, and still allowed to watch. 4. Supply 5/228 dated the1st September 1810 indicated that he was still a Coming House Man, with his wage remaining the same at 2/6d per day; he was still allowed to watch, for which he was then paid 1/6d each time. 5. List of Employees (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August,1812) indicated that he was then employed as a Bargeman earning 3/10d per day. 6. Supply 5/230 dated the13th February 1814 stated that Mr. Adams was still a Bargeman at that date, earning the same 3/10d per day. 7. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) stated that William was still a Bargeman; he was unmarried, aged 29, lived in Waltham Abbey, and then earned only 3/-d per day. 8. Another List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) showsd the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. William Adams (2) was on the List, which also indicated that he was then a Saltpetre Refiner being paid 2/11d per day. 9. In a letter dated September, 1818 (Supply 5/231) it is stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement" - i.e., reduction of the Establishment numbers - and Mr. William Adams, Bargeman, was on the list. 10 However, a further List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) indicated that he had been retained as a Saltpetre Refiner. According to this List, he was a single man of 30 who earned 2/4d per day, and was also allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. 11 List of Officers on Employment dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) stated that Mr. Adams was then 31, still lived in Waltham Abbey, still earned 2/4d per day and was allowed to watch in turn. By then he had married. 12 Supply 5/232 (WO54/536 dated April 1821) indicated that William was then 32 and still a Saltpetre Refiner, but on this Return he is listed as being unmarried, presumably a clerical error. 13 Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822 gave the age of William Adams, Saltpetre Refiner, as 33, with 17 years' service and pay per day of 2/4d. 14 Return dated the 6th February 1822 (Supply 5/232) showed those employed at the 31st December 1821, and appears to be a more detailed and accurate Return than that of the 23rd January 1822. It stated that William Adams (2) was appointed on the 26th March, 1805 as a Labourer at Waltham Abbey, then by Orders of the Board dated the 4th September 1818 and 4th October 1819, as a Saltpetre Refiner. He was allowed to watch in turn to guard the Works, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night, giving him total annual earnings of £41.14.4d. According to this Return, by the 31st December 1821, he had nearly 17 years' service, was 33 years old, was married with one child and lived in Waltham Abbey. 15 Supply 5/232 dated the 21st March 1822 was a List of Persons to Form an Establishment at Waltham Abbey to regenerate 2,000 barrels of gunpowder as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually. It indicated that William Adams, Saltpetre Refiner, was to be retained. 16 List of Employees dated the 1st October, 1822 (Supply 5/233) showed that William then had 3 children. However, an entry for the following year shows only one child; it may be that his twins died, or it could have been a clerical error. 17 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 showed that Adams (2) was still a Saltpetre Refiner, that his pay for the year was £39.0.0d, and this included an allowance for Watching in Turn, for which he received 2/0d per week. His family and service details were confirmed. 18 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B), William Adams (2) had his remuneration reduced by £2.12.0d per annum in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the 27th December 1822 and the 15th January 1823. 19 WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1823 recorded that he was still a Saltpetre Refiner and that his annual pay was £39, which included an allowance for watching the works in turn, for which, on average, he received 2/0d per week. On this Return he is shown as having 2 children. 20 Return showing Pay and Allowances, etc., dated the 1st October 1825 (Winters, pp 93-95) confirmed the previous information given, and in addition, recorded that he had been in continuous service with the Board since the 26th March, 1805. His pay, however, had been reduced to £33.16.0d per annum. 21. WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 indicated that William Adams (2) was still a Saltpetre Refiner, confirmed his basic annual pay as £33.16.0d, and stated he was still allowed to watch at an average of 2/-per week, giving him total remuneration for the year of £39. Although confirming his previous service details, he was now shown as having only 1 child. This information is repeated in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. 22 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. A year later, WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, confirmed the information given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826, except that it indicated that Adams now had 2 children. 23 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded "no alteration since the last Report dated the 1st October 1826." 24 WO54/558 dated the the 1st October 1827 showed that on the 24th February 1827, William (2) had been promoted to a Corning House Man, with a basic income of £42.18.0d per annum, and he was allowed to watch in turn as before, giving him annual pay of £48.2.0d. He was then aged 37, married with 3 children, and had 22 years' service. 25 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) recorded the same information as the previous record, but he had then completed over 22 years' service. 26 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 27 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay unchanged. On the 6th April 1829, Benjamin Guinn moved from his cottage in the old Tanyard on the south side of High Bridge Street to a tenement on the opposite side of the road (Supply 5/237) and from a List of Properties dated the 28th May 1840 (WO54/133) it seems probable that Guinn's old home was then occupied by William, and was Plot No. 52 on the Town Map. 28 WO54/566 dated the 1st October 1829 stated that at that date William Adams (2) still earned the same £48.2.0d as previously. His length of service was given as nearly 24 years, and he was then aged 39. 29. Return WO54/ 570 dated the 1st April 1830 updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details remaining unchanged. 30 WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 stated that William (2) was 40 years of age and that he had served nearly 25 years. His earnings were still £48.2.0d., and family information remained the same. 31 According to the Return WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831 William (2) was 41 years of age and had served just over 25 years. He was still earning a total of £48.2.0d, as indicated previously. 32 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service from the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining the same. 33 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service from the October 1831 Return, as did WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832. 34 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 confirmed that William Adams (2) still earned a total of £48.2.0d per annum. His service was given as just over 27 years, and his age as 43. 35. WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 states that William Adams (2) was 44 years of age and had served 28 years. He was still in receipt of an annual wage of £48.2.0d; his family circumstances remained the same. 36 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 recorded that although William was still employed as a Corning House Man, his basic salary had been cut to £35.17.9d per annum. He was still allowed to watch in turn, which increased his annual pay to £41.1.9d. He still had 3 children. 37 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834 updated the previous Return, with conditions and earnings remaining the same. 38 Return of Employees dated the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623) indicated that William (2) had been promoted to Second Foreman of the Corning House on the 22nd September, 1837 at £59.2.8d per annum, which included an allowance for being a Rounder every third night. By that date he had over 34 years' service and was aged 49. 39 A transcript of the 1841 Census showed that William Adams (2) lived on the south side of High Bridge Street with his wife Mary, aged 45, and his children, Richard, aged 15 - working as a Silk Printer - Samuel, aged 12, Mary aged 8, William aged 6, Sarah aged 5 and Ruth, aged 3. 40 On the 13th April, 1843, some 40 barrels of gunpowder exploded in the Corning House, together with another 20 in the Press House. Seven men were killed, and much damage was caused in the town. William Adams (2) received £5 for his meritorious conduct on that day. (Winters, p.106) 41 Letter dated the 13th August, 1843, recommended William Adams be appointed to the position of Master Worker. He was appointed on the 11th October, 1843, and was soon to live in the Master Worker's house on Horse Mill Island. 42 According to a record dated 9th March 1855, William Adams, Master Worker, had died (Winters, p.111).Supply 5/224
5William (1)AdamsWinters' Centenary Memorial (p. 38)1. William Adams (1) was a Master Carpenter by trade. He was set to work by Daniel Cornish in October, 1787, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase from Mr Walton by the Government (Winters' Centenery Memorial, p.28).
6John (2)Adams00/00/1813Return of Employees1. John Adams (2) was appointed as a General Labourer on the 1st December, 1837, with pay of £39 per annum, which included an allowance to Watch in Turn. He was a 26-year-old bachelor when the Return was made. 2. Transcript of the 1841 Census recorded that he and his wife, Sarah, aged 40, were living in Romeland. The Census confirmed he was a Labourer, and that both he and Sarah were born in the County. At that time they had no children. Sarah may possibly have been Benjamin Guinn's daughter (See entry for Benjamin Guinn (1) - Supply 5/238 dated September1840).WO56/623
7RichardAdamsWinters' Centenary Memorial, p .107)1. Richard Adams received a donation of £10 for meritorious conduct on the day (13th April, 1843) that some 40 barrels of gunpowder exploded in the Corning House, together with another 20 in the Press House. Seven men were killed and much damage was caused in the town (Winters, p.107).
8RobertAdams00/00/1781Return of Employees1. Robert Adams was employed as a Casual Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineering Department according to WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816. He was a 34-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey, and had 3 children. 2. WO54/520 dated the 28th February 1817 gave his age as 35, and recorded that he had 4 children. In common with the rest of the labour force, however, his pay had been reduced to 2/4d per day. 3. WO54/524 dated the 11th April 1818 stated he was employed "Occasionally as required" and that he was paid 2/4d per day; this Return confirmed he had 4 children. His circumstances remained the same in 1819 according to WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819. 4. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 ( WO54/532) showed that Robert was still employed as a Labourer. He was aged 39, still lived in Waltham Abbey, but then had 5 children. His pay remained at 2/4d per day. WO54/536 dated the 2nd April 1821 indicated his pay was still 2/4d per day and that he was now aged 40 years. 5. WO54/536 dated the 31st December 1821 repeated all of the entries contained in the previous Return. 6. According to WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823, Robert was now paid 2/2d per day as a Labourer for 313 days, giving him an income of £33.18.2d for the year. By then he had nearly 19 years' service starting on the 21st May, 1804. At that date he was aged 42. 7. WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 stated that Robert was still paid 2/2d per day. His service was just over 20 years and he was aged 44. 8. WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825 confirmed the previous entry, and WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 gave identical information, except that Robert was then 45 years' old with service of nearly 22 years. 9. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 and WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded the same information as given before. However, Robert then had nearly 23 years' service and was 46 years of age. WO54/558 dated 1st Octobe, 1827, indicated no basic alterations from the previous Return. 10 Returns dated the 1st April and 1st October 1828 (both referenced WO54/562 updated the same basic information as before. 11 WO54/566 dated the 1st April 1829 stated that Robert at that date still earned the same. His length of service was nearly 25 years, and he was aged 48. 12 Return dated the 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details remaining unchanged. 13 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830 all details remained the same for Robert as in previous Returns, except that his service was now 26 years and he was aged 49. 14 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 confirmed that Robert was still working as a Labourer. His family details and pay remained unchanged, but his length of service and age were updated. 15 A Return of Persons belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield, showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January 1831, recorded that Robert Adams was one of the 15 Labourers to be employed at Waltham Abbey Gunpowder Mills and the Enfield Small Arms Factory. Robert was still paid 2/2d per day, but employed to undertake different services as a Labourer in the Manufactories where "steadiness and sobriety are particuliary required." WO54/575) 16 WO54/575 dated April 1831 updated his age and period of service from the October 1830 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 17 WO54/575 dated October 1831 confirmed that Robert still earned 2/2d per day, giving him a total of £33.18.2d per annum, but he had then served nearly 28 years, and was aged just over 50. WO54/581 dated 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service given in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 18 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 confirmed that Robert still earned £33.18.2d per annum. His service was given as nearly 29 years and at that date he was nearly 52. 19 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 confirmed the information given in the previous Return, except that he was now aged 52 and had served 29 years. 20. WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, gave the same basic details as before, with age and length of service updated appropriately. 21 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 stateed that Robert still earned a total of £33.18.2d per annum, that he was 53 years of age, and that his service was 30 years. 22 Adams had joined the Board on the 21st May, 1804 as a Labourer in the Engineers' Department. In 1839 he was still a Labourer paid 2/2d per day, with estimated annual earnings of £33.8.2d. He was a 58-year-old widower with 5 children living in Waltham Abbey, having served nearly 36 years, according to WO54/623 dated the 1st October 1839. 23 A transcript of the 1841 Census showed that Robert was living in Green Yard, Waltham Abbey, as a lodger with Thomas Parker and his family. His age was given as 60, he was a Labourer and was born in the County. He was a widower, and this is confirmed by WO54/623 dated the 1st October 1839.WO54/516
9William (3)Adams00/00/1770Pay List1. William Adams (3) was employed as a Labourer by the Engineering Department in July, 1809 on work carried in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809, and for this he was paid 17/-d (Supply 5/228). 2. WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816 recorded that he was earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department. He was a 46-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey with 6 children, and had first started work at the Mills as a Casual Labourer on the 29th March, 1806. 3. He was still employed as a Casual Labourer in the Engineering Department earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week according to WO/54/512 dated September, 1812. 4. WO54/520 dated the 28th February 1817 confirmed William was a 47 year-old married man, a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, who had first worked for the Board on the 29th March, 1806. He lived in Waltham Abbey, had 6 unmarried children, and at that date was paid 2/4d per dayWO54/516
10George (2)AdamsList of Persons Employed1. George Adams (2) commenced work in the Engineers' Department in June, 1825, (WO54/550 dated October 1825). His rate of pay was 2/2d per day for 313 days, giving him an annual amount of £33.18.2d. He was a married man with 4 children, and at that date his service was 4 months. However, he was "employed temporarily and due to be discharged at the end of the present month."WO54/550
11WilliamAkersList of Employees and their Pay1. William Akers was a Saltpetre Refiner who earned 2/8d per day, and, in addition, "when not working extra, they are allowed to watch in turn." (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 2. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814, confirmed the above information.Supply 5/229
12WilliamAlexander00/00/1778List of Those Employed1. William Alexander was first employed by the Board on the 21st May 1815 as a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department. He earned 2/8d per day, and was a 37-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816).WO54/516
13Francis BellAllison00/00/1811Return of Emloyees1. Francis Bell Allison was a 26-year-old bachelor when he started work as a General Labourer on the 1st December 1837. He was earning £39.0.0d per annum, which included an allowance to watch in turn (Return of Employees dated the 1st October 1839 - WO54/623).WO56/623
14Daniel (Senior)Allsup00/06/1760List of Foreman Artificers & Others Employed1. Daniel Allsup (senior) tarted work early in 1805 as a Dusting House Man earning 2/1d per day, according to the List of Foremen Artificers and Others Employed dated the 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224). 2. List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers dated the 18th June 1807 (Supply 5/226), stated this was still the case at that date. However, in addition, Dusting House men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d. 3. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Allsup was still employed as a Dusting House Man, then earning 2/3d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 4. Employee List (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810) stated that Mr. Allsup was still a Dusting House Man who was paid the same daily rate as before, but he then allowed to watch in turn for 1/6d night. 5. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) stated that Daniel then earned 3/-d per day in the same job, and was still watching in turn at 1/6d. per night. 6. The previous information given was confirmed in the Return dated the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230). 7. On the 16th June 1808, the Board had purchased two tenements from a Miss Jones, on the north side of High Bridge Street, and the sketch map attached to the document clearly showed that they formed part of High Bank or Bank Cottages. The two tenants then in occupation were "Alsop and Aylin" (WO44/681A). A Statement of "monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December, 1821, shewing the amounts received by the storekeeper" dated the 4th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded also that Daniel Allsup had been living in a house purchased by the Board of Ordnance on the 4th May. 1821, and that his rent was £8.9.0d per annum. The house, Tenement No. 26, has been identified as being at the western end of 5 cottages on the north side of High Bridge Street to the west of Powder Mill Lane, at the western end of a group of tenements known as Bank Cottages. (Part of Plot No. 1432 on the 1842 Waltham Abbey Tithe Map, or Plot No. 48 on the 1825 Waltham Abbey Town Map). The same information is repeated in Supply 5/232 dated the 16th February 1822 for the year 1821. 8. For further information on the Allsup family see WAGP by Huggins, pp.132-140.Supply 5/224
15WilliamAllsup00/01/1797List of Officers and Artificers, etc.1. William Allsup was Apprenticed to Master Mixer, George Pittendrigh, in August 1808, with remuneration of 6/-d per week (Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808). This document also indicated that Mr. Pittendrigh was allowed 6/-d per week in respect of his Apprentice. 2. A receipt for eight weeks' pay dated the 30th September 1808, showed that William was illiterate (Supply 5/227). 3. Supply 5/227 dated the 30th September 1808 confirmed that he was Apprenticed to the Master Mixer of Composition at 6/- per week. 4. Employee List (Supply 5/228 of the 1st September 1810) confirmed William was still Apprenticed to the Master Mixer, was paid 6/- week, and that 6/- per week went to the Master Mixer. 5. According to the Employee List of the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229), William was still Apprenticed to the Master Mixer, but he now earned 6/2d per week, with his Master getting 6/6d per week. 6. At the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) William's circumstances remained the same, except that he then earned 6/8d and his Master was allowed 8/-d per week. WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816 indicated that he was employed as a casual Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department, and that he was first employed as a Labourer on the 4th August, 1815. He was an 18-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey. 7. Robert Perkis and William Allsup were two of the casualties of a reduction in the workforce in 1818. In their Petition (Supply 5/231) they stated that they were Articled Apprentices who had paid three pounds when first Articled, and that they had served seven years, continuing two years after the term of Apprenticeship had expired, after which they were discharged upon the reduction. Having gone into the Works at an early age, they were now unable to earn a livelihood in any other employment. They further wished to state that they had made themselves proficient in their several Departments, and hoped that their Lordships would take into their benign consideration their disagreeable case, and replace them again into their former situation in the Works, in which case, "your humble Petitioners will as in duty bound to you for ever pray." 8. In a letter dated the 7th April 1818 (Supply 5/231), it is stated "In obedience to the Honourable Board's commands contained in your letter of the 1st instant, desiring us to report upon the enclosed Petition of Robert Perkis and William Allsop, praying that they may be restored to their situations in the Royal Powder mills, having served their Apprenticeship in the Department from which they were discharged on account of the reduction. We beg leave respectfully to represent that Robert Perkis and William Allsup were taken as Apprentices, the one as Apprentice to the Assistant Master Worker, the other as Apprentice to the Master Mixer of Composition, [and] after serving their Apprenticeship they were employed as Labourers in the Manufactory." Further, "In forming an arrangement to comply with the Honourable Board's commands of the 22nd December last that a reduction should take place at the Royal Gunpowder Manufactory at Waltham Abbey, the beforementioned Robert Perkis and William Allsup were selected, amongst others, as the junior Labourers to be discharged, for if a preference had been given to them to be retained, other Labourers with families who had been longer in the service than themselves who are single young men [would feel the same and] we are therefore humbly of [the] opinion that they have not any cause for complaint." Nevertheless, in a letter dated the 10th April 1818 (Supply 5/202), it appears that the Board ordered these men to be re-entered when any augmentation should be required. 10 List of Officers on Employment dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) stated that William was now 23, lived in Waltham Abbey, earned 2/4d per day and was single. He was also allowed 1/6d per night when watching in turn. 11 WO54/536 dated the 19th April 1821 stated that William Allsup, a single man aged 24, living in Waltham Abbey, was now employed as a Saltpetre Refiner; he was paid 2/4d per day and allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night. 12 List of Employees (Supply 5/232 dated 23rd January 1822) gave the age of William Allsup, Saltpetre Refiner, as 25, with nearly 13 years' service and pay per day of 2/4d. 13 Return dated the 6th February 1822 (Supply 5/232) showed length of service and other full details of those persons employed by the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821. This appeared to be a more detailed and accurate Return than that of the 23rd January 1822. William Allsup, Saltpetre Refiner, was Apprenticed to the Master Mixer at Waltham Abbey on the 26th March 1808, and by Orders of the Board dated the 4th September 1818 and the 4th October 1819, was appointed a Saltpetre Refiner. He was allowed to watch in turn to guard the Works, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night, giving him a total annual income of £41.14.4d. According to this Return, at the 31st December 1821 he had nearly 14 years' service, was 25 and was single man who lived in Waltham Abbey. 14 In the Spring of 1822, the Ordnance Board decided to reduce the production and regeneration of gunpowder and the Establishment at Waltham was to be reduced. Accordingly, Empson Middleton and James Wright drew up a list of people to go (Supply 5/232 dated the the 21st March, 1822), and the men were subsequently dismissed on the 1st June. Several Petitions were submitted by the men asking for financial assistance; many were long service employees in their middle age, and they pointed out that they had little hope of finding employment after the hay and corn harvest had been gathered. The Storekeeper at Waltham was sympathetic and forwarded their Petitions to the Board for their consideration. William Allsup was one of the petitioners, and he was awarded two weeks' pay to ease his financial burden (Supply 5/203 dated the 20th June, 1822). 15. After he left the Royal Gunpowder Mills, William married Esther (Ester), and by the time their son, also William, was baptised at Waltham Abbey on the 10th January 1830, he was working as a Miller (Huggins, op.cit.p.134). 16. According to a List of Property owned by the Board and prepared by the Royal Engineers' Office in May 1840, William Alsop, Miller, was living in a cottage previously occupied by Benjamin Ginn (WO44/133). This would have been part of Plot No. 62 shown on the Town Map of Waltham Abbey. However, he must have moved shortly after this, since the 1841 Census confirmed that he was still a Miller and that the family were then living in Romeland. 17. William died at the age of 71, and was buried in Waltham Abbey on the 20th June 1868 (Huggins, op.cit.p.134).Supply 5/227
16Daniel (Junior))Allsup00/00/1798List of Employees and their Pay1. Daniel Allsup, jnr. was a Saltpetre Refiner who earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, "when not working extra, they are allowed to watch in turn." (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). This was also the case on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/229
17JamesAllsupHuggins' Waltham Abbey Gunpowder People: Family Tree1. James Allsup was the brother of Daniel Allsup, Snr., and a Postmaster. Although he did not work for the Mills, he leased property from the Ordnance Board in High Bridge Street for £10.8.0d. Annually, from which he ran the town's Post Office. The Post Office was at the eastern part of Plot No. 49, shown on the Waltham Abbey Town Map. (See family tree in Waltham Abbey Gunpowder People, Huggins, op.cit. pp.132-140).
18SamuelAllsup00/00/1803List of Employees in Engineers' Department1. Samuel Allsup was first employed at the Mills on the 16th August 1823 (WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825). 2. WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 - Personnel Employed in the Engineers' Department - stated that Samuel was paid 2/2d per day for 313 days as a Labourer. This gave him an annual income of £33.18.2d. His service was given as nearly 2 years; he was aged nearly 22, was single, and had not been brought up to any trade. 3. WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825 confirmed the previous entry, as did WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826, with the exception that Samuel was then nearly 23 years' old, with service of nearly 3 years. 4. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 gave the same information as the previous Return, as does WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827. However, at that date Samuel had nearly 4 years' service and he was nearly 24 years of age. 5. WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827, updated the previous Return and indicated that he had just over 4 years' service and that he was aged 24 years. 6. Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) updated the basic information given previously.WO54/550
19ThomasAndersonList of Artificers etc. employed in the Engineers' Department1. Thomas Anderson worked as a Labourer in the "Engineers' Dept. Established", earning 1/6d per day with "one day extra allowed per week, agreeable to the Board's Order dated the 12th March, 1801." (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804).Supply 5/222
20WilliamAndersonList of Foreman Artificers & Labourers Employed1. William Anderson was employed in the spring of 1805 as a Charcoal Millman, earning 2/-d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). 2. List of those Employed dated June, 1807 (Supply 5/226) stated that William was still a Charcoal and Brimstone Man, and that in addition to his pay he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d. This information also applied in August 1808 (Supply 5/227).Supply 5/224
21ThomasAndrewsList of those on the Establishment1. Thomas Andrews joined the Engineers' Department as a Labourer on the 9th June 1837. He was paid 2/2d per day with an estimated annual income of £33.18.2d. He was 30 years' old, a single man living in Waltham Abbey, and had 2 years' service (WO54/623 dated 1st October 1839). 2. A transcript of the 1841 Census recorded that he was living in Paradise Row with Elizabeth Biss (30) and Fanny Rust (20). It also confirmed he was a Labourer and that he was born in the County.WO54/623
22BenjaminArcher00/00/1760Personnel Record1. Benjamin Archer was born in 1760 according to Supply 5/212 dated 27th November 1788. WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 gave his start date as the 17th March, 1788. In records dated the 27th November 1788 and the 24th January 1789, it was noted that he was "promised to be continued" because he had previously worked for Mr Walton (Winters, pp.31/32). 2. Benjamin's pay was 1/6d per day on the 21st March, 1789 (Supply 5/212). 3. He was described as "cutting and planting willow trees, cutting canal at the new Corning House, removing earth to the Store, unloading barge of coals and charring wood" in Supply 5/213 dated the18th April 1789 and Supply 5/214 dated September 1789 recorded that he was 29 years old and was employed attending the stoves. 4. Benjamin was working in the stores for 1/6d per day in March, 1790 (Supply 5/214) and this was still the case in August & September 1790 (Supply 5/215 dated the 11th December, 1790), April and June, 1791, as well as January and July to September 1792 (all Supply 5/215). 5. He was officially described as a "Storeman" in 1793 (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February,1793), and was still in the same position in August, September and October 1793 (also Supply 5/216) August and December, 1794 (Supply 5/217) and July, 1795 (Supply 5/219). He was paid an extra 6d per night when on night duty, according to Supply 5/219 dated the 3rd July 1795. 6. Benjamin enlisted as a Private in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794. 7. He was included as a Storeman in Supply 5/219 dated September, 1798. 8. A signed document - Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 - relating to a petition on pay, showd that he was illiterate and still working as a Storeman. 9. Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was then working as a Labourer. (Note: in this document, anyone who was not an Artificer was described as a Labourer). The Report stated that he was a married man with 1 child. 10 A Return of Artificers & Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) showed that although he was still employed as a Storeman, Benjamin was then engaged in cleaning and deepening the river, canals, ditches and any other work necessary, and on the 26th February, 1802, he was paid 2/-d for catching 8 moles (Winters p.61). 11 Benjamin was still working as a Storeman, but his pay had increased to 2/-d per day. All Storemen received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every fifth night. (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804). 12 Shown as a Warder in the List of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers Employed dated the 30th January 1806, he was still earning 2/-d per day, and by that date had 17 years' service. 13 Benjamin was still a Warder in 1807 and 1808, and, according to the List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed dated the 23rd August 1808 (Supply 5/227) his income was still 2/-d per day and he was allowed to watch. 14 Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810 confirmed that he was a Warder at 2/- per day, as well as being allowed to watch in turn. This was also the case in August, 1812, although he was then paid 2/8d per day, and List of Employees (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812) stated he was a Rounder every third night, being paid 2/-d for this duty. 15 List of Employees (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814) stated that Benjamin Archer was still employed as a Warder at the same 2/8d per day and a Rounder at 2/-d every third night. 16 List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Benjamin was still a Warder, aged 58, but was now a widower with 1 child. He lived in Waltham Abbey but at that date only earned 2/4d per day. Although still allowed to watch in turn, he only received 1/-d per night for this duty as opposed to the 2/-d he was paid previously. 17 A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December, 1818. Benjamin was retained with his pay unchanged, and this was confirmed by the Board's Order dated ther 30th September 1818, which also showed that he was the Warder at the Refining House Gate, and had a cottage in High Bridge Street. 18 List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) stated that Archer was still employed as a Warder. He was aged 59, with 1 child, and his pay remained unchanged. Subsequent Returns by the Royal Engineers showed that he lived in a cottage owned by the Board on the opposite side of High Bridge Street from the Refinery in the Storehouse Yard, and marked as Plot No. 21 on the Town Map (WO44/133) 19 List of Officers on Employment dated 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) stated that Benjamin was then 60 and that he was married with 1 child, although later records still stated he was a Widower. He was still a Rounder, but was then in receipt of 2/-d every third night. 20 List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) indicated that Benjamin was a 61-year-old widower, with all other details remaining the same as before. 21 List of Employees (Supply 5/232 dated 23rd January 1822) gave the age of Benjamin, Warder, as 62, with 34 years' service and pay per day of 2/4d. 22 Return dated 6th February 1822 (Supply 5/232) recorded length of service and other full details of those persons employed by the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821. This appears to be a more detailed and accurate Return than that of the 23rd January 1822. Benjamin was confirmed as a Warder by the Board's Order dated the 4th September, 1818. He was allowed to watch in turn to guard the Works, for which he received an average of 2/-d per week, by order of the Board dated the 30th June 1820, which gave him annual pay of £41.14.4d, and he had a "house as porters lodge". He had served nearly 34 years, was now 62 years of age, lived in Waltham Abbey, and was a still a widower with 1 child. 23 In the spring of 1822, the Ordnance Board decided to reduce the production and regeneration of gunpowder, and the Establishment at Waltham was to be reduced accordingly. Empson Middleton and James Wright drew up a list of people to be dismissed (Supply 5/232 dated the the 21st March, 1822). Benjamin Archer was one of the men to be dismissed on the 1st June, 1822. However, a List of Employees dated the1st October1822 (Supply 5/233) recorded that Benjamin had been retained and was living at a Porters Lodge, likely to have been within the Manufactory. The same list showed that he was required to undertake general work wherever his services were required. 24 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 showed that Archer was classed as a "a Labourer for general purposes, to be sent to all parts of the Manufactory wherever their services may be requested." His pay for the year was £33.16.0d, and his family and service details are confirmed as before, except that there appeared to be confusion with his age, which in this Return was shown as 63. He still had a house belonging to the Board as a "porters lodge." 25 According to a further document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B), Benjamin Archer had his pay reduced by £2.12.0d per annum, in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the 27th December 1822 and 15th January 1823. 26 Return dated the 1st October 1824 (WO54/546) stated Benjamin still earned £39.0.0d per annum, which included an allowance for watching in turn, for which he received 2/-d per week. His period of service was given as nearly 37 years and he was then aged 65. 27 Return showing Pay and Allowances, etc., dated the 1st October 1825 (Winters, pp.93-95) confirmed the previous information, except that Benjamin then worked as a Labourer drawing stoves. It also confirmed that he had been in continuous service with the Board since the 17th March 1788, and that his pay was £33.16.0d per annum. 28 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825, indicated he was still a general purpose Labourer, that his basic pay was £33.16.0d per annum, and that he was allowed to watch in turn which gave him, on average, 2/-d per week, or total earnings of £39.0.0d. It also confirmed his previous family and service details and that he was still occupying a cottage as a Porters Lodge. WO54/550 dated the1st October 1825 confirmed his service and family details. 29 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the the 1st October 1825, as did WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826. 30 WO54/558 dated the the 1st April 1827 and another with the same reference dated the 1st October 1827, record no alterations since the Report of the the 1st October 1826. At the 1st October 1827, Benjamin Archer had nearly 40 years' service and was then 67 years of age. 31 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562), gave the same information as in previous Returns, with the exception that he had served a full 40 years. 32 Returns dated the 1st October 1828 and the 1st April 1829 (WO54/562 & WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, family details and pay remaining unchanged. He still had a cottage as a porter's lodge. 33 Return showing Employees at the 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) indicated that Benjamin still earned in total £39.0.0d per annum, that his service was just over 41 years, that he was 68 years of age, was a widower and had 1 child. 34 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same as before, except that he was then 69 years of age. 35 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, confirmed the information given previously, except that his service was given as over 42 years. 36 WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831 recorded that he was then 70 years old with 44 years' service, and that he was still employed as a General Duties Labourer. His pay remained at £33.16.0d per annum. He was still allowed to watch in turn at an additional 2/-d per week, giving him a total of £39.0.0d per annum as before, and he still occupied a cottage at the entrance to the Saltpetre Refinery (Supply 5/237). 37 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return; all other details remained unchanged. WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, as did WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832. 38 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 confirmed that at that date Benjamin was still earning £39.0.0d annually. His period of service was given as 45 years, and his age as 72. 39 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 showed that Mr. Archer's details were the same as in the previous Return, except that he had then served just over 45 years and was 73 years' old. 40 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834, recorded that although Benjamin was still employed as a General Labourer within the Manufactory, his basic pay had been cut to £28.5.6d per annum, but, allowed to watch, his total pay for the year amounted to £33.9.6d. He was still a widower, had a cottage as a porter's lodge, and his age and service details were updated. 41 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834 confirme the information given previously except that he was aged 74 and had served just over 46 years. 42 Benjamin retired with a pension on the 26th November 1834, which, according to Supply 5/237, he was still receiving in 1837. 43 A Return of Properties prepared by the Royal Engineers' Office dated the 20th December 1834 showing the houses, etc. owned by the Board, recorded that Benjamin had retired and that it was proposed to let his cottage to G. Redpath (Supply 5/237). However, Redpath does not appear to have occupied the cottage. Benjamin had remained a widower, still living in the Porter's Lodge at the entrance to the Refinery. A list of Domestic Properties attached to the Royal Powder Mills at Waltham Abbey dated the 28th May 1840 recorded that Benjamin had died, and that Charles Clayden (Clayton) "now occupied his cottage" (WO54/133).Supply 5/212
23EdwardArcherWinters' Centenary Memorial (p.29)1. Edward Archer was a Labourer by trade, and was set to work by Daniel Cornish in October, 1787, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase by the Government from Mr. Walton (Winters, p.29). However, Edward does not appear to have been retained.
24WilliamArcher00/00/1795List of Employees on the Establishment1. William Archer was a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week (WO54/512 dated September 1812). 2. WO54/516 dated February, 1816, confirmed that William was initially employed as a Casual Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department on the 25th July 1812. He was a 21-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey. Apparently, this was also the case in February 1817, but at that date his pay had dropped to 2/4d per day (WO54/520). 3. Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) simply stated that William Archer was employed temporarily on the 19th September 1828. 4. WO54/566 dated the 1st April 1829, stated that at that date he earned £33.18.2d annually. His length of service was given as 6 months, and his age as just over 33. At that date he had 4 children. 5. Return dated the 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service; family and pay details remaining unchanged. 6. According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830 all details remained the same for William as in Note 4, except that his service was eighteen months and he was aged just over 34. 7. Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 confirmed that William was still working as a Labourer, family details and salary remained unchanged but length of service and age updated. 8. A Return of Persons belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield, showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January 1831, recorded that William Archer was one of the 15 Labourers to be employed at Waltham Abbey Powder Mills and the Enfield Small Arms Factory; he was to be paid 2/2d per day and had to undertake different services as a Labourer in the Manufactories, where steadiness and sobriety were particularly required (WO54/575). 9 WO54/575 dated April 1831 updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 10 WO54/575 dated October 1831 confirmed that William still earned 2/2d per day, giving him a total of £33.18.2d per annum.. He had then served 3 years and was aged 36. 11 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return with all other details remaining unchanged. 12 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 confirmed that William still earned £33.18.2d per annum. His service was given as 4 years, and at that date he was 37 years old. 13 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 and WO54/587 dated 1st October 1833, confirm his basic details were unchanged. His age and length of service were updated and he still had 4 children. 14 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 recorded that he still earned a total of £33.18.2d per annum, that he was just over 51, and that his service was 12 years, 6 of which were in his present job. 15 In 1839 he was still a Labourer paid 2/2d per day, with an estimated annual income of £33.18.2d. He was a married man, then with 5 children, living in Waltham Abbey. He had 11 years' service (WO54/623 dated the 1st October 1839). 16 A transcript of the 1841 Census recorded that he and his wife Mary, sons William (20), George (15), Charles (8), and James (4), and daughters Martha (10), Helen (4) and Emma (1), were living in Silver Street. It also confirmed that he was a Labourer and that all the family were born in the County.WO54/512
25IsaacArgentList of Foremen and Artificers, etc.1. Isaac Argent was first employed in 1805. By the 30th January 1806 he had been a Millman with the Ordnance for 6 months, earning 2/3d per day.Supply 5/224
26JohnArnold00/00/1796List of Employees1. John Arnold was employed as a Storehouse Labourer; he was a single man of 24, who lived in Waltham Abbey and was paid 2/4d per day (List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 - Supply 5/232). 2. List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that John was 25; all other details remained the same.Supply 5/232
27R.AshfordList of Foreman Artificers & Labourers Employed1. R. Ashford commenced work in the Corning House in 1805. According to the List of Foreman Artificers & Labourers Employed dated the 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224) he earned 2/2d per day, and had then been employed with the Ordnance for 6 months.Supply 5/224
28JohnAshtonPay List1. John Ashton was employed as a Carpenter (second class). He was paid £1.8.4d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809 (Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809).Supply 5/228
29JohnAshwood00/00/1762Record of Wages1. John Ashwood was employed to mark barrels according to a Return dated the 21st March, 1789 (Supply 5/212). He was seconded from Waltham Abbey to Faversham for training as a Labourer attending the stoves on the 1st January 1788 (Supply 5/70) returning to Waltham Abbey on the 1st February 1789, when he was paid 1/6d per day (Supply 5/217). 2. He served in the Artillery from the 1st April 1771 to the 1st May 1784, and became a Sergeant in the Volunteer Company (Supply 5/219 dated September 1798). 3. List of Personnel Working in the Storekeeper's Department dated the 27th March 1790 (Supply 5/214), stated he was "weighing powder at Corning House and marking barrels." 4. His wage was given in Supply 5/213 dated the 18th April 1789 as 1/6d per day. In that document he is described as "cutting and planting willow trees, cutting of canal at the new Corning House, removing earth to the Store, unloading barge of coals and charring wood." 5. In September 1789, (also Supply 5/213) he was described as still "marking powder barrels", and his age was given as 27. On the 11th December 1790 (Supply 5/215) the details of age and employment remained unchanged. 6. An anonymous letter (Supply 5/190 dated January, 1791) to "His Majesty's Honble. Board of Ordnance" stated that "men whose work was very dangerous were frequently found in public houses neglecting his Majesty's duty and whose names ought to be reported." It made serious allegations against three men - John Goodfellow, John Ashwood and John White. The charge against Ashwood was that he "...often made complaints and finding faults without a cause with those men which he has no business with and whose buisiness he knows nothing of." The matter was referred to Major Congreve who was to "cause an enquiry to be made and report the result to the Board." The letter backfired on the anonymous writer, since no action was taken against Ashwood and he was still working at the Mills in 1793. Winters, in his Centenary book (pp.34-35) also refers to this incident, saying that the report was an anonymous letter complaining about several Millmen, i.e., John Ashwood, John Goodfellow and John White. He records also "the complaints were without foundation." 7. Supply 5/215 dated the 16th April 1791 described Ashwood as still "Weighing powder & marking barrels." This was again the case in January (Supply 5/215) and July-September 1792 (Supply 5/216) as well as at the 28th February 1793 (Supply 5/216). 8. Ashwood was promoted to Foreman of Labour on the 1st March 1793 (footnote to Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February, 1793) then to Master Mixer on the 18th June 1793 (Supply 5/217 dated the 24th June 1793). 9. A second letter of complaint against John Ashwood was received by the Storekeeper in August 1795. Its details are not known, but "two men discharged, (William) Fulham and Mason, the charge being non-proven" according to Winters (p.52). 10 A signed document relating to a Petition on Pay (Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800), showed that Ashwood was literate. 11 A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that Ashwood was the Master Mixer, that he was married with 4 children, and that he earned 3/-d. per day. 12 A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) showed that he was superintending the Millmen and Labourers, cleansing and deepening the river. 13 In March 1805, (Supply 5/223) he was shown as a Master Mixer, earning a weekly wage of £1.6.0d. 14 In the List of Foreman Artificers and Labourers Employed dated the 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224) he was described as a Master Refiner of Composition earning 5/-d per day, and at that date had been employed with the Ordnance for 18 years. 15 In June 1807, he was still in the same position and receiving the same wage, but in the remarks column of this document (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807) it appears that he was provided with a house and entitled to take on an Apprentice. 16 According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Ashwood was then the Assistant to the Master Worker, but still earned 5/-d. per day; he was allowed a house and given 6/-d per week to train an Apprentice, who, in August 1808, was Robert Perkis, Jnr. 17 Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed all of the details given in the Return of the 23rd August 1808. 18 A document dated the 8th November 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded persons to whom pensions or charitable allowances had been granted by the Honourable Board as widows, orphans or relations of those who had lost their lives in the Manufactory, etc. Among the recipients was "Elizabeth Ashwood, the widow of John Ashwood." She died on the 7th March 1818, and had been in receipt of 3/6d per week, although it was not stated when her husband had died.Supply 5/212
30ThomasAshwoodList of officers & Others on the Establishment1. Thomas Ashwood was, possibly, the son of John Ashwood. A document (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804) recorded that Thomas was Apprenticed to the Master Mixer and was paid 1/4d per day. In addition "one day extra [was] allowed for week agreeable to the Board's Order - 12th March, 1801." 2. Thomas was still Apprenticed to the Master Mixer on the 28th March, 1805 (Supply 5/223) but he was then paid 8/2d per week. 3. Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806 stated he was paid 1/4d per day and that he had 2 years service, thereby confirming that his Apprenticeship began in 1804. 4. According to a further List of Officers and Others Employed (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807), Thomas was still Apprenticed to the Master Mixer, earning 1/6d per day. However, he was not included in the Return dated August 1808, and no further entries for Thomas were found.Supply 5/223
31NathanielAttridgePersonnel Working in the Storekeeper's Department1. Nathaniel Attridge was employed as a Labourer in the Engineers' Department, at 1/6d per day. Between August and September 1790, he worked within the Manufactory, with his wages submitted by William Spry, Colonel Commanding the Royal Engineers, and paid by the Storekeeper, James Wright. He signed for his pay with a cross (WASC 1382). 2. In Returns dated April to June 1791 and the 31st January 1792, Nathaniel's employment was described as "grinding saltpetre, charcoal and brimstone." with a wage of 1/6d per day. 3. A Return of Employees dated the 31st July 1792 (Supply 5/216) indicated that he was working in the Corning Houses, and this was also the case in September, 1792 (Supply 5/216).Supply 5/215
32ThomasAusten00/00/1786List of Employees1. Thomas Austen was on the Establishment as a Millwright. He was a 31 year-old married man with 4 unmarried children. He trained as a Millwright and Engineer, and was first appointed to the Board on the 1st January, 1804. He was paid 5/8d per day and "allowed 2/10d per day extra" although it is not clear for what. He was also allowed a house by the Board which was in High Bridge Street (WO54/516 dated February 1816). 2. WO54/520 dated the 28th February 1817 stated that Thomas was still a Millwright. He was then 32 and was married, with 5 unmarried children. At that date he was only earning 5/2d per day, with the same allowance of 2/10d per day extra, and still allowed a house. 3. WO54/524 dated 11th April 1818, stated that his details remained the same as those at the 28th February 1817, but that he had only 4 unmarried children. 4. List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December, 1818. Thomas Austin's name is on the list with his pay shown as 4/-d per day as the Superintendent for cutting materials for the Cooperage. 5. Thomas was appointed Superintendant of the Corn Mill and the Millwrights (no date given) and paid 9/-d per day. He still had five children. However, WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 gave this appointment date as the 5th June, 1818. He was still provided with a house, but no allowances. The property was Plot No. 65 on the Waltham Abbey Town Map, located on the north side of High Bridge Street, adjacent to the church, and then known as the Miller's House. 6. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 ( WO54/532) showed that Austen was still employed as the Superintendent of the Corn Mill and the Millwrights. His age was shown as 36, he was still living in Waltham Abbey, was married and had 6 children. He earned the same 9/-d per day and had no allowances, but had a house on the Establishment. The house he had been allocated was one of three built from reclaimed timbers which were located in Powder Mill Lane, and were ready for occupation in 1815. When Thomas moved into the Miller's house in 1818, it was then leased to Hugh Jones. Further details on the tenement can be found under Hugh Jones' notes. 7. A statement "of monies to which the public was entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December, 1820, showing the amounts received by the storekeeper" dated 4th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) indicated that Thomas was still Superintendent of the Corn Mill; he had been living rent free in a Board of Ordnance house from the 21st October, 1818. The Corn Mill was in Romeland. The same information was repeated in Supply 5/232 dated the 16th February 1822 for the year 1821. 8. WO54/536 dated the 2nd April 1821 showed that Thomas was now aged 37 and had 6 children; his terms of employment, etc. remained unchanged. A footnote to this List stated "The superintendant of the Cornmill, Thos Austin, is paid from the receipts of a Water Corn Mill which he has improved and the working of which he superintends. The Profit received by the Board from the Concern exceeds £450 for year." 9. WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 listing those employed in the Engineers' Department, recorded that Austen was still the Superentendant of the Cornmill, that he was paid 9/-d per day for 365 days, had a coal and candle allowance of £12.10.0d per annum, and was entitled to a house. This gave him an annual income of £164.5.0d. Whilst his service details remained the same, he then had 7 children. 10 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 indicated that Thomas was still paid 9/-d per day for 365 days as the Superintendant of the Cornmill, received a coal and candle allowance of £12.0.0d per annum, and that he was still entitled to a house. His service was given as just over 21 years, and his family details remained the same as before. 11 WO54/550 dated the 13th October, 1825, repeated the information given at the 1st April 1825, as did WO54/554 of the 31st December 1825 and WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826. However, Thomas was then just over 40 years' old, his service was just over 22 years and he now had 8 children. 12 WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 was the same as the previous Return as was WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827, with the exception that at that date Mr. Austen had just over 23 years' service and was just over 41years of age. 13 WO54/558 of the the 1st October 1827 gave the same information as the previous Return. 14 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) although updating the same basic information, gave his full job description as Superintendant of the Cornmills and Machinery, and Second-class Clerk of Works. (WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 gave his appointment date as the 24th December, 1827). His basic pay was 12/6d per day for 366 days, giving him an annual wage of £228.15.0d. 15. Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service; his pay remained unchanged but he was now listed as having only 7 children, and this was confirmed in the 1841 Census. 16 WO54/566 dated the 1st April 1829 recorded that Thomas earned only £228.2.6d annually at that date; his length of service was given as nearly 15 years, and he was 43 years of age. 17 Return dated the 1st October, 1829 (no reference) updated his age and length of service, with his family and pay details remaining unchanged. 18 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for Thomas Austen as before, except that his service was just over 15 years and he was nearly 44 years of age. 19 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 confirms the previous information given, except that his service was 16 years and that he was 44 years of age. 20 A Return of Persons Belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield, showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January, 1831, recorded that Thomas Austen was to be in charge of the Flour Mill and Superintendant of Machinery in Mill Work (i.e., the Powder Mills). He was to be paid the same £228.2.6d per annum, and provided with a house. His presence was required constantly, and he was to have a practical knowledge of mechanics connected with Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories, and Flour Mills. He was also to have honesty and attention to his accounts, since all the money for the work at the Grist Mill was to pass through his hands. 21 WO54/575 dated April 1831 updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return, and all other details remained unchanged. 22 WO54/575 dated October 1831 confirmed that Mr. Austen still earned a total of £228.2.6d per annum. He had then served nearly 17 years and was aged 45. 23 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining the same. 24 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 confirmed that he still earned £228.2.6d per annum. He had by then served nearly 18 years and was just over 46 years old. These details remained the same in WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 and in the Return dated the 1st October 1833 (WO54/587). 25 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 stated that Thomas still earned a total of £228.2.6d per annum, that he was still entitled to a house, that he was nearly 48 years of age, and that his service was just over 19 years. 26 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834 recorded that Thomas was the Superintendent of the Corn Mills and that he was a Clerk of Works, Second Class, having been appointed to this position on the 24th December 1827. His wage was £282.2.6d as before, he was still entitled to a house and his service and family details were updated. This Return also recorded that he was taken on to the Establishment on the 31st August 1807 as a Millwright, which tied in with his length of service. 27 Return of Employees dated the 1st October, 1839 (WO56/623), gave a potted history of Austen's career. He was apppointed a Millwright to the Ordnance Board on the 31st August 1807. On the 12th January, 1814, he was appointed Superintendent of Machinery, before later becoming the Superintendent of the Cornmill. On the 24th December 1827, he was appointed Second Class Clerk of the Works, with the title of Superintendent of Machinery and Corn Mill. His wages came out of the profits of the Corn Mill, and in 1839, he was entitled to a house. He was a married man aged 53, with 9 children. 28 According to the 1841 Census, the family was living in High Bridge Street North, and all members were born in the county. The family consisted of wife Mary (50) and children, Mary (31) Sarah (25) twins James and Caroline (20) William (12) and Henry, aged 10, i.e., 6 children living at home. .WO54/516
33JamesAusten00/00/1797List of those Employed1. James Austen, an 18-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey, was employed as a Casual Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department according to WO54/516 dated 19th February 1816, yet WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, clearly indicated that he was "…brought up…to the trade " of Millwright, and started on the 9th April, 1814. 2. WO54/520 dated the 28th February 1817 recorded that James was then aged 19, and married. He earned 5/2d per day as a Millwright, and was employed "occasionally as the Service required." This information is confirmed in WO54/524 dated 1818 and WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819. 3. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (WO54/532) confirmed that James was still employed as a Millwright, but that he was then aged 22 and lived in Waltham Abbey. This Return, however, stated that he was a single man. He still earned 5/2d per day, had no allowances, and was employed "occasionally as the Service required." 4. WO54/536 dated the 2nd April 1821, recorded that he was now aged 23, still single and that his Terms of Employment, etc. remained unchanged. He was not listed in the Return for December 1821 (WO54/536). 5. WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 - Personnel Employed in the Engineers' Department -confirmed that James was still paid 5/2d per day as a Millwright for 313 days, giving him an income of £80.17.2d for the year. He was now married but without children. 6. WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 listing Personnel Employed in the Engineers' Department, stated that James was still paid 5/2d per day for 313 days as a Millwright. His service was nearly 10 years, and he was now aged 25, was married and had 2 children. 7. WO54/550 dated 13th October 1825, was a repeat of the record dated the 1st April 1825, but states that James was a widower with two children. It is possible, therefore, that his wife had died in childbirth. 8. WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 gives identical information as in the previous note, except that James then had 11 years' service. 9. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, and WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827, both give the same basic information as before. However, James had now served 12 years, and was 27 years of age. WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827, confirmed the basic information given in the previous Return, but stated that he had only 1 child. 10 Although no link has been found, it seems possible that he was related to Thomas Austen ,since they both started at Waltham Abbey in 1814, and both were Millwrights.WO54/516
34William GeorgeAustinLetter Book1. William George Austin signed his Indentures as an Apprentice on the 4th July, 1840 (Supply 5/238).Supply 5/238
35JohnAvisList of Employees and their Pay1. John Avis was a Saltpetre Refiner who earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, "when not working extra, they are allowed to watch in turn." (List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229). This was also the case on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/229
36WilliamAylettPersonnel Record for Storekeeper's Dept.1. William Aylett's initial work was "in the punts, and setting and drawing stoves etc." earning 1/6d per day (Supply 5/215 dated the 14th August, 1790). 2. A Return of Employees dated the 16th April 1791, recorded that William was employed as a Millman at 2/-d per day, and this was also the case in August 1791 (Supply 5/215). 3. A letter to the Board from the Storekeeper, James Wright, and John Clowdersly, dated the 26th July 1791, recorded "at 1/2 past 1 o'clock the Lower Queens Mead Mill blew up. W Aylott the Millman had just laid on Green Charges and drawn the water gate just sufficient to move the runners and going to the Mill to liquor the Charge when it went off." William was uninjured and the Mill was working again that evening (WASC 475). 4. William was still working as a Millman in January 1792 (Supply 5/215).Supply 5/215
37JeremiahAylin00/00/1786List of Officers and Other Employees1. Jeremiah Aylin was working as a "Labourer refining Saltpetre & in other parts of the manufactory" with pay of 2/-d per day. He received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was his turn "to watch" - on average every 5th night. (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804). Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, states that Jeremiah was then employed as an extra Bargeman earning the same 2/-d per day. At that date his service was 2 years. According to a further List (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807), Mr. Aylin was still employed as a Bargeman at the same rate of 2/-d per day. 2. On the 16th June 1808 the Board purchased two tenements from a Miss Jones on the north side of High Bridge Street, and the sketch map attached to the document clearly shows that they formed part of High Bank or Bank Cottages. The two tenants then in occupation were "Alsop and Aylin" (WO44/681A). Aylin's tenement has been identified as that at the western end of 5 cottages on the north side of High Bridge Street known as Bank Cottages and shown as Plot No. 48 on the Waltham Abbey Town Map. 3. On the 23rd August 1808 (Supply 5/227) Mr. Aylin, while still a Bargeman, then earned 3/-d per day, as he did in September, 1810 (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September, 1810). 4. Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812, stated that his pay had been increased to 3/10d per day, and that of the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) confirmed that Mr. Aylin was still a Bargeman earning the same 3/10d per day. 5. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) stated that Mr. Aylin was then Master Bargeman; he was a married man, aged 32 with 4 children, who lived in Waltham Abbey and then earned 4/2d per day. 6. List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Mr. Aylin's name was included with his pay unchanged. 7. List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) showed that Mr. Aylin was still employed as a Master Bargeman (later to be described as a Bargemaster), a married man aged 33 with 4 children, and confirmed that he lived in Waltham Abbey and was paid 4/2d per day. 8. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) confirmed that Aylin was still employed as a Master Bargeman; his pay remained the same, but he then had 5 children. 9. A statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December 1821 shewing the amounts received by the storekeeper" dated the 4th April,1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Jeremiah had been living in a house purchased by the Board of Ordnance on the 4th May 1821, and that he was paying an annual rent of £8.9.0d. This house, Tenement No. 27, has been identified as being on the north side of High Bridge Street to the west of Powder Mill Lane, third from the end at the western end of a group of tenements known as the Bank Cottages. (Part of Plot No.1432 on the 1842 Waltham Abbey Tithe Map, or Plot 709 on the 1825 Waltham Abbey Town Map). The same information was repeated in Supply 5/232 dated the 16th February 1822 for the year 1821. 10 List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/ 232) indicated that Jeremiah was then 34. All other details remained the same as before, and this is confirmed by WO54/536 of the same date. 11 List of Employees (Supply 5/232 dated 23rd January 1822) gave the age of Jeremiah, "Master Barge Man", as 38, with 18 years' service and pay per day of 4/2d. 12 Return showing the pay, allowances and length of service of those employed in the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822) was a more detailed, and probably more accurate, Return than that dated the 23rd January 1822. It stated that Jeremiah Aylin, Master Bargeman, was appointed on the 1st March 1804, as a Puntman at Waltham Abbey, with pay for the year amounting to £65.4.2d. His service was given at that date as nearly 18 years, his age as 38, and confirmed that he was a married man with 3 children living in Waltham Abbey. 13 In the spring of 1822 the Ordnance Board decided to reduce the production and regeneration of gunpowder, so the Establishment at Waltham was to be reduced accordingly. Empson Middleton and James Wright drew up a list of people to be dismissed (Supply 5/232 dated the 21st March, 1822). The men were subsequently dismissed on the 1st June and several Petitions were submitted by the men asking for financial assistance. Many were long service employees in their middle age, and they pointed out that they had little hope of finding employment after the hay and corn harvest had been gathered. The Storekeeper at Waltham was sympathetic and forwarded their Petitions to the Board for their consideration. Jeremiah Aylin does not appear to have signed a Petition, but the Storekeeper wrote to the Board on the 21st July 1822, recommending that he receive two weeks' pay to ease his financial hardships. However, the Board's response does not appear to have been recorded.Supply 5/222
38HenryAylinList of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc.1. Henry Aylin was employed as a Punt Man in 1807, earning 2/d per day (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807).Supply 5/226
39JohnBaileyPetition on Pay.1. John Bailey was shown to be literate in a signed document relating to a Petition on Pay (Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800). This document recorded that he was working as a General Labourer in the Corning House, and earned 1/6d per day. 2. Supply 5/220 dated the 19th April, 1801, was a letter to the Board stating that the new Corning House on Horse Mill Island blew up the day before, with a tremendous explosion. Nine men were in the building and all were killed, including John Bailey, together with four horses. Winters recorded in his book "Centenary Memorial" (p.59) that "the mangled bodies of the poor men were buried in a high heap in the yard, without memorial stone, near the path leading to Mr King's House and in front of the Wollard tombs." (King was a Market Gardener at the Abbey Gardens) 3. A Petition dated the 24th April, 1801 (Supply 5/194) was signed by Sarah, the other widows and two mothers of the deceased, requesting "relief in their distress." 4. Supply 5/220 dated the 29th April, 1801 - a Report on the ages of the children and circumstances of widows and children - stated that Sarah was aged 37 and that she had no children from her husband Labourer, "but has reason to believe she is with child." At this date the Board agreed that the pension awarded to Mrs Sarah Bailey should be 5/3d per week. However, in May 1801 (Supply 5/194) it is stated that "pay and allowances were to be continued as follows: Sarah Baillee (Bailey) was to receive half of her husband's pay"; his pay had been 10/6d per week, plus 1/6d on account of "the severity of the times." The Ordnance Board decreed that the widows' pensions should be based upon their husband's or son's basic pay and not to include the extra "due to the severity of the times." 5. A document dated the 8th November, 1818 (Supply 5/231) confirmed persons to whom pensions or charitable allowances were granted by the Hon. Board as widows, etc. Sarah Bailey was still among the recipients, as she was on the 17th November, 1821, according to Supply 5/232. 6. A document dated the 6th December, 1821 (Supply 5/232) gave the estimated pay of persons between the 1st January and 31st December, 1822, along with their superannuated allowance, as well as "the allowance to widows and orphans of those who have lost their lives at this place". It was confirmed again that Sarah's superannuation should continue at £27.6.0d per annum. A similar document (Supply 5/232 dated the 28th December, 1821), confirmed that the same pension would be paid in 1822, as well as in 1826 (Winters, p.96) 7. A letter dated the 21st July, 1826, (Supply 5/205) stated that Sarah Bailey had died, and that any pension due could be paid to her legal representative.Supply 5/220
40WilliamBaileyList of Officers, Artificers, etc. in Employment1. William Bailey was employed as a Labourer, setting and drawing stoves, etc., earning 2/-d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808. This was also the case in September 1810, according to Supply 5/228. 2. On the 13th February 1814, his wage had increased to 2/8d per day (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/227
41JohnBaker00/00/1756Report of Personnel Working in the Storekeeper's Department1. John Baker was a Labourer and Refiner at the Royal Laboratory from the 25th November, 1779 to the 13th April 1789, when he joined the Powder Mills at Waltham Abbey as "Master Refiner of Salt Petre". He was paid 2/6d per day (Supply 5/213 dated the18th April 1789). This is confirmed by Winters (p.33) who gave the date as the 7th April 1789, but on page 69 of his book, this becomes the 12th April 1789. Supply 5/214 dated September 1789, recorded that he was 33 years of age and employed as "Head Saltpetre Refiner" at 2/6d per day. Still Head Refiner in January 1792, September, 1792, August 1793 and the 31st January 1794 ((Supply 5/216), when his wage was increased to 3/-d. per day. 2. John was still Head Refiner in August and December of 1794. 3. Report on Pay and Allowances for Artificers and Labourers - Supply 5/217 dated 3rd July 1795 - confirmed his pay as 3/-d per day, together with an annual allowance of £4.4.0d for coals and candles. 4. Sergeant in the Volunteer Company (Supply 5/219 dated September, 1798). 5. Letter to the Board dated the 3rd December, 1798 (WO13/202) signed by Robert Coleman and James Wright, stated that John Baker had died, and that he had left 4 orphaned children, a girl aged 12 and three boys aged 11, 8 and 7 respectively. They had enquired what assistance the parish would give to the children and had been advised that this would be 4d per week. The eldest boy, Thomas, had been Apprenticed to his father to clean bags at the Refining House and received 3/6d per week. Wright and Coleman now requested that the Board employed the other two boys " cleaning Salt Petre sacks" at 9d per day, increasing to 1/-d per day as soon as they had "grown useful". They also stated that Baker's brother-in-law worked as a Labourer in the Refining House, but having a family of his own, he could not look after "these poor orphans." The Board's findings and decision are not recorded.Supply 5/213
42RobertBaker00/00/1779Personnel Record for the Storekeeper's Department1.Robert Baker started an Apprenticeship as a Refiner in August 1789, aged 10, and was paid 1/0d per day. 2. Still an Apprentice in December 1794, but his wage had been increased to 1/6d per day (Supply 5/217). There appears to be an error in his start date, which in this Return is given as the 1st October, 1789. 3. In July 1795 (Supply 5/217) all of his details remained the same.Supply 5/213
43David B.BakerRecord of Personnel working in the Storekeeper's Department1. David Baker started as a Labourer in the Corning House on the 11th September 1794 at 1/6d per day. (Supply 5/217 dated the 31st December, 1794). 2. Still in the Corning House (Supply 5/217 dated 3rd July 1795).Supply 5/217
44ThomasBaker00/00/1787List of Artificers, etc and Volunteer Corps Members1. Thomas Baker started an Apprenticeship under his father, John Baker, the Master Refiner, in the Refining House on the 1st February 1797, with pay of 3/6d per week. The same document recorded that he was also a Private in the Volunteer Company (Supply 5/219 dated September 1798) 2. Although his pay was 1/6d per day, it is stated in a document dated the 8th May 1804 (Supply 5/222) that "one day extra allowed for week agreeable to the Board's Order - 12th March, 1801." 3. Thomas was a Refiner in the Saltpetre House with pay of 2/-d per day according to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, and had by that date nearly 9 years' service in total.Supply 5/219
45JamesBaker00/00/1791List of Officers & Others Employed1. James Baker was an Apprentice with pay of 9d per day (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804). This document also stated "one day extra allowed for week agreeable to the Board's Order - 12th March, 1801." No details of his Apprenticeship trade were given. 2. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (WO54/532) recorded that James was a Bricklayer. He was then aged 29, lived in Waltham Abbey and was married, with 2 children. At that time, he earned 4/1d per day and was employed "Occasionally as the Service Required."Supply5/222
46MarchBakerList of Officers and Others on the Establishment1. March Baker was Apprenticed to the Master Saltpetre Refiner on the 1st June, 1804, with pay of 1/4d per day (Supply 5/223). He was still serving his Apprenticeship in 1805 and 1806, and Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806 recorded that he had 2 years' service and was earning 1/4d per day 2. Still Apprenticed to the Master Refiner of Saltpetre according to the List of Artificers and Others Employed (Supply 5/226 dated the18th June 1807) earning 1/6d per day. 3. Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, stated March's pay under Samuel Knowler was 6/4d per week, and that his Master, Samuel Knowler, was allowed 7/-d per week in respect of March Baker's Apprenticeship. Supply 5/227 of the 30th September 1808, confirmed the same information. Another document of the same date showed that March was literate. 4. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810 stated that his pay had increased to 7/-d per week, while his Master was paid 9/-d per week in respect of Mr. Baker's Apprenticeship. 5. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) stated that Mr. March Baker was now a Saltpetre Refiner who earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, "when not working extra, they are allowed to watch in turn." This was also the case on 13th February 1814, according to Supply 5/230.Supply 5/223
47CharlesBakerList of Employees and their Pay1. Charles Baker was a Saltpetre Refiner who earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, "when not working extra, they are allowed to watch in turn." (List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 - Supply 5/229). This was also the case on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/229
48John W.BakerReturn of Employees1. John W. Baker was a Carpenter and Builder by trade, and was appointed Foreman Carpenter at Waltham Abbey on the 10th September 1830. He was promoted to Foreman of Works on the 29th September 1833. More promotion quickly followed, and he was appointed as a Fourth-Class Clerk of Works on the 27th July, 1836. In 1839 his wage was £137.5.0d per annum, with a house provided, which was attached to the Engineers' Office in Powder Mill Lane (WO56/623 dated the 1st October 1839 and WO44/133). The house was shown as Plot No. 73 on the Waltham Abbey Town Map. 2. According to the 1841 Census, Mr. Baker was living in Powder Mill Lane. Neither he or his family were born in Essex. His wife was Mary, aged 35, and he had 6 children - Sophia aged 15, Mary, 12, Richard, 6, Henry, 4, Charles, 2 and Alfred, aged 1.WO56/623
49IsaacBaker00/00/1791Return of Officers Employed1. Isaac Baker joined the Board as an Apprentice Bricklayer in the Engineers' Department on the 11th June 1804 (WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816). 2. In 1812 (WO54/512 dated September 1812) he was employed as a Casual Bricklayer, earning 4/7d per day. In 1816 he earned 4/7d per day for a six-day week, and was a 25-year old batchelor living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/516). 3.This information is updated by WO54/520 dated the 28th February 1817 but his pay was then given as 4/1d per day. 4. According to WO54/524 dated 1818, he was employed "Occasionally as required" and paid 4/1d per day, as he was in 1819 (WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819). 5. WO54/536 dated the 2nd April 1821, shows that he was a 30-year-old married man, living in Waltham Abbey with 1 child. All other information remained the same. 6. WO54/536 dated the 31st December 1821 was a repeat of the Return dated the 2nd April 1821. 7. WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 listing Personnel employed in the Engineers' Department, recorded that he was still paid 4/1d per day as a Bricklayer. This was for 313 days, giving him an income of £63.18.1d for the year. This Return also recorded that he had nearly 19 years' service, starting on the 11th June 1804. He was then aged 32, still living in Waltham Abbey, and married with 1 child. 8. WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 stated that Isaac was still paid 4/1d per day for 313 days as a Bricklayer. This gave him an annual income of £63.18.1d. His service was nearly 21 years, and he was aged 34, married and had 1 child. 9. WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825, confirmed the previous entry. 10 WO54/554 dated 1st April 1826 gave identical information as in Notes 9 and 10, with the exception that he was just over 34, with service of nearly 22 years. In addition, he then had two children. 11 WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 was as the previous Return, confirming that he had 2 children. 12 WO54/558 dated 1st April 1827 recorded the same information as in the notes above. However, at that date Isaac had nearly 23 years' service and he was then 35. At this date he had 3 children. 13 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 gave no basic alterations from the previous Return. 14 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) updateed the basic information given in the notes above. 15 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, family details and pay remaining unchanged. He trained as a Bricklayer. 16 WO54/566 dated 1st April 1829 stated that Isaac at that date still earned the same as in Note 9. His length of service was given as nearly 25 years, and he was nearly 38. 17 Return dated the 1st October, 1829 (no reference given) updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details remaining unchanged. 18 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for Isaac as in Note 9, except that his service was 26 years and he was aged 38. 19 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 confirmed that Isaac was still a bricklayer, with family details and pay remaining unchanged, but length of service and age updated. 20 A Return of Persons belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January 1831, recorded that Issac Baker was the only Bricklayer to be employed at the Waltham Abbey Powder Mills and at the Small Arms Factory at Enfield. He was to be paid 4/1d per day, and required to undertake general services as a bricklayer in the Manufactory where care, attention, sobriety were indispensably necessary (WO54/575). 21 WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831 updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged, except that he now had 4 children. 22 WO54/575 dated October 1831 confirmed that Isaac still earned 4/1d per day as previously, giving him a total of £63.18.1d per annum. At that date he had served over 27 years and he was then aged forty. 23 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 24 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832, confirmed that Isaac was still a Bricklayer who still earned £63.18.1d per annum. His service was given as nearly 29 years, and at that date, he was 41 years of age. 25 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 confirmed the information given in Note 25. 26 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, recorded that his basic details remained unchanged, but his age and length of service were updated. 27 WO54/593 dated 1st April 1834, stated that Isaac still earned a total of £63.18.1d per annum, that he then 42 years of age, and that his service was 30 years. 28 In 1839 he was paid 4/1d per day, with an estimated annual income of £63.18.1d. He was a 48-year-old married man with 4 children, living in Waltham Abbey. At that date, he had 28 years' service (WO54/623 dated the 1st October 1839).WO54/516
50JohnBaldock00/00/1752Record of Personnel in Storekeeper's Department1. John Baldock started work in the Corning House as a Labourer on the 1st April 1792 at 1/6d per day (Supply 5/216 dated the 31st July 1792). He was still working in Corning House in July to September 1792, and in February to March, 1793 (both also supply 5/216) 2. Mr. Baldock's name does not appear again until the 31st January 1794, when he was described as" setting & drawing stoves & in the punts." This was also the case in August and December, 1794, as well as in July 1795 (Supply 5/217). He enlisted as a Private in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794, according to Winters (p.49). 3. He was still a Private in the Volunteer Company in September 1798, and was working in the Corning House (Supply 5/219). 4. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay, showed that he was illiterate and working as a General Labourer . 5. Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was still working as a Labourer and that he was a married man with 1 child. (Note: in this document anyone who was not an artificer was described as a Labourer). 6. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still employed as a Labourer, cleaning and deepening the river, canals, and performing sundry necessary work. 7. Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804 recorded that Baldock was then working as a Refiner, and his pay was given as 2/-d per day. All Refiners received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every 5th night. 8. Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806) confirmed that he was a Refiner in the Saltpetre House with his wage still at 2/-d per day. However, there appears to be a discrepancy as to when he started at the Mills - this document indicated he started in 1789. 9. List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed - Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807, recorded that Mr. Baldock was still working as a Saltpetre Refiner, earning 2/-d per day and received 1/-d for watching in turn. 10 According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Baldock was now employed as a Brimstone Refiner earning 2/3d per day, and was still allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d. 11 Employee List (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, stated that he was a Saltpetre Refiner who was paid 2/-d per day, and allowed to watch in turn when not working. 12 List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. John Baldock was a Saltpetre Refiner who then earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, was still allowed to watch in turn. This was also the case on the 13th February 1814, according to Supply 5/ 230. 13 List of Persons in Employment dated the 2nd March, 1816 (Supply 5/230) recorded that Mr. Baldock was still a Refiner of Saltpetre, with a length of service of 26 years, and his age was given as 64. It was recommended that he receive a daily superannuation of 2/8d, and in the attached notes was the comment that Mr. Baldock and others should be superannuated "because of the hurts they have received in this dangerous Manufactory". It also stated therein that Mr. Baldock "has been twice severely hurt in the right hand in the discharge of his duty, has become very feeble and is incapable of exerting himself at work." However, in a letter dated 6th March, 1816, (Supply 5/200), Baldock was finally awarded superannuation of only 2/-d per day for six days in the week, commencing the 1st April 1816. 14 A Supplement to a document dated the 8th November, 1818 (Supply 5/231) listed persons who had been superannuated on account of their length of service in the departments, and among the recipients was John Baldock, Saltpetre Refiner, who received a pension of 12/-d per week, commencing the 1st April 1816. 15 List of Persons receiving Superannuation (Supply 5/232 dated the 17th November, 1821) confirmed the entry above in respect of John Baldock. 16. A document dated the 6th December 1821 (Supply 5/232), gives the estimated pay of persons between the 1st January and 31st December 1822 along with their superannuated allowance, as well as "the allowance to widows and orphans of those who have lost their lives at this place". It confirmed that John Baldock, lately a Saltpetre Refiner, was in receipt of £31.4.0d superannuation annually. A similar document, Supply 5/232 dated the 28th December 1821, confirmed that the same pension would be paid in 1822. This was also noted in 1826 by Winters, p.96.Supply 5/216
51ThomasBaldockRecord of Personnel in the Storekeeper's Department1. Thomas Baldock started an Apprenticeship in the general manufacture of gunpowder on the 1st February 1793, and was paid 1/-d per day (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February 1793). Although still an Apprentice in December, 1794, his wage had been increased to 1/4d per day (Supply 5/217) and in July, 1795, it had been increased to 1/6d per day (Supply 5/217). 2. According to Supply 5/219 dated the 1st September 1798, he was working in the Corning House and was also a Private in the Volunteer Company 3. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay, indicated that Thomas was illiterate, and working as a General Labourer. 4. Thomas's seven-year Apprenticeship ended on the 11th April 1800, at which time he still worked in Corning House. 5. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was working as a Labourer, and was unmarried. Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 6. According to Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804, he was still working in the Corning House as a Labourer, but his pay had increased to 2/1d per day. All Labourers received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every fifth night. 7. Robert Coleman recorded in his Minute Book on the 23rd October 1801, that 24 men were required to work at Faversham or be discharged; Baldock was one who agreed to go according to Winters (p.60). However, the Faversham Gunpowder Personnel Register (1573-1840) does not record his name, and subsequent service entries showed that he was not discharged as his service since 1793 appeared unbroken. 8. Thomas was still working in the Corning House earning 2/2d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806) and had been employed with the Ordnance at that date for 14 years. This was also the case in 1807 (List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed - Supply 5/226, 18th June 1807). 9. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Baldock was a "Foreman of Reeling Houses" earning 2/10d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling and six pence". The same details applied in 1810 (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810). 10 List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Mr. Baldock was a Foreman of Corning Houses who earned 4/-d per day, in addition to which, he was a Rounder earning 2/-d every third night, as he was at the 13th February 1814, according to Supply 5/230. 11 Lists of Officers & Others Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231 and WO54/524) confirmed that Thomas was still working in the Corning House, that he was 38, resided in Waltham Abbey and was now married with 3 children. He earned 2/11d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night. 12 A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231), recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Thomas Baldock's name was included, with his pay remaining unchanged, but his watch money reduced to 6d per night. 13 List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Baldock was still employed in the Corning House, that he was a married man aged 39 with 3 children who lived in Waltham Abbey. He was paid 2/11d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn for which he received 1/-d per night. 14 List of Employees dated the13th September 1820 (Supply 5/532) stated that Mr. Baldock had been appointed as the Foreman of the Dusting House on the 4th September 1818, and this is confirmed by WO54/536 dated the 6th February 1822. By then he was aged 40, had 5 children, and lived in Waltham Abbey. He was earning 3/4d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/6d per night. 15 List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply WO54/536) recorded that Mr. Baldock was 42, earned the same 3/4d per day and 1/6d per night when on watch. 16 List of Employees at the Powder Mills (Supply 5/232 dated February, 1822), however, indicated that he was aged only 41 with 29 years' service. He still earned 3/4d per day and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/6d per night when on watch. 17 The above appeared to be a more detailed and, probably, more accurate Return than that dated the 9th April 1821. It stated that Thomas Baldock, Foreman of the Dusting houses, was appointed on the 1st February 1793 as an Apprentice Gunpowder Maker at Waltham Abbey. It confirmed he was appointed Foreman of the Dusting Houses on the 4th September 1818, with total earnings for the year of £52.3.4d. He had 29 years' service, was aged 41, and was a married man with only 2 children, living in Waltham Abbey. 18 Supply 5/232 dated the 21st March, 1822, listed persons to form an Establishment at Waltham Abbey to regenerate 2000 barrels of gunpowder, as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually, and stated that Thomas Baldock, Corning House Man, was to be retained. 19 A document dated the 10th October, 1822 (Supply 5/233) indicated that Thomas Baldock, Foreman of the Dusting House, had been demoted to a Corning House Man, with his pay reduced accordingly. This complied with the Board's Order dated the 22nd May 1822. 20 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 confirmed that Thomas Baldock was still a Corning House Man, and that his pay for the year was now only £48.2.0d, which included an allowance of 2/-d per week for watching in turn. His family and service details were confirmed. 21 According to WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B - dated the 1st April 1823, Baldock had his pay reduced by £2.12.0d per annum in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the 27th December 1822 and the 15th January 1823. WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1823 recorded that he was still a Corning House Man and that his annual wage was £48.2.0d, which included an allowance of 2/-d per week for watching the works in turn. His service details were confirmed, but according to this document, he had 3 children. 22 Return showing pay and allowances, etc., dated the 1st October 1825 (Winters, pp. 93-95) confirmed the previous information given, and recorded that he had been in continuous service (32 years) with the Board since the start of his Apprenticeship on the 1st February, 1793. His earnings were still £48.2.0d per annum. 23 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825, indicated that he was still a Corning House Man and confirmed his basic pay was £42.18.0d per annum; he was allowed to watch in turn which gave him, on average, 2/-d per week, which brought his total pay for the year to £48.2.0d. His previous family and service details were confirmed. These details are also recorded in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. 24 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the information given in WO54/550 dated the the 1st October 1825, as does WO54/554 of the 1st October 1826 and WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1827. The latter Return also recorded "no alteration since the last Report dated the 1st October 1826." 25 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 gave the same information as in the previous notes. At that date Thomas Baldock had 34 years' service in all, and was 48 years of age. 26 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) recorded that he was promoted to Junior Foreman of the Corning House under Henry Coreham, with his basic annual earnings increased to £46.16.0d. He was still allowed to watch in turn, which increased his annual pay to £52.0.0d. He was 48 years of age, married with 3 children and had 35 years' service. 27 Return dated the 1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service with family details and pay unchanged, as did the Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566). 28 WO54/566 dated the 1st October 1829 stated that at that date Thomas still earned the same as recorded in Note 26. His length of service was given as 30 years (Apprenticeship not included) and he was then aged 49. 29 WO54/ 570 dated the 1st April 1830 updated his age and length of service, family and pay details remaining unchanged. 30 WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 stated that Thomas was now 50 years of age and that he had served nearly 31 years (out of his Apprenticeship). His pay was still the same at £52 per annum as in Note 26, and all other information remained the same. 31 According to Return WO54/ 575 dated the 1st April 1831, Thomas still earned a total of £52.0.0d annually. He had now served 38 years in all, and was aged 51. 32 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 33 Supply 5/207 dated the 18th July 1831 recorded that The Board agreed to pay Thomas Baldock, Foreman of the Corning House, two days' pay "in consequence of the hurt received in the performance of his duty." 34 Supply 5/207 dated the 15th February 1832, showed that Thomas Baldock successfully applied to the Board for a reduction in the rent of his cottage from 3/3d to 2/-d per week, and agreeing to this request, his annual rent was reduced to £5.4.0d (Supply 5/237). The cottage in question was at the western end of Bank Cottages on the north side of High Bridge Street, being Plot No. 48 on the Waltham Abbey Town Map. 35 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 confirmed that Mr. Baldock was still the Foreman of Corning Houses, earning the same £52.0.0d as before. He was 53, and had served nearly 39 years. 36 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 confirmed that Thomas Baldock still earned a total of £52.0.0d per annum. His service was given as 38 years, and his age as 53. 37 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 updated the previous Return for service and age, with conditions and salary remaining unchanged, as did the Return of the 1st October 1834 (no reference given). 38 WO54/623 dated the 1st October 1839, recorded that his pay was then £64.16.0d per annum, which included an allowance for being a Rounder every third night. He was married with 3 children, and his employment as a Labourer started in 1800 after his 7-year Apprenticeship had been completed.. 39 According to the 1841 Census, Thomas lived in High Bridge Street North with his wife Mary, aged 65. Living with them were James Robinson, a Labourer at the Mills, and his wife Mary. None of the occupants were Essex born.Supply 5/216
52GeorgeBaldock00/00/1773Record of Personnel in Storekeeper's Department1. George Baldock started as a Labourer in the Corning House on the 21st July 1793 with pay of 1/6d per day. He was still in the Corning House in January, 1794, and enlisted as a Private in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794 (Winters, p.42). 2. Baldock was Grinding Saltpetre, Charcoal and Brimstone in August (Supply 5/216) and December 1794 (Supply 5/217). 3. Supply 5/217 dated July 1795 recorded that he was working as a Refiner. 4. Supply 5/219 dated September 1798 indicated that by then he had become a Millman, with pay of 2/-d per day, and that he was still a Private in the Voluntary Company 5. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800, relating to a Petition on Pay, showed that he was illiterate and was still working as a Millman. 6. Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still working as a Millman, was a married man and that he had 5 children. 7. He was working as a Millman in 1813 (Winters, p.76) and in a Report dated the the 13th February 1814, a George Baldock is recorded as a Brimstone and Saltpetre Millman, earning 2/8d per day and that he was also allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night (Supply 5/230). 8. Lists of Officers & Others Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231 and WO54/524) confirmed that George Baldock was now a Saltpetre Refiner; he was a married man, living in Waltham Abbey, earning 2/4d per day. He was allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night. 9. A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Baldock's name is included with his pay unchanged, but he was then not paid watch money. However, in a letter dated September, 1818 (Supply 5/231), it is stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement." and that list included a Mr. Baldock, Saltpetre Refiner. 10 List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that George was still employed as a Brimstone Refiner, a married man aged 46, and recorded that he had 9 children. He lived in Waltham Abbey, was still paid 2/4d per day and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. 11 List of Officers on Employment dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Mr. George Baldock was 47 and that he still lived in Waltham Abbey. According to this Return, he then only had 8 children and still earned 2/4d per day, but he then received 1/6d per night when allowed to watch in turn. 12 List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/ 232) recorded that George was 48 and had 9 children; all other entries remained the same as previously. 13 List of Employees (Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822) gave the age of George, Saltpetre Refiner, as 47, with 18 years' service and pay per day of 2/4d. 14 Return dated the 6th February 1822 (Supply 5/232) recorded length of service and other full details of those persons employed by the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821. This appeared a more detailed and accurate Return than that of the 23rd January 1822; George Baldock, Saltpetre Refiner, was appointed a Labourer at Waltham Abbey on the 21st July 1793, and by Orders of the Board dated the 4th September 1818 and 4th October 1819, as a Saltpetre Refiner. He was allowed to watch in turn to guard the works, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night, giving him a total annual income of £41.14.4d. According to this Return, at the 31st December 1821 he had 16 years' service, was 47 years old, was married with 9 children, and lived in Waltham Abbey. 15 In the spring of 1822, the Ordnance Board decided to reduce the production and regeneration of gunpowder and the establishment at Waltham was to be reduced. Accordingly, Empson Middleton and James Wright drew up a list of people to be dismissed (Supply 5/232 dated the 21st March, 1822) and the men were subsequently dismissed on the 1st June. Several Petitions were submitted by the men asking for financial assistance; many were long-service employees in their middle age, and they pointed out that they had little hope of finding employment after the hay and corn harvest had been gathered. The Storekeeper at Waltham was sympathetic and forwarded their Petitions to the Board for their consideration. George Baldock was one of the Petitioners, and he was awarded two weeks; pay to ease his financial burden.Supply 5/216
53WilliamBaldockList of Officers & Other Employees1. William Baldock was taken on for one of the 7 vacancies available, and started work on the 15th August 1793 as a Labourer (Winters, p.40). Since no mention is made thereafter of William until 1804, it can only be supposed that his was a casual post. 2. Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804 recorded that William was working as a Refiner; his pay was 2/-d per day, and all Refiners received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch", which, on average, was every 5th night. 3. Supply 5/224 dated 30th January,1806He recorded that he was a Corning House Man earning 2/2d per day, having been employed by the Ordnance for one year. 4. Baldock was still working in the Corning House, earning 2/2d per day (List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed - Supply 5/226 of the 18th June 1807), and in addition, Corning House men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d. 5. According to an entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Baldock was then a "Foreman of Reeling Houses" earning 2/10d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 6. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that William Baldock was still a Reeling House Foreman but that he then earned 3/10d per day, in addition to which, he was a Rounder earning 1/6d every third night. This was also the case according to List of Employees dated the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/222
54EdwardBaldock00/00/1794List of Employees1. Edward Baldock was employed as a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day . He was first employed by the Board on the 30th July 1815, and was a 21-year-old married man, living in Waltham Abbey, with one child (WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816).WO54/516
55RobertBaleList of Officers & Other Employees1. Robert Bale, according to Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804, was working as a Refiner earning 2/-d per day. All Refiners received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn to watch, which, on average, was every 5th night.Supply 5/222
56ThomasBarbyRecord of Personnel in the Storekeeper's Department1. Thomas Barby was employed as a Labourer in the Corning House and paid 1/6d per day, according to Supply 5/216 of the 31st July 1792.Supply 5/216
57JohnBardle (Bardell)List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed.1. John Bardle (Bardell) commenced work as a Millman earning 2/3d per day, according to Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807. He was also allowed 3d per night when on duty. 2. According to Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Bardle was employed as a Dusting House Man earning 2/3d per day, and, "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 3. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810 confirmed that Mr. Bardle was a Dusting House Man who was still paid 2/3d day, but was then allowed 1/6d per night to watch in turn.Supply 5/226
58ThomasBardle (Bardell)List of Employees1. Thomas Bardle (Bardell) was a Mixing House Man who earned 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night (List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 - Supply 5/229). 2. He was still employed as a Mixing House Man on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) with his pay and conditions remaining the same as quoted previously.Supply 5/229
59WilliamBardle (Bardell)00/00/1811Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.1321. William Bardle (Bardell) was born circa 1811, and was the son of Thomas Bardle. 2. He died at the age of 23 in 1834, leaving a young widow, Ann, who was pregnant (information from Sally Thorn). 3. Their son, also William, started work in the Cylinder House in 1854 (Winters, op.cit., p.131) and was working as a 2nd class Labourer at the Mills in 1855 (Winters, op.cit., p.113). At that date he was allowed to watch in turn, on average every third night, for which he received 1/6d (Winters, op.cit. p.128). 4. William was eventually promoted as the Senior Foreman of the Cylinder Houses making Charcoal (Winters, op.cit.p.131). 5. Ann remarried circa 1839 - see notes on Thomas Hilton.
60JosephBarfoot00/00/1797List of Employees1. Joseph Barfoot was employed as a Cooper with pay of 1/9d per day; he was not allowed to watch. 2. Record on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) recorded that his pay was then 2/4d per day, but he was still not allowed to watch. 3. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Joseph Barfoot was still a Cooper; he was a single man aged 20, who lived in Waltham Abbey, and at that date, earned 3/6d per day. 4. A List of Empoyees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/232) showed the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Joseph Barfoot's name was on the List with his pay unchanged. 5. List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Barfoot was still employed as a Cooper, that he was still a single man, aged 21, who still lived in Waltham Abbey. His rate of pay remained unchanged at 3/6d per day. 6. List of Officers on Employment dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Mr. Barfoot was now 22, was still single, lived in Waltham Abbey but at that date only earned 3/-d per day. 7. List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Joseph was 23, and that he was still single and living in Waltham Abbey. According to this Return, Joseph still earned 3/-d per day, and again, he was not allowed to watch.Supply 5/229
61ValentineBarfordList of Officers, etc. Employed1. Valentine Barford was employed as a Punt Man earning 2/8d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn, according to the List of Officers, etc. Employed (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814).Supply 5/230
62WilliamBarkerRecord of Personnel in Storekeeper's Department1. William Barker was mixing composition at pay of 1/6d per day ( Supply 5/216 dated the 31st July 1792). 2. He started work as a Labourer in the Corning House in August, 1792, and according to Supply 5/216 dated the 31st August 1793, earned 2/-d per day. He was still in the Corning House on the 31st January 1794 earning the same 2/-d (Supply 5/216). 3. A letter written to the Board on the 15th May 1795 (possibly by the Storekeeper) making comments on a Petition on William Barker late "Millman at this place." recorded that for many months before his discharge, his character was very bad, he frquently came to work drunk and absented himself for 2 or 3 days at a time without leave. His shortcomings meant that his partner at the Mill was frequently obliged to work for 18 hours, and that Barker had frequently been cautioned. He was suspended for 3 days, but on account of his large family, he was given a final trial, notwithstanding which, he went on as before. The night of his discharge, after two days of absence, "...he came to duty in Liquor and left his mill running in much danger of her blowing up." In fact, he had gone into the Town seeking the Clerk of the Cheque, "... from Whom he desired a further absence of three days which he refused." On returning to the Works he was met by the Master Worker, to whom he was insolent, and he was discharged on the 11th July 1795 (WASC 475).Supply 5/216
63SamuelBarkerList of Artificers etc. Employed in the Engineers' Department1. Samuel Barker was working as a Labourer in the "Engineers' Dept. Established" earning 1/6d per day, with "one day extra allowed per week, agreeable to the Board's Order dated the 12th March, 1801." (Supply 5/222 dated 8th May 1804).Supply 5/222
64JamesBarkerList of Foremen & Labourers Employed in the Manufactory1. James Barker was a Puntman who was paid 2/-d per day, and had served 9 months. (Supply 5/224 dated 31st January 1806). 2. According to Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June,1807 Barker was then a Millman who was paid 2/3d per day. In addition, he was allowed 3d per night when on duty. 3. Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, confirmed that Mr. Barker was a Millman earning 2/3d per day, but that he was then "allowed 6d per night when on duty. " Entered as JAMES Barker in 1808 and JOHN Barker on the 1st August, 1810 (Supply 5/228). 4. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that JOHN Barker was still a Millman who earned 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d per night when on duty. 5. Still a Millman on the 13th February 1814 (Supply5/230) with the same rate of pay and additional 6d per night when on duty. Entered as JAMES Barker in this List. The variation in Christian name is possibly a clerical error.Supply 5/224
65ThomasBarkerList of those in Employment and Pay1. Thomas Barker was a Millman earning 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d per night when on duty. (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 2. He was still a Millman on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) with the same rate of pay and an additional 6d per night when on duty.Supply 5/229
66JohnBarnardList of Employees and their Pay1. John Barnard was a Sawyer working for the Engineers' Department. Between the 15th and 21st July 1809 he carried out seven days' work for the Manufactory, for which he was paid £1.9.9d, according to Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809.Supply 5/228
67George (1)Barnes00/00/1763Officers and Others on the Ordnance1. George Barnes was appointed to the Establishment on the 19th January 1792 and Overseer of the Works at the Royal Gunpowder Mills at Waltham Abbey on the 31st July 1809. In 1812, he was paid 7/-d per day and provided with a house, which was in Powder Mill Lane (List of Officers and Others on the Ordnance dated September 1812 - WO54/512) 2. WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816, confirmed he was still Overseer of Works and still paid 7/-d per day. He was then aged 52, a widower with 4 married and 2 unmarried children. He was still provided with an apartment, but now received a coal and candle allowance of £8 per annum. He was trained as a Bricklayer and Builder. He was first employed by the Board as a Bricklayer on the 3rd October 1786, becoming a Master Bricklayer on the 10th January 1791. 3. WO54/520 dated the 28th February 1817 recorded that Mr. Barnes was now 53, and was still a widower with 4 married and 2 unmarried children. It confirmed that he earned 7/-d per day and was in receipt of an apartment with a coal and candle allowance as before. 4. WO54/514 dated the 25th June 1818 and WO54/528 dated the 19th May, 1919 gave his age as 55, with all other details remaining the same. 5. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 ( WO54/532) confirmed that Barnes was still employed as the Overseer of Works. He was 57 and still living in Waltham Abbey in an apartment, with an allowance of £8 for coal and candle. However, this Return shows that he had remarried and still had 6 children; it also recorded that he earned 10/d per day. 6. WO54/536 dated the 2nd April 1821 stated that he was George (1) was 58, and that his Terms of Employment, etc. remained unchanged. 7. WO54/536 dated the 31st December 1821 is a repeat of the previous Return dated the 2nd April 1821; however, at that date he had 7children. A note at the bottom of the document concerned reads "The appointment of Overseer (George Barnes) is abolished from this day 31st December 1821." 8. A statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December, 1821, shewing the amounts received by the storekeeper" dated the 4th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that George Barnes, Overseer of the Works, was living rent-free in a Board of Ordnance house, tenement No. 8, from the 29th September 1809. This house was possibly in the Engineers' yard. The same information was repeated in Supply 5/232 dated the 16th February 1822 for the year 1821.WO54/512
68George (2)BarnesList of Persons and Pay on the Ordnance1. George Barnes (2) was employed as a Casual Millwright earning 5/2d per day, according to WO54/512 dated September 1812.WO54/512
69C. W.Barnham00/00/1796List of Officers & Others Employed1. C. W. Barnham was appointed an Assistant Clerk at Waltham Abbey on the 13th November 1815. Aged 22, he lived in Loughton, and was single. His pay was £70 per annum with a £20 gratuity, and he was not on the Establishment. 2. According to the List of Officers and Other Persons Employed dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231), Mr. Barnham was still Assistant Clerk, but then lived in Waltham Abbey. His age was given as 23, and all the other information given previously remained the same. 3. List of employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) updated the previous entry, with his basic details on pay, etc. remaining unchanged. It was noted, however, that he was then living in Enfield, and was aged 24. 4. List of Officers and other Persons Employed dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) confirmed that Mr. Barnham was still Second Clerk, that he was then aged 24, was single and resided in Enfield. He now had a "£20 increased salary" and "£20 house rent, coals and candles." 5. Return showing the pay, allowances and length of service and every description of the persons in the employment of the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822) gave his total salary for the year, including service increase and allowance in lieu of house, coals and candles, as £110. By this date he had 6 years' service, was still single and was still living in Enfield. However, WO54/536 dated the 6th February 1822, recorded that Barnham's post had been discontinued on the 31st December 1821 by the Board's order of the 29th December 1821.Supply 5/231
70ThomasBates00/00/1766Record of Wages and Salaries1. Thomas Bates was transferred from Royal Gunpowder Factory at Faversham to the Waltham Mills, but quit the service on the 4th January 1788, "on account of the smallness of their Wages and the great difficulty they found to get any one to Lodge them except Publicans, because they were so black and Dirty by being engaged in Manufacturing Gunpowder. Thos. Bates, among seven (signed)" (Supply 5/113). 2. Although this note is out of sequence, Bates started at Faversham on the 1st November 1787, and and finally transferred to Waltham on the 1st February 1788 (Supply 5/217 dated the 24th June 1789). Furthermore, it appeared that he did not "quit" employment in the Ordnance, since in 1806 he had 18 years' service (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). 3. In March 1789, Thomas Bates was grinding "salt petre and charcoal, etc.", and for this, he was paid 1/6d per day (Supply 5/212). 4. According to Supply 5/213 dated the 18th April 1789, Thomas was "cutting and planting willow trees, cutting of canal at the new Corning House, removing earth to the Store, unloading barge of coals & charring wood." 5. In August & September 1789, he was grinding salt petre, charcoal and brimstone, being paid 1/6d per day (Supply 5/213). 6. Supply 5/214 of September 1789, recorded that he was 23 and employed to grind Brimstone and Charcoal. 7. He was still grinding Saltpetre and charcoal, etc. in March 1790, for which he was paid the same 1/6d per day (Supply 5/214). 8. He was described as grinding salt petre, etc. on the 14th August 1790 (Supply 5/215). 9. On the 11th December 1790, he was working in the Corning House and still being paid 1/6d per day (Supply 5/215). 10 Bates was working in the Corning House January to March 1792, and was paid 1/6d per day as previously. (Supply 5/215) 11 In April, 1792, he was "mixing composition" (Supply 5/215 dated the 16th April, 1792). 12 Between July and September 1792, he was "in the country charring wood." (Supply 5/216 dated the 31st July 1792). 13 Thomas was working on the punts in February and March 1793, before returning to the country again cutting wood (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February 1793), and was still in the country in August and September, 1793 (Supply 5/216). 14 In January 1794, he was working in "the punts and drawing & setting stoves", while in August, 1794, he was "charring wood", still being paid 1/6d per day (Supply 5/216). 15 In December 1794 he was grinding Saltpetre, etc. (Supply 5/2170 16 In June and July of 1795, Mr. Bates is described as a "Charcoal Burner" (Supply 5/217 dated the 24th June 1795). 17 Bates became a Cylinderman at Waltham Abbey on the 1st November 1797, before transferring to West Sussex on the 14th January 1798 (Supply 5/219 dated September 1798). 18 A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was working as a Labourer and was unmarried. Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 19 A Return of Artificers & Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221), showed that he was still employed in the Cylinders in Sussex. The same document said that since the cylinders had been out of repair, Bates had been employed in stacking timber in the yards, and levelling and preparing the ground where the cylinders were to be resited. For this he was paid 2/-d per day. 20 Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806 confirmed that he was employed as a Cylinderman with pay at 2/-d per day; he had 18 years service, and was still based in West Sussex. 21 In a further Return dated the 18th June 1807 (Supply 5/226), it was confirmed that Thomas was still a Cylinderman in West Sussex. 22 According to the List of Officers, Foremen, Artificers, etc. Employed dated the 23rd August 1808 (Supply 5/227), Mr. Bates was still employed as a Cylinderman earning 2/-d per day. 23 Employment List dated the 1st September 1810 (Supply 5/228) confirmed that Mr. Bates was still a Cylinderman at 2/-d per day, as he was in 1813 (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August, 1813) on the same rate of pay as previously, and still based in West Sussex. 24 Staff List dated the 1st September 1810 (Supply 5/228) confirmed that he was still employed as a Cylinderman at 2/-d per day. 25 List of Employees (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812) confirmed Mr. Bates was still a Cylinderman in West Sussex, but his wage was then 2/8d. per day. This entry appears to be the last for Thomas Bates.Supply 5/212
71TimothyBates00/00/1777List of Artificers, etc. & Members of the Volunteer Company1. Timothy Bates started work at the Mills on the 27th March 1797, and by September 1798, he was employed as a General Labourer, described as "setting & drawing stoves and clearing willow plantation". He was also a Private in the Volunteer Company (Supply 5/219 dated September 1798). 2. A signed document, Supply 5/220 dated the 2nd February 1801 relating to a Petition on Pay, showed that he was illiterate and was still working as a General Labourer. 3. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was working as a Labourer and was unmarried. Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 4. In a letter dated the 23rd June 1801 (Supply 5/195) it was stated that the writer had "the Board's commands to transmit to you on the other side hereof a list of the men who have been burnt and otherwise hurt by the fire which lately destroyed (on the 16th June, 1801) the Corning House at Waltham Abbey; and I am to desire the Storekeeper will pay the men all their pay until they are recovered." 5. Winters, in his book "Centenary Memorial", made it clear that the men were employed in repairing the Corning House which blew up on the 18th April, 1801; the fire was caused "from the blow of a copper hammer on pit wheel." (Winters, p.59). However, it appears that yet again he had made a mistake with the date. 6. A letter, also dated the 23rd June 1801, (Supply 5/195) included Timothy Bates, and therein stated that "we beg to represent the situation of the poor men who were burnt when the Corning House took fire 16th instant while under repair." It further stated "These men are burnt in a dreadful manner, their pain is very great..." and "Our surgeon has represented the necessity of the men most burnt having immediate assistance in wine, as a considerable suppuration is come on their constitutions. They cannot support it without wine, and we have directed wine to be immediately provided to them, and request your permission for our continuing to support these poor men with such wine or other proper support as their surgeon may think their respective situations require." 7. In a letter to the Board dated the 29th July 1801 (Supply 5/221), it was recorded that the men who were burnt at the Corning House on the 16th June, had requested that they were reimbursed for the loss of clothing. The list included Mr. Bates, whose claim amounted to £2.13.6d in all - for a hat (6/-d.), handkerchiefs (4/6d) stockings (4/6d) shirt (5/6d) waistcoat (5/-d) breeches (12/-d) and sheets (16/-d). The same letter went on to say that Mr. Bates, amongst others, suffered so much that he wished for death to release him from his torture, and that it was a matter of surprise that he was recovering. The constant attention the men needed meant that their wives could not undertake seasonal work (haymaking), at which they could earn sufficient to pay the rent. It was requested that financial allowances be made. 8. According to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, Mr. Bates was working as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/-d per day and had 10 years' service. 9. List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed - Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807 - confirmed that Timothy Bates was working as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/-d per day. In addition, Refiners were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d. 10 According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Bates was still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/-d. per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 11 Employee List (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810) confirmed he was still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner, paid 2/-d per day, and allowed to watch in turn when not working. 12 List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Timothy Bates was still a Saltpetre Refiner. According to this List he then earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, "when not working extra, they are allowed to watch in turn." This was also the case on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230). 13 List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) showed that Timothy Bates was now employed as a Warder; he was a married man aged 41 with 3 children, and lived in Waltham Abbey. He then only earned 2/4d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. 14 A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Timothy's name was on the List, which confirmed that he was a Warder at the Stove Island (Horse Mill Island). His pay remained at 2/4d per day. 15 List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Bates was still employed as a Warder, and was a married man of 42 with 3 children, living in Waltham Abbey. He was paid 2/4d per day and allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night.. 16 List of Officers on Employment dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Timothy Bates was 43, employed as a Warder, was married with 3 children, and still lived in Waltham Abbey. His wage remained the same as before, but he was then in receipt of 1/6d per night when allowed to watch. 17 List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Timothy was 44, with all other details remaining the same as in Note 16. 18 List of Employees at the Royal Gunpowder Mills (Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822) gave the age of Timothy, a Warder, as 45, with 27 years' service and pay per day of only 2/-d. 19. Return dated the 6th February 1822 (Supply 5/232) recorded length of service and other full details of those persons employed by the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821. This appeared to be a more detailed and accurate Return than that of the 23rd January 1822. Timothy Bates was appointed a Labourer at Waltham Abbey on the 27th March 1797, and confirmed as a Warder by the Board's Order dated 4th September 1818. He was allowed to watch in turn to guard the Works, for which he received an average of 2/-d per week by order of the Board dated 30th June, 1820. He had an annual wage of £41.14.4d, and had a house as a porter's lodge. He had served nearly 25 years, was 45, and was married still with 3 children. The porter's lodge (watch house) was located at the Stove Island gate. 20 Supply 5/232 dated the 21st March 1822 was a List of Persons to form the Establishment at Waltham Abbey to regenerate 2000 barrels of gunpowder as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually. It stated that Timothy Bates, Warder, was to be retained. 21 WO54/542 dated the the 1st April 1823 confirmed that Bates was still a Warder and that his pay for the year was £39.0.0d, which included an allowance for watching in turn. Family and service details were confirmed, and he still occupied a house belonging to the Board. 22 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B), Timothy Bates had his pay reduced by £2.12.0d per annum in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the 27th December 1822 and the 15th January 1823. 23 Return dated the 1st October 1824 (WO54/546) recorded that Timothy earned £39.0.0d per annum, which included an allowance for watching in turn, for which he received 2/-d per week. His period of service is given as nearly 28 years, he was 47 and was married, but this Return states he had only 1 child. 24 Return showing pay and allowances, etc. dated the 1st October 1825 (Winters, pp.93-95) confirmed previous information given and recorded that he had been in continuous service with the Board since the 27th March 1797. His pay in total was confirmed at £39.0.0d per annum. 25 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 confirmed that Timothy was still a Warder, and gave his basic pay as £33.16.0d per annum. He was still allowed to watch in turn which gave him, on average, 2/-d per week, and a total annual wage of £39.0.0d. This document also confirmed his previous family and service details, as did WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825, although that document indicated that he was still only 47 years of age. 26 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 confirmed the information given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826. 27 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded "no alteration since the last report dated the 1st October 1826." 28 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 gave the same information as in the notes above. At that date Timothy Bates had nearly 31 years' service and was then 49 years of age. 29 Return dated the1st April 1828 (WO54/562) gave the same information as in the notes above, with the exception that he had served 31 years. 30 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 31 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated the information given in the previous Return. 32 Document showing Employees at the 1st October, 1829 (WO54/566) indicated that Timothy still earned in total £39.0.0d per annum as in Note 25, that his service was now nearly 33 years and that he was now 50 years of age. 33 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for Timothy as in Note 32, except that his service was given as 33 years and he was now aged 51. 34 WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 confirmed the information given in Note 32, except that his service was nearly 34 years. WO54/570 dated April 1831 updated the October 1830, Return, and confirmed that he was still employed as a Warder, with a cottage as a Porter's lodge. 35 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 36 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return. 37 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 updated his age and period of service in the April 1832 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged; he was still a Warder with a cottage. 38 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, stated that Timothy still earned a total of £39 annually in his capacity as Warder. His period of service was given as 36 years, and he was then aged 54. He retained the use of a cottage. 39 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, gave no change in Mr. Bates' basic details, but his age and length of service were updated 40 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834, confirmed that Timothy was still employed as a Warder and still earned a total of £39 per annum. His period of service was given as 37 years and his age, 55. 41 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834, confirmed the information given in the note above; he was then 56 years old and had served just over 37 years. 42 Letter to the Board dated the 20th June 1835, recorded that Timothy Bates, Water Warden, caught James Turnham and one other poaching on the Board's water at Lower Island. Turnham had been convicted before for poaching, and the Deputy Storekeeper, James Wright, then asked if they should be prosecuted (Supply 5/238), 43 On the 16th April 1836, explosions occurred when No. 125 Mill was shut up, and Mr. Bates, Water Warden, was called before Lt.Col. Moody as a witness (Winters p.103). 44 Return of Employees dated the 1st October 1839 (WO56/623) indicated that Bates was still employed as a Warder with a wage of £39 per annum, which included an allowance to watch in turn. He was still occupying the same cottage as a Porter's lodge. 45 The 1840 Return of Domestic Properties (WO144/133) recorded that Timothy and his family had occupied the Watch House on Horse Mill Island since it had been built. The house was Plot No. No. 98 on the Town Map in Appendix 1/ 46. The 1841 Census indicated that Timothy and his wife, Elizabeth, were both in their sixties and born in Essex. He was still working as a Water Warden and lived in Waltham Marsh off High Bridge Street South.Supply 5/219
72WilliamBave00/00/1800Return of Employees1. William Bave joined the Engineers' Department as a Labourer sometime between April and October 1829; he was a 29-year-old married man with 3 children. His pay was 2/2d per day, giving him an annual wage of £33.18.2d (WO54/566 dated the 1st October 1829). 2. According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for Willian as in Note 1, except that his service was then 1 year. 3. Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, confirmed that William was still working as a Labourer, with family details and wages unchanged, but length of service and age updated. 4. A Return of Persons belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield, showed in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January 1831. It recorded that William Bave was one of the 15 Labourers to be employed at the Waltham Abbey Powder Mills and the Enfield Small Arms Factory. He was to be paid 2/2d per day and employed to undertake different services as a Labourer in the Manufactories, where steadiness and sobriety were particuliary required (WO54/575). 5. WO54/575 dated April 1831, updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 6. WO54/575 dated October 1831 confirmed that William still earned 2/2d per day as indicated previously, giving him a total of £33.18.2d per annum. He was then 31, and his family details remained the same. 7. WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, confirmed the information given in Note 6, except that he was then aged 32 and had served 4 years. 8. WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 recorded that William Bave was transferred from the Engineers' Department to the Manufactory on the 15th July 1833, replacing Charles Clayden as a General Labourer. He was paid £33.16.0d per annum and allowed to watch in turn, which gave him a total wage of £39 per annum. This document also stated that he started work in the Engineers' Department on the 26th May 1828. General details were the same as the previous Return, except that William had then served 5 years and was 33 years of age. He was a married man, and at that date had 5 children. 9. WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834, recorded that although William was still employed as a General Labourer within the Manufactory, his basic wage had been cut to £28.5.6d per annum. He was still allowed to watch in turn, which increased the annual wage to £33.9.6d. He still had 5 children and his age and service details had been updated, 10 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834, confirmed the information given in the note above; he was then 35 years' old and had served just over 6 years.No reference
73NathanielBeckwithList of Officers and Artificers, etc. in Employment1. Nathaniel Beckwith was working as a Puntman earning 2/-d per day, and allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808).Supply 5/227
74AbrahamBell00/00/1770List of Foremen, etc. in the Manufactory.1. Abraham Bell was a Refiner in the Saltpetre House in 1806 who was paid 2/-d per day. At that date he had served 6 months. (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). 2. Still working as a Saltpetre Refiner, earning 2/-d per day. In addition, Refiners were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d (List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed - Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807). 3. According to his entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Bell was still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/-d. per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 4. Employee List (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810) confirmed the entries in Note 3. 5. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) stated that Abraham was still a Saltpetre Refiner who then earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn. On the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230), Abraham Bell was recorded as a Storehouseman at 3/10d per day. 6. A Return for the 25th June 1818, noted that Bell was still a Storehouseman, and was a 50-year- old married man, with 3 children (Supply 5/231). Another Return dated the 3rd September, 1818 (Supply 5/231) showed people who were to be retained; it lists Abraham as a Storehouseman, with a daily rate of pay of 3/4d. 7. WO54/528 dated the 9th May 1919, confirmed that Bell was a Storehouseman, with pay of 3/4d per day, and that he was a Rounder every 3rd night, for which he received 1/6d each time. He was a 51-year-old married man with 3 children, and lived in Waltham Abbey. 8. WO54/532 dated the 13th September 1820 recorded that he then received 2/-d per night as a Rounder, with all other details remaining unchanged. This was also the case on the 19th April 1821 (WO54/536). 9. WO54/536 dated the 6th February 1822, recorded that Bell was 52, married with 3 children, lived in Waltham Abbey, and earned £64.6.8d per annum. This document stated also that he was appointed a Labourer at Waltham on the 19th September 1805. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, however, gives his start date as the 11th June 1805, and his job as a Storehouse Man on the 30th June 1813. 10 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823, again gave Bell's wage for the year as £64.6.8d, which included an allowance for being a Rounder every 3rd night to superintend the watchmen, for which he received 2/-d. Family and service details remained the same as before, and document WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1823 confirmed that he started at the Mills on the 19th September 1805 as a Labourer, and was promoted to Storehouse man on the 30th June 1813. 11 WO/550 dated the the 1st April 1825, gave Bell's earnings as £52.3.4d per annum. He was still a Rounder every 3rd night, for which he received 2/-d, giving him a total wage of £64.6.8d per annum. His previous family and service details were confirmed. 12 WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825, recorded that Mr. Bell was promoted to Master Mixer on the 25th May 1825. Following the promotion of Hugh Jones as Master Worker, George Ridpath replaced him as the Storehouse Man. His rate of pay became £91.5.10d per annum with no allowances. His length of service was given as just over 20 years, he was aged 55, was married and had 3 children. 13 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 of the 1st October 1825, and WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 confirmed the details given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826. 14 WO54/558 dated the1st April 1827 recorded "no alteration since the last Report dated the 1st October 1826." 15 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 provided the same information as in the notes above. At that date Abraham Bell had just over 22 years' service and was then 57 years of age. 16 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) gave the same information as in the notes above, with the exception that Bell had now served nearly 23 years. 17 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 18 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (no reference given) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 19 WO54/566 dated the 1st October 1829 stated that at that date Abraham still earned the same as given previously. His length of service was just over 24 years, and he was then aged 58. 20 Return WO54/ 570 dated the 1st April 1830, updates his age and length of service, family and pay details remaining unchanged. 21 WO54/570 dated the1st the 1st October 1830, recorded that Mr. Bell was 59 years of age and that he had served over 25 years. His wages and all other information remained the same. 22 According to Return WO54/ 575 dated the 1st April 1831, Abraham earned a total of £91.5.10d annually, he had served 26 years and was aged 60. 23 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 24 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details again remaining unchanged. 25 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 confirmed that Mr. Bell still earned the same as indicated in Note 22. All other details remained the same, except that at that date he was 62 years of age and had served just over 27 years. 26 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 confirmed that Abraham still earned £91.5.10d per annum. At that date his service was given as nearly 28 years, and his age as 62. 27 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, stated that Abraham was then 63 years of age and had served just over 28 years. He was still in receipt of an annual wage of £91.5.10d and all other details remained the same. 28 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834, updatedthe October 1833 Return for service and age, with conditions and wage remaining unchanged. He was still the Master Mixer. 29 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834, updated the previous Return for service and age, with conditions and pay remaining unchanged. 30 Bell retired as the Master Mixer and received a pension from the 26th November 1834. He was still receiving his pension in 1837 (Supply 5/237).Supply 5/224
75EdwardBellchambersList of those Employed1. Edward Bellchambers was a casual Millwright employed by the Engineers' Department, who first worked for the Board on the 1st October, 1815. He was a single man aged 25, living in Waltham Abbey, and was paid 5/8d per day, occasionally as the service required (WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816).WO54/516
76ThomasBelshamList of Foreman Artificers and Labourers1. Thomas Belsham worked in the Corning House earning 2/2d per day, according to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, and at that date he had 6 months service. 2. List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed - Supply 5/226 of the 18th June 1807 - stated that in addition, Corning House Men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d. 3. Belsham was still employed as a Corning House man with the same basic details, according to List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed - Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807. 4. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Belsham was still a Corning House Man, who then earned 2/6d. per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 5. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed the previous Return's information, except that Mr. Belsham was then in receipt of 1/6d when allowed to watch. 6. At 11.15 a.m. on the 27th November 1811, there was a huge explosion at No. 4 Press House; the ensuing fire engulfed the Corning House together with the Reel House, which also exploded. There was much damage to the town with many windows shattered, and reports in the press record that the explosion was heard as far away as Hackney, Blackwall and Marylebone (Winters, p.72). Among those killed was Thomas Belsham, who left a widow, Ann, and sons, Benjamin, aged 18, Thomas, aged 14 and daughter, Louisa, aged 16. These 3 children were in service, but he also had another 5 children at home - William aged 13, Joshua aged 4, John aged 2, Mary aged 8, and Ann aged 6, according to a letter dated the 3rd December 1811 (Supply 5/229). Winters on p.87, stated that Ann received a weekly pension of 17/6d commencing the 14th December 1811, although this date differs to that given in the document below (Note 7). 7. A document dated the 8th November 1818 (Supply 5/231) lists persons to whom pensions or charitable allowances were granted by the Hon. Board, as widows, orphans or relations of those who had lost their lives in the manufactory, or who had been superannuated on account of trusts received, or for length of service in the departments. Among the recipients was Thomas's widow, Ann, who received a pension of 17/6d per week commencing the 28th November, 1811. 8. Mrs. Belsham was still in receipt of her pension in 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 17th November, 1821). 9. A document dated the 6th December 1821 (also Supply 5/232) gave the estimated pay of persons between the 1st January and 31st December 1822, along with their superannuated allowance, as well as "the allowance to widows and orphans of those who have lost their lives at this place". Therein it was confirmed that Ann's superannuation should continue at £45.10.0d per annum. A similar document, Supply 5/232 dated the 28th December 1821 confirmed that the same pension would be paid in 1822. This is also mentioned as the case in 1826 in Winters, (p.96). 10 Mrs. Belsham was still in receipt of a pension in 1837 (Supply 5/237).Supply 5/224
77WilliamBelshamList of Employees1. William Belsham was employed as a Cooper with a rate of pay of 1/9d per day, but he was not allowed to watch. He may well have been the 14 year-old son of Thomas Belsham, who died in the huge explosion in 1811 (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 2. William was still a Cooper on the 13th February 1814, but was then paid 2/4d per day. However, he was still not allowed to watch, according to Supply 5/230.Supply 5/229
78JobBendall00/00/1777List of Officers & Other Personnel1. Job Bendall started work as a Labourer in the Saltpetre Refinery and in "other parts of the manufactory", with pay of 2/-d per day. All Refiners received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every 5th night. (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804). 2. Bendall was promoted to a Millman by January 1806, with pay of 2/3d per day. At that date he had been employed with the Ordnance for 2 years. He was still a Millman in June, 1807 (Supply 5/224) and this document stated he was allowed 3d per night when on duty. 3. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Bendall was employed as a Brimstone Refiner earning 2/3d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 4. Employee List (Supply 5/228 of the 1st September 1810) stated that he was a Dusting House Man who was paid 2/3d per day, and allowed to watch in turn for 1/6d per night. 5. List of Employees (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 18120, recorded that he was then employed as a Warder with pay of 2/8d per day. This was also the case in 1814, according to Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814. 6. List of Persons in Employment dated the 2nd March 1816 (Supply 5/230) confirmed that Job was still a Warder, with service of 12 years, and his age was given as 38. It was recommended that he receive a daily superannuation of 2/8d. In the attached notes was the comment that Mr. Bendall and others should be superannuated because "of the hurts they have received in this dangerous manufactory." It was also stated therein that Mr. Bendall, "before he was admitted into these works, was a soldier for several years in a Regiment of the Line, was severely wounded in the West Indies, has no pension, and was severely burnt by a fall in the Brimstone Refining House in the execution of his duty." In addition it was recorded "…he has been changed about in various parts of the Manufactory to afford him a very fair chance of recovery, but he is now become so debilitated as to be incapable of any exertion whatever." However, in a letter dated 6th March, 1816 (Supply 5/230), Mr. Bendall was finally awarded superannuation of only 2/-d per day for six days in the week, commencing on the 1st April 1816. At the same time, it was desired that the Office of Ordnance "cause Job Bendall to be examined by the Ordnance Surgeon, and a Report made of his present state of health." 7. A Supplement to a document dated the 8th November 1818 (Supply 5/231) listed persons who had been superannuated on account of their length of service in the departments. Among the recipients was "Job Bendall, Warder" who received a pension of 8/-d per week, which had commenced on the 1st April 1816. 8. List of Persons receiving Superannuation (Supply 5/232 dated the 17th November 1821) confirmed entry No. 7. 9. A document dated the 6th December 1821 (Supply 5/232) gave the estimated pay of persons between the 1st January and 31st December 1822 along with their superannuated allowance, as well as "the allowance to widows and orphans of those who have lost their lives at this place." It was confirmed that Mr. Bendall was in receipt of £20.16.0d superannuation per annum (8/-d per week), and a similar document, Supply 5/232 dated the 28th December 1821, confirmed that the same pension would be paid in 1822. This is also noted by Winters (p.96). 10 Supply 5/205 dated the 4th December 1826 recorded that Job Bendall had died, and that the Board had authorised payment of the outstanding pension of £1.9.8d to his legal representative.Supply 5/222
79ThomasBenfieldWinters' Centenary Memorial, p.561. Thomas Benfield was listed as the Master of The Andrew Lighter in 1805, according to Winters (p.56)
80JamesBennettPersonnel Record1. James Bennett was a Labourer by trade, set to work by Daniel Cornish in October 1787, at 9/-d per week, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase by the Government (Winters, op.cit. p.28). 2. Supply 5/212 dated the 27th January 1789 stated that Bennet was to "be tried as a Millman." 3. A Report of Personnel dated the 29th January 1789 (Supply 5/212) listed Bennett as a Millman in the Corning House having originally been employed by Mr Walton. 4. His pay on the 21st March 1789 was 1/6d per day. This information was taken from the Personnel Return of those working in the Storekeeper's Department (Supply 5/212 dated 21st March 1789) where he was described as " Setting & drawing stoves, etc." 5. On the 12th September 1789, J. Wright and J. Clowdersly wrote to Major Congreve saying, "We beg leave to report that last night at 6 0'clock the 2nd of No. Head Mills blew up; the charge had not been upon the bed more than five Minutes and the Mill did not receive any injury, it was set to work this day at 10 0'clock. The Master Worker has removed James Bennett and Stephen Cock out of the Mills as he found them incapable of doing their business; we therefore desire to know if you would have them discharged." (WASC, 1392). It would appear that Bennett was in fact not discharged, since the Petition dated February 1800 relating to pay and conditions at the Mills, showed that he was one of the few Labourers who was literate (Supply 5/220 dated the 2nd February 1800).Supply 5/212
81NathanielBennettList of Artificers etc. & Members of the Volunteer Company1. Nathaniel was a Sulphur Millman who started at the Mills on the 8th July1797 (Supply 5/219). In addition, he was a Private in the Volunteer Company. 2. Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was then working as a Labourer, and that he was a married man with no children. In this document, anyone who was not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 3. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that although he was employed as a Saltpetre Millman, he was then engaged in cleaning and deepening the river, canals, ditches and other work necessary to be performed, for which he was paid 1/6d per day. 4. Nathaniel worked as a Refiner (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804) with pay of 2/-d per day. All Refiners received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every 5th night. 5. According to the List of Foreman Artificers and Labourers Employed dated the 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224), Mr. Bennett was employed as a Saltpetre Millman, earning 2/-d per day. He had 9 years' service, which agrees with entry No.1. 6. Still a Saltpetre Millman in June, 1807, when a note (Supply 5/226) said "that in addition to his pay, he was allowed to Watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d." 7. Still a Brimstone and Saltpetre Millman in August 1808 (Supply 5/227 dated the 27th August 1808), he was paid the same 2/-d per day as previously, and allowed to watch in turn. This information was basically the same in September 1810 (Supply 5/228).Supply 5/219
82MatthewBennett00/00/1764List of Employees and Pay1. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) stated that Matthew Bennett was a Brimstone and Saltpetre Millman who earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, was allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/6d. per night. This was also the case according to the entry on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230). 2. List of Persons in Employment dated the 2nd March, 1816 (Supply 5/230) recorded that Mr. Bennett was now a Dusting House Man with 21years' service, and his age was given as 51. It was recommended that he receive a daily superannuation of 3/-d. In the attached notes was the comment that Mr. Bennett and others should be superannuated because "of the hurts they have received in this dangerous manufactory." It was also stated therein that Mr. Bennett "is become so feeble as to be totally unfit to exert himself at work." However, in a letter dated 6th March, 1816 (Supply 5/200), Mr. Bennett was finally awarded superannuation of only 2/6d per day for six days in the week, commencing the 1st April 1816 (Supply 5/200).Supply 5/229
83BartholomewBennett00/00/1720Faversh Gunpowder Personnel Register1. Barholomew Bennett was birn circa 1720, and appointed as the Overseer of Works on the 25th April 1773. 2. On the 18th October 1787, Bennett, together with Mr Cowell, John Good Fellow and William Easton was "to go immediately to Mr Walton's Mills at Waltham Abbey (Supply 5/66)." Apparently, this was at the order of his Grace the Master General (of Ordnance), the Duke of Richmond (Supply 5/113). 3. At Waltham Abbey he supervised William Sutton, acting Overseer, also from Faversham, and the Artificers, etc., renovating the Mills. During this period he took an active interest in , and gave much good technical advice on, improvements to the Mills (W. H Simmonds, A Short History of Waltham Abbey Powder Mills). 4. By January 1788, he had returned to Faversham.
84WilliamBensonList of Employees1. William Benson, according to WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816, William was employed as a Casual Labourer earning 2/4d per day in the Engineers' Department. He was first employed by the Board on the 20th May 1815, and was a 25-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey.WO54/516
85WilliamBettles00/00/1776Record of Employees1. William Bettles was a trained Millwright aged 40. He was married but had no children, and lived in Waltham Abbey. He earned 5/2d per day, and was employed "occasionally as the Service required." (WO54/520 dated the 28th February 1817).WO54/520
86ThomasBettsLetter1. A Return dated 1801 showing the marital status of the employees, lists Thomas Betts as a Labourer and a single man (Supply 5/221). 2. In a letter dated the 23rd June 1801 (Supply 5/195), it was stated that the writer had "the Board's commands to transmit to you on the other side hereof a list of the men who have been burnt and otherwise hurt by the fire which lately (16th June, 1801) destroyed the Corning House at Waltham Abbey; and I am to desire the storekeeper will pay the men all their pay until they are recovered." The list included Thomas Betts, but it did not give his trade. 3. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221), recorded that Mr. Betts was so severely burnt in the Old Corning House that it would be dangerous to expose him with the other men in repairing the river banks at the time, but that he could perform trifling jobs as they occurred. 4. In 1804, Mr. Betts was working as a Refiner and was paid 2/-d per day; all Refiners received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every 5th night. (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804).Supply 5/221
87JeremiahBettsList of Foremen, etc. in the Manufactory.1. Jeremiah Betts started work as a Refiner in the Saltpetre House in June 1805, and was paid 2/-d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). However, Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822, gave his start-date with the Board as the 1st September 1804. 2. According to the List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed - Supply 5/226, dated the 18th June 1807 - Jeremiah was still working as a Saltpetre Refiner, earning 2/-d per day. In addition, Refiners were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d. 3. Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808 indicated that Mr. Betts was still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/-d. per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 4. Employee List (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810) confirmed the previous entry. 5. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) stated that Jeremiah was still a Saltpetre Refiner but that he then earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, was allowed to watch in turn. The same pay and conditions were quoted on the Return dated the 13th February 1814 (Supply.5/230). 6. Lists of Officers & Others Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231 and WO54/524) confirmed that he was still a Refiner. He was a married man living in Waltham Abbey, aged 45, with 3 children. He now only earned 2/4d per day, but was still allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night. 7. A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231), recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Betts' name is included, with his pay remaining unchanged, but he was then not allowed to watch. However, a letter dated September 1818 (Supply 5/231) stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement.", and it included a Mr. Betts, Saltpetre Refiner. 8. Nevertheless, the List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) showed that Betts was still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner, that he was a married man aged 46 with 3 children, that he still lived in Waltham Abbey and was paid 2/4d per day. He was again allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. 9. List of Officers on Employment dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Mr. Jeremiah Betts was now 47, still lived in Waltham Abbey, still earned 2/4d per day, but now received 1/6d per night when allowed to watch. This record said that Mr. Betts only had 2 children, not 3 as stated in Note 8. 10 A statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December, 1821" dated the the 4th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) showing the amounts received by the storekeeper, indicated that Jeremiah Betts had been living in a Board of Ordnance house from the 6th May 1812, and the rent was £5.4.0d per annum. The same information is repeated in Supply 5/232 dated the 16th February 1822 for the year 1821. 11 List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) indicated that Jeremiah was then 51, employed as a Saltpetre Refiner and that he had 3 children; all other entries remained the same as in Note 9. 12 List of Employees at the Royal Powder Mills (Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822) gave the age of Jeremiah, Saltpetre Refiner, as 52, with nearly 17 years' service and pay per day of 2/4d. 13 Return dated the 6th February 1822 (Supply 5/232) gave the length of service and other full details of those persons employed by the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821. This appeared to be a more detailed and accurate Return than that of the 23rd January 1822. Jeremiah Betts, Saltpetre Refiner, was appointed a Labourer at Waltham Abbey on the 6th September 1805, and by Orders of the Board dated 4th September 1818 and the 4th October 1819, as a Saltpetre Refiner. He was allowed to watch in turn to guard the works for which he received an additional 2/-d per night, giving him total annual wages of £41.14.4d. According to this Return, at the 31st December 1821 he had just over sixteen years' service, was 52 years old, was married with three children, and lived in Waltham Abbey. Additionally, he had originally trained as a Wool Comber. 14 In the spring of 1822, the Ordnance Board decided to reduce the production and regeneration of gunpowder and, therefore, the Establishment at Waltham was to be reduced. Accordingly Empson Middleton and James Wright drew up a list of people to be dismissed (Supply 5/232 dated the 21st March, 1822), and they were subsequently dismissed on the 1st June that year. Several petitions were submitted by the men asking for financial assistance. Many of the men were long-service employees in their middle age, and they pointed out that they had little hope of finding employment after the hay and corn harvest had been gathered. The Storekeeper at Waltham was sympathetic and forwarded their petitions to the Board for consideration. Jeremiah Betts was one of the petitioners, and he was awarded two weeks' pay to ease his financial burden. 15 Nevertheless, WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 (Personnel Employed in the Engineers' Department) stated that Jeremiah was paid 2/2d per day for 313 days as a Labourer, which gave him an annual income of £33.18.2d. His service was given as nearly two years - presumably meaning from the date of his present appointment, i.e., the 16th June 1823; he was then aged 54, was married and had 3 children. 16 WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825 confirmd the previous entry (WO54/550) and recorded that Betts started at the Mills on the 1st September 1805 as a Saltpetre Refiner. 17 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed entries in Notes 15 and 16, with the exception that he was now 55 years' old and had nearly 4 years' service. 18 WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 confirmed the entries for the previous Return. 19 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 gave the same information as in the notes above. At that date Jeremiah had nearly 4 years' service and was now 56 years old. 20 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 gave the same information as in previous Returns, although Jeremiah now had nearly 5 years' service and was then 57 years of age. 21 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) updated the same basic information as in the notes above, as did the Return dated the 1st October 1828 (WO54/562). 22 WO54/566 dated the 1st April 1829 recorded that Jeremiah at that date still earned 2/2d per day. His length of service was given as nearly 5 years, and he was now aged 58. 23 Return dated the 1st October, 1829 (no reference given) again updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details remaining unchanged. 24 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for Jeremiah as previously, except that his service was now nearly 6 years from the date of his appointment as a Labourer in 1825, and he was aged 59. 25 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 confirmed that Jeremiah was still working as a Labourer. His family details and wages remained unchanged, but his length of service and age were updated. 26 A Return of Persons belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield, showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January 1831, recorded that Jeremiah Betts was one of the 15 Labourers to be employed at the Waltham Abbey Powder Mills and the Enfield Small Arms Factory; he was to be paid 2/2d per day and used to undertake different services as a Labourer in the Manufactories, where "steadiness and sobriety are particularly required" (WO54/570. 27 WO54/575 dated April 1831 updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return (Note 25). 28 WO54/575 dated October 1831 confirmed that Jeremiah still earned 2/2d per day, giving him a total of £33.18.2d per annum. He had then served just over 7 years and was aged 61. 29 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return. 30 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 reiterated that Jeremiah still earned £33.18.2d per annum. His service was given as just over 8 years and his age as 62. 31 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 confirmed his basic details, with his age and length of service updated. He still had 3 children. 32 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 confirmed that Jeremiah still earned £33.18.2d per annum, that he had served nearly 30 years and that his age was 63. 33 Jeremiah was appointed as the Office Keeper and Messenger in the Engineers' Department on the 14th October 1834, and moved into William Newton's house on Horse Mill Island. His earnings (Return of Employees dated the 10th October 1839) were £33.18.2d per annum. He was a 68-year-old married man with 3 children, and had 34 years' service. The house had been divided into two by 1828, and remained so until sometime between 1840 and 1841 when it was converted back to a single dwelling. By then Jeremiah had retired, and was living in an Ordnance Board cottage on the south side of High Bridge Street, Plot No. 96 on the Waltham Abbey Town Map. His cottage, previously owned by J. Davy, was one of 3 tenements formed out of a dwelling house in the Tanyard, purchased from a Mr. Cannopp in 1816, which was Plot No. 54 on the Waltham Abbey Town Map. 34 Jeremiah retired shortly after May 1840, and a transcript of the 1841 Census confirmed that Jeremiah and his wife, Mary, who was younger than her husband, were living in High Bridge Street South, opposite Powder Mill Lane.Supply 5/224
88ThomasBiltonReturn of Employees1. Thomas started at the Mills as a Labourer on the 13th April 1791, earning 1/6d per day "Setting and Drawing Stoves and in the punts" which he was listed to do until June 1791. 2. July to September 1792 saw him working in the Corning House, still at 1/6d per day, (Supply 5/216) and this was the case until July 1795 (Supply 5/217 dated the 3rd July 1795). On the 16th March 1793, Mr. Bilton was chequered (fined) one day's pay for not having obeyed orders to ensure that his shoes were free of gravel when he entered the Corning House. In addition, Robert Coleman, Clerk of the Cheque, recorded that on the 29th July 1793, Thomas Bilton and others were chequered one day's pay for "having gone across the Hoppit contrary to repeated orders." (Winters, p.39). 3. Mr. Bilton had enlisted as a Private in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794, and was still in the Corning House in September 1798. 4. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay indicated that he was illiterate and was still working as a General Labourer. 5. Supply 5/220 dated the 19th April, 1801 recorded that the new Corning House blew up on the 18th April with a tremendous explosion. Nine men in the building, including Thomas Bilton, were killed, together with 4 horses. 6. A Petition dated the 24th April, 1801 (Supply 5/194) was signed by his widow, Ann Bilton, along with the other widows and in two cases, mothers of the deceased, requesting "relief in their distress." 7. A Report on the ages of the children and circumstances of widows and children and parents of the deceased (Supply 5/220 dated the 29th of April, 1801) recorded that Ann Bilton, Thomas's widow, was aged 32 and had suffered an accident three or four years previously, which prevented her "doing for herself." She had several (Winters says 7, but this may be an error) children, of which, a boy of 12 years old and a girl of 3, survived. Ann was also believed to be with child. 8. The Ordnance Board decided that the widow's pension should be based upon their husband's or son's basic pay and not to include any extra, "due to the severity of the times." On the 23rd March 1802 (Supply 5/195), it was agreed that the pension awarded to Mrs Ann Bilton should be 10/-d per week.Supply 5/215
89ThomasBird00/00/1766List of Officers, Foremen, Artificers, etc. Employed1. Thomas was working in the Dusting House earning 2/1d per day. In addition, Dusting House men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d. (List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed - Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807) 2. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 of the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Bird was still employed as a Dusting House Man, then earning 2/3d. per day. Dusting House men "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 3. According to a List of Pay (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810) Thomas was a Corning House Man earning 2/6d per day, and allowed to watch at 1/6d. 4. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Bird was still a Corning House Man who then earned 3/3d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night. 5. Bird was still a Corning House Man on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) with the same rate of pay and still allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night. 6. In a List of Persons Employed by the Engineers' Department (WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825), it is recorded that a Thomas Bird - possibly the same man as above - had been employed as a Labourer for 4 months since June 1825 on a temporary basis, and that he was to be discharged at the end of the month. This Return recorded that Bird was a married man, aged 59, who had 6 children, and that his pay was 2/2d per day.Supply 5/226
90JohnBlackbeeList of officers, Foremen, and Artificers, etc. employed.1. John Blackbee was employed as a Millman and paid 2/3d per day (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807). According to an entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, he was still a Millman earning earning the same, but "allowed 6d per night when on duty." 2. On the 6th October 1808, John was spreading a green charge when No. 6 Horse Mill exploded at 11.15 p.m. He received burns to his face, which, although not severe, caused him to be on the sick list from the 6th October to the 24th November that year. There was little damage to the Mill, although one horse had its mane singed. No blame was attached to Blackbee. (Supply 5/227 dated the 7th October 1808). 3. Blackbee was still a Millman in 1810, with a night allowance of 6d. 4. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Blackbee was still a Millman, but that he then earned 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d per night when on duty. He was still a Millman on the 13th February 1814, with the same rate of pay and additional 6d per night when on duty (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/226
91GeorgeBlackfordList of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc.1. According to Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, George Blackford was a Millman earning 2/3d per day, and allowed 6d per night when on duty. 2. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Blackford was still a Millman, but that he then earned 3/-d per day, with 6d per night when on duty. 3. Still a Millman on the 13th February 1814 Mr. Blackford had the same rate of pay and night allowance (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/228
92DonaldBlackmore00/00/1827Letter Book1. Donald Blackmore signed his Indentures as an Apprentice on the 4th July 1840 (Supply 5/238). 2. According to the 1841 Census, he was a 13-year-old Apprentice Saltpetre Refiner, lodging with Samuel Knowler, Jnr. in High Bridge Street North.Supply 5/238
93WilliamBlenkings00/00/1785Return of Employees1. William Blenkings started work as a Labourer in the Engineers' Department "occasionally as the Service requires" on the 5th October 1809. He was not brought up to any trade (WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816) 2. In 1812, Mr. Blenkings was employed as a casual Bricklayer earning 2/8d per day for a six-day-week (WO54/512 dated September, 1812). 2. WO54/516 dated February 1816, recorded that he was employed as a casual Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department. At that date he was a 31-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey.WO54/516
94GeorgeBloomfield00/00/1781List of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers Employed1. George Bloomfield started work at the Royal Powder Mills at Waltham Abbey on the 29th November 1804 (Supply 5/232) and on the 30th January 1806, he was working in the Corning House at 2/2d per day. According to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, Bloomfield had then been with the Ordnance for 1 year. 2. Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807, confirmed Mr. Bloomfield was still working in the Corning House earning the same. In addition, Corning House men were allowed to "watch in turn for which they received 1/-d." 2. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Bloomfield was a Corning House Man then earning 2/6d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 3. Pay List (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September) 1810 stated that Corning House Men were paid 2/6d day, and then allowed to watch for 1/6 per night when on duty. 4. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Mr. Bloomfield's pay as a Corning House man was then 3/3d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d per night. This was also the case on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230). 5. Lists of Officers & Others Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/ 231 and WO.54/524) confirmed that Mr. Bloomfield was still working in the Corning House; he was 35, resided in Waltham Abbey, and was married with 7 children. He then only earned 2/11d per day and was allowed to watch in turn, for which, at that date, he was only paid 1/-d per night. 6. A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded that Bloomfield was one of the men to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. He was given the same pay, but his watch money was then reduced to 6d per night. 7. List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Bloomfield was still in the Corning House, that he was a married man aged 36 with 7 children, lived in Waltham Abbey, was paid 2/11d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he then received 1/-d per night. 8. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) updated the previous entry, with basic pay and other details remaining unchanged. However, he then had 8 children, and was allowed 1/6d per night to watch. 9. List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Mr. Bloomfield was now 45; all other details remained the same as in the previous note. 10 List of Employees at the R.G.M. (Supply 5/232 dated 23rd January 1822) gives the age of Mr. Bloomfield, a Corning House Man, as only 40, with just over 17 years' service, and his pay remaining the same as before. 11 Return showing the pay, allowances and length of service and every description of the persons working for the Ordnance at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822) appeared to be a more detailed, and probably more accurate, Return than that dated the 23rd January 1822. It recorded that George Bloomfield, Corning House Man, was appointed on the 29th November 1804 as a Labourer. His position on the Establishment as a Corning House Man was confirmed by an order of the Board dated the 4th September 1818. He was allowed to watch in turn to guard the works, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night, which gave him a total for the year of £50.16.11d; he had just over 17 years' service, was aged 40, and was a married man with 7 children who lived in Waltham Abbey. 12 In the spring of 1822, the Ordnance Board decided to reduce the production and regeneration of gunpowder, and, therefore, the Establishment at Waltham was to be reduced. Accordingly, Empson Middleton and James Wright drew up a list of people to be dismissed (Supply 5/232 dated the 21st March, 1822) and George was one of the men who were to go on the 1st June, 1822. However, a List of People Employed at the Mills on the 1st October 1822 (Supply 5/233) indicated that George was still employed as a Corning House Man. 13 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823, confirmed that Bloomfield was still a Corning House Man, that his wages for the year were £48.2.0d and that this figure included an allowance for watching in turn, for which he received 2/-d. His family and service details were confirmed. 14 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B), George had his wages reduced by £2.12.0d per annum in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the 27th December 1822 and the 15th January 1823. 15 According to the Return dated the 1st October 1824 (WO54/546) George earned £39.0.0d per annum, which included an allowance of 2/-d for watching in turn. His period of service was given as nearly 20 years, he was then aged 44, was married and had 7 children. 16 Return showing pay and allowances, etc., dated the 1st October 1825 (Winters, pp 93-95) confirmed the previous information given, except that Bloomfield then worked as a Labourer drawing stoves. It also recorded that he had been in continuous service with the Board since the 29th November 1804, and that his pay was £33.16.0d per annum. 17 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825, confirmed that he was a general purpose Labourer, that his basic pay was the same as in the previous Return, that he was allowed to watch in turn which gave him, on average, 2/-d per week, and confirmed his previous family and service details. WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825 also confirmed the previous details. 18 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 recorded the same information given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826, but by then he had nearly 22 years' service. The information given showed that whilst he was not dismissed, he was generally demoted. 19 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded "no alteration since the last Report dated the 1st October 1826." 20 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 gave the same information as recorded in the notes above, but that at that date George had nearly 23 years' service and he was then 46 years of age. 21 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) gave the same information as in previous notes. At that date he had served over 23 years. 22 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with his family details and pay remaining unchanged. 23 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) also updated his age and length of service, and again, family details and pay remained unchanged. 24 Return showing employees at the 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) confirmed that George still earned in total £39.0.0d per annum, that his service was just over 24 years, that at that date he was 47 years of age, and that he was married with 7 children. 25 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for George as in the previous note, except that his service was given as just over 25 years and he was now aged 48. 26 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 confirmed the information given previously, except that his service was now nearly 26 years. WO54/575 dated April 1831, updated the October Return and recorded that Bloomfield he was still employed as a General Labourer within the Manufactory. 27 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831, updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return. However, at that time, he was employed as a Millman at the same rate of £39 per annum, but allowed to watch in turn, which gave him, on average, an extra 2/-d per week, making his total annual pay £44.4.0d. He was aged 50 with 27 years' service, married, and had 7 children. 28 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return. He was then employed as a Millman in place of John Simpson, and paid a basic rate of £39 per annum, by an order dated the 31st May 1831. In addition, he was allowed night duties at 6d per night, which at that date gave him an annual wage of £46.16.0d. His family details remained unchanged. 29 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unaltered. 30 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 confirmed that George still earned a total of £46.16.0d per annum as a Millman. His service was given as nearly 29 years, and his age as 51. This Return, however, stated that he only had 6 children. 31 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, recorded that George was now 52 years of age and that he had served 29 years. He was still in receipt of an annual wage of £46.16.0d, and all other details remained the same. 32 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834, recorded that although George was still employed as a Millman, his basic pay had been cut to £32.12.6d per annum; he was still allowed to watch in turn and also received an extra 6d when working at night, which increased his annual wage to £39.3.0d. 33 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834 updated the previous Return for service and age, with conditions and pay remaining unchanged. 34 Return of Employees dated the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623) confirmed he was still employed as a Millman with total pay of £46.16s 0d, which included an allowance to watch in turn. His other details remained unchanged. 35 Sometime between 1835 and 1840, George moved into a cottage in Powder Mill Lane, which was previously occupied by John Lockyer (WO44/133). The cottage was on Plot No. 63 on the Waltham Abbey Town Map, and the 1841 Census confirmed the location, listing George, together with his wife, Mary, and daughter, Eliza, aged 25, as the occupants, all of whom were born in Essex.Supply 5/224
95WilliamBondRecord of Personnel in Storekeeper's Department1. In July to September 1792, William Bond was working as a Labourer earning 1/6d per day "in the punts, setting & drawing stoves." In September 1792, he then replaced Edward Reyley "mixing composition", and was still mixing composition between February and March 1793, as well as August to September, 1793. 2. Robert Coleman, Clerk of the Cheque, reported that on the night of Sunday, the 17th February 1793, William was not on his watch and finally arrived at 10.00 p.m. - drunk. He was chequered (fined) one day's pay and "ordered off watch for the present" (Winters, p.37) 3. In January to August of 1794 he was "drawing & setting stoves & in the punts.", and had enlisted as a Private in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794 (Supply 5/219). 4. From December 1794 to July 1795, he was working in the Corning House (Supply 5/219).Supply 5/216
96JohnBond00/00/1785Return of Employees1. WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816, stated that John Bond was employed as a Casual Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department, having first been employed by the Board on the 2nd September 1815. He was a 20-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey.WO54/516
97DavidBonnerRecord of Pay1. David Bonner started as a Labourer grinding Saltpetre and Charcoal, etc., for which he was paid 1/6d per day (Supply 5/212 dated the 21st March 1789)..Supply 5/212
98J. W.BordwinWintersJ. W. Bordwin was appointed Clerk of Works in place of Mr. Wilks on the 25 May 1805. He was paid 10/-d per day, with £20.0.0d per annum for rent, coal and candles (Winters, op.cit. p.63)Winters, p.63
99WilliamBoreham00/00/1784List of Foremen and Artificers etc, their Rates of Pay & Service.1. William Boreham was employed as a Millman in 1805 and paid 2/3d per day (Supply 5/ 224 dated the 30th January 1806). At that date he had been employed with the Ordnance for 6 months. This was also the case in June 1807, and he was then allowed 3d per night when on duty. 2. According to Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Boreham was still a Millman earning 2/3d per day, but he was then "allowed 6d per night when on duty." 3. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. William Boreham was still a Millman who then earned 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d per night when on duty. This was also the case on the 13th February, 1814 (Supply 5/230) which confirmed he earned the same rate of pay and additional 6d per night when on duty. 4. In a letter from the Office of Ordnance dated the 10th December, 1817 (Supply 5/201) it is stated that a small tenement which was to be vacated by John Braddock, should continue to be let at the same rent of 2/-d per week to Mr. Boreham, who, it was stated, was a Warder at the Magazine Watch House. 5. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that William was a Warder; he was a married man aged 33 with 4 children, who lived in Waltham Abbey and earned 2/4d per day. He was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. 6. A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/ 231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. William Boreham's name was on the list, but he was then working as a Saltpetre Refiner, with his pay given as 2/4d per day.Supply 5/224
100ThomasBorehamList of People Employed and their Pay1. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Mr. Thomas Boreham was employed as a Millman, earning 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d per night when on duty. 2. He was still a Millman on the 13th February, 1814 (Supply 5/230) with the same rate of pay as previously, and the same 6d per night when on duty.Supply 5/229
101William (1)BoswellList of Artificers, etc. & Members of the Volunteer Corps1. William Boswell (1) was working in the Mixing House as a Labourer and paid 1/6d per day. He was also a Private in the Volunteer Company (Supply 5/219 dated September, 1798). 2. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was working as a Labourer, was a married man and had 3 children. In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 3. Robert Coleman recorded in his Minute Book on the 23rd October 1801 that 24 men were required to work at Faversham or be discharged. Boswell (1) agreed to go, according to Winters p.60). However,the Faversham Gunpowder Personnel Register 1573 - 1840 does not record his name, so it can only be assumed that his services were terminated and that he was subsequently re-engaged. 4. At the 8th May 1804 he was still working as a Labourer within the Mills, with pay of 2/1d per day. All Labourers received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every fifth night. (Supply 5/222). 5. William (1) was promoted to a Millman by January 1806, on a rate of pay of 2/3d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806) and at that date, had been employed with the Ordnance for 9 years. 6. According to an entry in Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Boswell was still employed as a Mixing House Man earning 2/3d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 7. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Boswell was then a Saltpetre Refiner who earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, was allowed to watch in turn. 8. According to the List of Employees dated the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) Mr. William Boswell (1) was still a Saltpetre Refiner earning the same as in note 6 above, and was still allowed to watch in turn. 9. The List of Empoyees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people proposed to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December, 1818. Boswell's name is not on the list and no further reference is made of him.Supply 5/219
102RichardBoswellList of artificers etc., marital status & no. of children.1. Richard Boswell was working as a Millwright in the Engineers' Department and paid 3/-d per day, according to a Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221). This record also stated that he was unmarried.Supply 5/221
103JamesBoswell00/00/1787List of Artificers, etc. and their Rates of Pay1. James Boswell was a Labourer in the Corning House in May 1804, and paid 2/-d per day (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804). 2. According to the List of Foreman Artificers and Labourers Employed dated the 30th January 1806, Mr. Boswell was employed in the Mixing House earning 2/-d per day, and by that date had 2 years' service (Supply 5/224). 3. He was still in the Mixing House in June 1807, when a note says that " in addition to his pay he is allowed to Watch in Turn for which he receives 1/-d." 4. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Mr. James Boswell was a Corning House Man who earned 3/3d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d per night. 5. Boswell was still a Corning House Man on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) with the same rate of pay, and allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night. 6. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) stated that James Boswell was then a Bargeman. He was a married man, aged 30, with 3 children who lived in Waltham Abbey and then earned 3/-d per day. 7. List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Boswell was still employed as a Bargeman, but was now a widower, aged 31, with 3 children. He still lived in Waltham Abbey, and was paid 3/-d per day. 8. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) confirmed that Boswell was still employed as a Bargeman, with his conditions, etc. remaining unchanged, except that one of his children had died. 9. A statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December 1821 shewing the amounts received by the storekeeper" dated the 4th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that James Boswell had been living in a house purchased by the Board of Ordnance on the 4th May 1821, and paid rent of £8.9.0d per annum. This house, Tenement No. 29, has been identified as being on the north side of High Bridge Street to the west of Powder Mill Lane at the western end of a group of tenements known as the 'Bank Cottages'. It was part of Plot No. 1432 on the 1842 Waltham Abbey Tithe Map, or Plot 709 on the 1825 Waltham Abbey Town Map. The same information is repeated in Supply 5/232 dated the 16th February 1822 for the year 1821. His rent was reduced to £5.4.0d annually with effect from the 6th April 1829 (Supply 5/237). 10 List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that James was now 33, with all other details remaining the same as in Notes 7 and 8 and is confirmed in WO54/536 of the same date. 11 List of Employees (Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822) gave the age of James Boswell, Bargeman, as 36, with nearly 19 years' service and pay per day of 3/-d. 12 Return showing the pay, allowances and length of service and every description of the persons in the pay and employ of the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that James Boswell, Bargeman, was appointed on the 1st January 1804, as a Labourer. His total wage for the year amounted to £46.19.0d, he had nearly 19 years' service, was aged 36 years, lived in Waltham Abbey and had 3 children. 13 List dated the 21st March 1822 (Supply 5/232) of persons to form an Establishment at Waltham Abbey to regenerate 2000 barrels of gunpowder as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually, recorded that James Boswell, Bargeman, was to be retained. 14. WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 showed that Boswell was still listed as a Bargeman, and that his pay for the year was still £46.19.0d, which included an allowance for watching in turn. His family and service details were confirmed. 15 According to the Return dated the 1st October 1824 (WO54/546) James still earned £46.19.0d per annum as a Bargeman. His period of service was given as nearly 22 years, he was then aged 38, was a widower and had 3 children. 16. Return showing pay and allowances, etc. dated the 1st October 1825 (Winters, pp. 93-95) confirmed previous information given and recorded that James had been in continuous service with the Board since the 1st January 1804. His pay was confirmed at £46.19.0d. per annum. 17 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 confirmed that he was still a Bargeman, gave his basic wage as £46.19.0d per annum, and also confirmed his previous family and service details, as did WO54/550 of the 1st October 1825. 18 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 confirmed the information given in WO54/554 dated the the 1st April 1826, and stated he was "employed with the barges transporting gunpowder and stores". 19 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded "no alteration since the last report dated the 1st October 1826" 20 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 gave the same information as in the notes above. At that date James had 24 years' service and was 40 years of age. 21 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) recorded the same information as given previously, with the exception that he had now served over 24 years. 22 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 23 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service. 24 Return showing Employees at the 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) confirmed that James Boswell still earned in total £46.19.0d per annum, that his service was 26 years, that he was 41, and that he was a widower with three children. 25 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830 all details remained the same for James as in Note 24, except that his service was given as nearly 27 years and he was then aged 42. 26 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 confirmed the information given in Note 24, and WO54/570 dated April 1831 updateed the October 1830 Return. 27 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 28 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining the same. 29 James was away from work through sickness between the 7th to 30th September 1832, and the Board agreed to pay him 30 days' sick pay at 3/-d per day (Supply 5/207 dated the 26th October, 1832). 30 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 updated his age and period of service in the April 1832 Return, with all other details remaining the same. 31 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, confirmed that James still earned £46.19.0d in his capacity as a Bargeman. His period of service was given as nearly 29 years, and he was aged 45. 32 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 updated the previous entry; he was still shown as a widower with 3 children. 33 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 recorded that James was still employed as a Bargeman. However, his basic annual wage by then had been reduced to £39.3.0d, His period of service was given as just over 30 years and his age, 46. In this Return, however, he was shown as being married and having only 2 children, so it must be assumed that one had died. 34 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834 confirmed the information given in the note above; he was 47, and had served nearly 31 years. 35 Following the death of John Nigh, Master Bargeman, on the 20th August 1837, the Ordnance Office at Waltham Abbey recommended that James Bosewell should be appointed in Nigh's place (Supply 5/237). 36 Return of Employees dated the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623) confirmed that he was employed as a Master Bargeman with pay of £65.4.2d per annum. His other details were unchanged. 37 In a letter from the Deputy Storekeeper to the Board dated the 12th March 1841, it was stated that Master Bargeman, James Boswell, was to be at the West India Docks in four days. 38. A transcript of the 1841 Census showed that James, a Bargeman, was living in Silver Street with a Mary Saunders, aged 25, and that both were born in the County. Their house was on the north side of High Bridge Street at the western end of a row of tenements known as Bank Cottage, being part of Plot No. 48 on the Waltham Abbey Town Map.Supply 5/222
104George (1)BoswellList of Officers and Other Employees1. George Boswell (1) was working as a Refiner with pay of 2/-d per day. All Refiners received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every 5th night (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804).Supply 5/222
105George (2)Boswell00/00/1755Return of Employees1. George Boswell (2) was a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week (WO54/512 dated September 1812). 2. WO54/516 datedthe 19th February 1816, recorded that he was first employed by the Board on the 29th March 1806 as a Labourer. He was a 60-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey, with 2 married and 1ummarried child. 3. WO54/520 dated the 28th February 1817 stated his pay was then only 2/4d per day, with all other details remaining unchanged. 4. WO54/524 dated the 11th April 1818 recorded that he was employed "Occasionally as required" and was still paid 2/4d per day. 5. WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819, recorded that George Boswell, aged 63, was working as a Labourer in the Engineers' Department "occasionally as the service requires". He was paid 2/4d per day and was then a widower living in Waltham Abbey with 2 children. This Return confirmed he was first employed by the Board on the 29th March 1806. 6. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (WO54/532) confirmed that George was still employed as a Labourer. He was then aged 64, lived in Waltham Abbey and was a widower with 2 children. At this date he still earned 2/4d per day, and worked "Occasionally as the Service required." 7. WO54/536 dated the 2nd April 1821 recorded that he was now aged 65 years, with his family details and terms of employment, etc. remaining unchanged. 8. WO54/536 dated the 31st December 1821 was a repeat of the Return dated the 2nd April 1821. 9. A Return listing Personnel Employed in the Engineers' Department, recorded that George (2) was paid 2/2d per day as a Labourer for 313 days, giving him an income of £33.18.2d for the year. He had 17 years' service starting on the 29th March 1804, and was aged 66, a widower with 2 children, living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823).WO54/512
106William (2)Boswell00/00/1765Return of Employees in the Engineers' Department1. William Boswell (2) was possibly the same person as William Boswell (1). List of Persons Employed by the Engineers' Department (WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825) recorded that William Boswell, a married man of 60 with 6 children, had been employed as a Labourer for 4 months since June 1825 on a temporary basis, and was to be discharged at the end of the month. He was paid 2/2d per day.WO54/550)
107George (3)BoswellLetter1.. In a letter dated September 1818 (Supply 5/231), it is stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement.", and included Mr. George Boswell, Bargeman.Supply 5/231
108PeterBowie00/00/1801List of Employees1. Peter Bowie was a 15-year-old Waltham Abbey lad, who started as an Apprentice to the Master Carpenter on the 5th January, 1814. He was paid 6/-d per week, as he was during 1817, but in 1818, his pay had increased to 6/4d per week. 2. According to WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819, at that date his pay had been increased to 6/8d per week. 3. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 ( WO54/532) confirmed that Bowie was still an Apprentice to the Master Carpenter. He was now aged 19, lived in Waltham Abbey, and single man; his pay at that date had been increased to 7/-d per week.WO54/516
109WilliamBowles00/00/1762Report on Personnel Working for the Storekeeper's Department1. William Bowles started at the Mills on the 7th April 1789 as a Labourer in the Saltpetre Refinery, earning 1/6d per day (Winters, p.33, and Supply5/213 of the 18th April 1789). 2. Supply 5/214 dated September 1789 records that he was 27 years of age, and employed as a Labourer refining Saltpetre. 3. By March 1790,Bowles had become a Millman earning 2/-d per day (Supply 5/214 dated the 27th June 1791).Supply 5/213
110WilliamBoxallList of Artificers, etc., their Marital Status and No. of Children.1. William Boxall was working as a Labourer earning 1/6d per day, and was a single man (Supply 5/221 dated the 8th May 1801). Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer, was described as a Labourer. 2. A Return of Artificers & Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (reference also Supply 5/221) recorded that he was still employed as a Labourer at the Cylinder Houses in Sussex. The same document said that since the cylinders had been out of repair, Boxall had been employed in stacking timber in the yards and levelling and preparing the ground where the cylinders were to be re-sited. He was given notice to leave, but returned to the Mills sometime in 1804. 3. According to the List of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806) Mr. Boxall was employed as a Cylinder Man, earning 2/-d. per day, and at that date he had 2 years' service. 4. According to a further List (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807) Mr. Boxall was still employed as a Cylinder Man earning 2/-d per day, as he was in August 1808 (Supply 5/ 227 dated the 23rd August 1808). 5. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810 confirmed the information given in Note 4. 6. List of Employees (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812) recorded he was still a Cylinder Man, but was now paid 2/8d per day, and this is information is confirmed by a further List of Employees and their Pay dated the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/221
111RichardBoxallList of Artificers, etc., their Marital Status and No. of children.1. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply5/221) recorded that Richard Boxall was working as a Labourer in Sussex earning 1/6d per day, and that he was married with 4 children. Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 2. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still employed as a Labourer at the Cylinder Houses in Sussex. The same document said that since the cylinders had been out of repair, Boxall had been employed in stacking timber in the yards and levelling and preparing the ground where the cylinders were to be re-sited. He was given notice to leave in 1802 but returned to the Mills sometime in 1804. 3. According to the List of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers (Supply5/224 dated the 30th January 1806) Mr. Boxall was employed as a Cylinder Man earning 2/-d. per day, and that at that date he had 2 years' service. 4. According to a further List (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807) Mr. Boxall was still employed as a Cylinder Man earning 2/-d per day, as was the case in August 1808 (Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808), and this information is confirmed in a further Employment List (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810). 5. Richard was still a Cylinder Man according to a List of Employees (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812), but he was then earning 2/8d per day, and this information was confirmed in Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814).Supply 5/221
112WilliamBoydWinters' Centennial Book, p.551. William Boyd was a Bargemaster in 1796, according to Winters' Centennial Book (p.55).
113SamuelBrace00/00/1766Return of Employees1. Samuel Brace was first employed by the Board on the 2nd December 1815 as a casual Labourer. He earned 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department, and was a 49-year-old married man with no children, living in Enfield (WI54/516 dated the 19th February 1816).WO54/516
114John, Snr.Braddock00/00/1762List of Foreman Artificers & Labourers Employed1. John Bradock (1) was born c.1762, and married his wife, Sarah, in 1793. They had two children, John, jnr., born in 1794 who was baptised at St. Martin in the Fields, and Sarah, born in 1803. John started work as a Barrel Marker on the 20th December 1804, earning 2/-d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). 2. His pay was increased to 2/6d per day according to Supply 5/199 dated the 15th January 1810, and WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 gave his appointment date as a Barrel Marker as the 30th December 1804. 3. Employee List (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810) confirmed he was still a Marker of Barrels, but was then only paid 2/3d day. He was also allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night. 4. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Braddock was still a Marker of Barrels who earned 3/3d per day, in addition to which, he was a Rounder at 2/-d every third night. 5. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814 recorded that Mr. John Braddock was a Foreman of Magazines earning 5/2d per day, as well as being a Rounder at 2/-d every 3rd night. This appointment dated from the 11th January 1813 (WO54/536 dated the 6th February 1822). 6. In a letter dated the 10th December 1817 (Supply 5/201), it wa stated that the dwelling house formerly occupied by James Alsup, "will be ready to let in two distinct tenements on the 31st instant" and that, "those tenements should be let at 3/-d per week each to John Braddock, Foreman of Magazines and Michael Summers, Millman." In addition, a small tenement which would be vacated by Mr. Braddock, would continue to be let at the same rent of 2/-d per week to William Boreham, Warder at the Magazine Watch House. 7. Supply 5/231 and WO54/524 dated the 25th June 1818 confirmed that Mr. John Braddock was still a Foreman of Magazines. He was brought up in the trade of Silk Throwster, was aged 56, resided in Waltham Abbey and was married with 2 children. At that date he earned 4/2d per day, and was a Rounder at 1/6d every fifth night. 8. Supply 5/231A dated the 28th August 1818, showed the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818; Mr. Braddock's name was included, with his pay reduced to 3/8d per day. 9. List of Employees dated the 19 May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that John was still employed as the Foreman of Magazines. He was a married man, aged 57, with 2 children; he lived in Waltham Abbey, trained as a Silk Throwster and was again paid 4/2d per day. He was also a Rounder at 1/6d every third night. 10 List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) updated the above entry, with basic details on pay, etc., remaining unchanged. His pay as a Rounder, however, had increased to 2/-d per night. 11 A statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December 1821 showing the amounts received by the storekeeper" dated 4th April,1821 (Supply5/232) recorded that John Braddock had been living in a Board of Ordnance house, Tenement No. 24, from the 10th December 1817 with a rent of £7.16.0d per annum. This property was identified as one of five cottages on the south side of High Bridge Street almost opposite Powder Mill Lane, and shown as Property No. 1972 on the 1825 Waltham Abbey Town Map. 12 List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) indicated that Mr. Braddock was 58, confirmed he was married and that he had 2 children, one of whom, John, Jnr., wrote the influential treatise, "A Memoir on Gunpowder" (WASC.0677). He still lived in Waltham Abbey and was still a Magazine Foreman earning the same amount as in (9) above. In addition, he was still a Rounder, earning 2/-d every third night. 13 List of Employees at the Powder Mills in January 1822 (Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822) confirmed that John Braddock was still Foreman of Stoves and Magazines, was aged 59, had 17 years' service and was paid 4/2d per day. The same information is repeated in Supply 5/232 dated the 16th February 1822 for the year 1821. 14 Return showing the pay, allowances and length of service and every description of the persons in the employment of the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822) appeared to be a more detailed, and probably more accurate, Return than that of the 23rd January,1822. It confirmed that John Braddock, Foreman of Magazines and Stores, was appointed on the 20th December 1804 as a Barrel Marker at Waltham Abbey, and as Foreman of the Magazines on the 11th January 1813. He became Foreman of Magazines and Stoves on the 7th September 1821, with total earnings for the year amounting to £65.4.2d, and was allowed to act as a Rounder, for which he received an additional £12.3.4d annually. He had 17 years' service, was aged 59, was a married man with 2 children and lived in Waltham Abbey. It confirmed he had trained as a Silk Throwster (one who twists and winds silk). 15 List dated the 21st March 1822 of persons to form an Establishment at Waltham Abbey to regenerate 2,000 barrels of gunpowder, as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually, recorded that John Braddock, Foreman of Stoves and Magazines, was to be retained and continued in that position, receiving the same pay and allowances (Supply 5/232 and WO54/542). 16 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 gave Braddock's pay for the year as £77.7.6d, which included an allowance for being a Rounder every third night to superintend the watchmen, for which he received 2/0d. His family and service details were confirmed. 17 Return showing the Pay, Allowances and Length of Service of all Employees (WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1824) included John Braddock, who was appointed Foreman of Stoves and Magazines on the 11th January 1813. His pay was given as £65.4.2 per annum with allowances of 2/-d for Rounding every 3rd night, making a total of £77.7.6d per annum. At that date he had nearly 20 years' service, was aged 62, and was married with 2 children. According to Winters (p.92) a letter dated the 25th February 1825 from John Braddock, Foreman of Stoves and Magazines, solicited the appointment of Master Saltpetre Refiner, and he was appointed to the position on the 11th March 1825 (Winters, p.93). At the same time, Hugh Jones, the Master Mixer, who was living in a house associated with the Saltpetre Refinery in High Bridge Street, was promoted to Master Worker, following the death of William Newton. Braddock correctly assumed that Jones would move to the Master Worker's appointed house on Horse Mill Island, so applied to be granted Jones' house in High Bridge Street. However, Jones did not move immediately, since Newton's house was divided into two and was lived in by others, namely, Betts and Simpson. Another version of the reference book relating to the map held at the Northamptonshire Records Office and labelled "in the year of 1826", showed that the name Braddock applied to Plot No.710 - a property owned by the Board (WAGP, p.44). At some time during 1825, Hugh Jones moved to Powder Mill Lane, which enabled Braddock to move into the house adjacent to the Saltpetre Refinery, shown as Plot No. 39 on the Waltham Abbey Town Map. A Return of Property owned by the Board dated the 20th December 1834, (Supply 5/237) showed that Braddock was granted the lease of Tenement No.39 in West Street (High Bridge Street, adjacent to the Refinery) on the 25th May 1825, with an annual rent of £5.4.0d. 18 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 confirmed that Braddock was appointed as the Master Refiner of Saltpetre on the 11th March 1825; it also confirmed his appointment as the Foreman of the Stoves and Magazines as of the 11th January, 1813. His pay was given as £118.3.7d per annum, he was entitled to a house, and was given an allowance for teaching an Apprentice. His service and family details were confirmed.. 19 WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825 confirmed the above entry in all details. Braddock had just over 21 years' service and was aged 62. 20 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. 21 WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 confirmed the information given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826. 22 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded, "no alteration since the last report dated the 1st October, 1828" 23 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827, gave the same information as in the notes above. However, at that date, John Braddock had just over 23 years' service and he was then 64 years of age. 24 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) gave the same information as in the notes above, with the exception that he had now served nearly 24 years, and was aged 64. 25 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay unchanged. 26 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, family details and pay remaining unchanged. 27 WO54/566 dated the 1st October 1829 stated that at that date John Braddock still earned the same as in Note 18 as the Master Refiner of Saltpetre. His length of service was given as just over 25 years and he was now aged 65. 28 Return WO54/ 570 dated the 1st April 1830 updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details remaining unchanged. 29 WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, recorded that John was then 66 years of age and that he had served just over 26 years. His pay was still the same as in Note 18, and all other information remained the same, with the exception that no mention is made in this Return of any other allowances. 30 According to Return WO54/ 575 dated the 1st April 1831, John Braddock, Master Refiner of Saltpetre, still earned a total of £118.3.7d annually; he had served nearly 27 years and was then aged 67. 31 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged, and confirmed he was still entitled to a house. 32 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 33 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 confirmed that Mr. Braddock still earned the same as indicated in Note 30. All other details remained the same, except that at that date, he was 69 years of age and had served just over 28 years. 34 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 recorded that Mr. Braddock, as a Master Refiner of Saltpetre, still earned £118.3.7d per annum. His service was given as 28 years, and his age as 69. 35 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 recorded that John Braddock was now 70 years of age and had served 29 years. He was still in receipt of an annual wage of £118.3.7d. His family details remained the same and he was still entitled to the use of a house. 36 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 updated the October Return for service and age, with conditions and pay unchanged. 37 WO54/… dated the 1st October 1834 (no reference given on photocopy) updated the previous Return for service and age, conditions and pay remaining unchanged, but his wife, Sarah, died that year at the age of 70. 38 According to Winters (p.104), on the 27th June 1836, John Braddock, then aged 74, was desirous of his pension in order to proceed to Graham's Town, Cape of Good Hope. 39 List of Pensioners dated 1838 (Supply 5/237) indicated that John Braddock, Master Refiner of Saltpetre, was granted a pension from the 30th December 1836; this pension was valued at £35.12.0d annually (Supply 5/237) 40 A letter dated the 28th March 1840 (Supply 5/237) recorded that John Braddock, Pensioner, died on the 26th March, 1840, and was buried close to the south wall of Waltham Abbey Church.Supply 5/224
115John (Jnr.)Braddock00/04/1794List of Employees1. John Braddock, Jnr. was the son of John Braddock, the Master Refiner of Salpetre (1762-1840) and was baptised at St. Martin in the Fields on the 30th April 1794 (WASC2229). He was trained as a powder maker, and by August 1812 he was employed at Waltham Abbey as a Labourer, "drawing and setting stoves, and in the willow plantation" He was paid 2/8d per day, and allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night (List of Employees - Supply 5/229 - dated the 29th August 1812). He was then engaged on a five-year contract by the East India Company in Madras as an "expert in making gundpowder" at 10/d per day. He sailed for India on the ship 'Hugh Inglis', arriving at Madras on the 9th August 1813, marrying Elizabeth Stephenson at St. Mary's church, Madras, in January 1819. 2. According to D. F. Harding, author of "Small Arms of the East India Company: 1600-1856", Vol.III Ammunition and Performance,1999 (p.38), John, jnr. wrote "A Memoir on Gunpowder" (WASC 0677) on the theory and practice of the manufacture and proof of gunpowder, originally published in Madras for the East India Company and reprinted in London in 1832 by Braddock's father. He apparently spent extra time among the workmen to master every part of the process and to pick up opinions, after which he was recruited by the East India Company and sent out to India as one of "Captain Thomas Fraser's team of specialists in the various branches of powder making." (WASC 2229) 3. On page 80, Harding says that "A Memoir on Gunpowder" filled a gap on "the subject of gunpowder in English Scholarship, and in the 1840's it is often quoted in the Company's records as the best authority on the subject of gunpowder." It also "received high praise from the gunmaker and author, Henry Wilkinson, and was even summarised in French." (WASC 2229). 4. John died in Madras on the 9th September 1840, and more information on his life in India can be found in an article on 'John Braddock - Powder Master' written by one of his descendants, Sylvia Murphy (WASC 2229).Supply 5/229
116StevenBrandWinters' Centenary Memorial (p.29)1. Steven Brand was a Labourer by trade set to work by Daniel Cornish in October 1787 at 9/-d per day, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase by the Government from Mr Walton. However, he does not appear to have been retained (Winters, p.29).
117GeorgeBrandReturn of Employees1. George Brand was a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week (WO54/512 dated the 1st September, 1812)WO54/512
118JamesBrassReturn of Employees1. James Brass was a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week (WO54/512 dated September 1812).WO54/512
119JosephBray00/00/1778List of Employees1. WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816 recorded that Joseph Bray was employed on the 2nd May 1815 as a Casual Labourer, earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department. He was a 36-year-old married man living in Cheshunt with 7 children, and had previously been trained as a Baker. 2. WO54/520 dated the 20th February 1817, recorded that he then only earned 2/4d per day. It also indicated that he had moved to Waltham Abbey. 3. WO54/524 dated the 11th April 1818, recorded that Bray was still employed "Occasionally as required" at 2/4d per day, and that these details remained the same in 1819, according to WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819. 4. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 ( WO54/532) confirmed that Joseph was still employed as a Labourer. His age was given as 42 and the document recorded that he lived in Cheshunt. He was married with 7 children, and still earned 2/4d per day working "Occasionally as the Service required." 5. WO54/536 dated the 2nd April 1821 recorded that Bray was 43 years of age with 7 children, and that his terms of employment, etc., remained unchanged.WO54/516
120WilliamBreeze00/00/1768List of Staff on the Establishment.1. William Breeze was appointed as a Junior Clerk at Sheerness on the 26th May 1787. He was promoted there to First Clerk, before being transferred to Waltham Abbey on the 6th February 1805 as the Clerk of the Cheque, with a salary of £150 per annum (Supply 5/229 dated the 1st September 1810). In addition to his salary he was allowed £26 per annum lodging allowance, a coal & candle allowance of £12.10.0d per annum and a gratuity of £50. 2. List of Staff dated the 18th June 1807 confirmed that his annual salary was £150 per annum, and that he was provided with a house - although its location is unkown - that he was given an allowance of £12.10.0d for coal and candles, and a gratuity of £65 (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807). 3. Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808 confirmed his salary was £150 per annum, and that he was provided with a house and a coal and candle allowance of £12.10.0d per annum; his grauity, however, was noted as £63. 4. On the 1st September 1810 (Supply 5/228) all of Mr. Breeze's details remained the same, except that his gratuity was given as £80. 5. List of Officers and Other Persons in Employment and their Pay dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) stated that Mr. Breeze's date of appointment to the position of Clerk of Survey was the 26th February 1812, and that his salary had increased to £200 per annum. He was still provided with a house, and his allowance of £12.10.0d was the same as previously. Moreover, it was confirmed that the date of his first appointment in the Ordnance was the 26th May 1787. 6. List of Officers and Other Persons Employed dated the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) confirmed his salary at £200 per annum. He then had a £95 gratuity with a house provided, and £12.10.0d per annum coal and candle allowance. A statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December, 1820, showing the amounts received by the storekeeper" dated the 4th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Breeze was living rent-free in a Board of Ordnance house from the 12th September, 1814. He had also been renting some 14 acres of Lammas or half-year land from the Board since the 2nd March 1812at a cost of £1.1.0d per acre. An analysis of a Return of Domestic Properties owned by the Ordnance Board for 1840 (WO44/123) showed that the house was in High Bridge Street, Parcel No. 708, on the 1825 Waltham Abbey Parish Map, while the land was part of Parcel No. 386 in Edmonsea Mead. 7. In a List of Officers and other Persons Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231), Mr. Breeze was listed as the Clerk of Survey, aged 50, living in Waltham Abbey; he was married and had 4 children. On the 26th May 1787, he was entered as Junior Clerk at Sheerness until his appointment at Waltham Abbey on the 26th February 1812. His salary was given as £200 per annum, with a gratuity of £250, £12.10.0d coal and candle allowance, and he was allowed a house upon the Establishment. 8. According to the Return dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) Mr. Breeze was still Clerk of Survey, aged 51, with all the other information given above remaining the same. 9. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) updated the above entry with basic details on pay, etc., remaining unchanged. 10 List of Officers and other Persons Employed dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) confirmed that Mr. Breeze was still Clerk of Survey, that he was then aged 53, was married with 4 children, and lived in Waltham Abbey. All other information, as indicated in Note 7, remained the same. 11 A statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December 1821 showing the amounts received by the storekeeper" dated 16th February 1822 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Breeze was still living in rent-free property and was now renting 14 acres of Lammas land at £14.14.0d per annum. 12 Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822 confirmed his salary at £200 per annum, with a gratuity based on service of £250, candle and coal allowance of £12.10.0d in lieu of coal and candles, and a further £13.16.0d in lieu of a Labourer from the 1st July to the 31st December 1821, giving him a total income of £476.6.0d. He had served with the Ordnance for 34 years, was 54 years of age and was married with 4 children. Additional notes on this document state that the position of Clerk of the Survey was abolished on the 31st December 1821 by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 1st August 1821, and that The Clerk of the Survey had 7 acres of grass amongst the Willow plantation cutting, the same at his expense, the supposed value being £15. 13 WO54/536 dated the 16th February 1822, confirmed that the position of Clerk of the Survey was to be abolished on the 31st December 1821 by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 1st August, 1821, and that Breeze had died shortly after (Supply 5/232). 14 Breeze's rent-free accommodation was then lived in by George Lovell, who worked at the Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield. The house in High Bridge Street was recorded as Plot No. 51 on the Waltham Abbey Town Map. Lovell was also recorded as occupying the same area of Lammas Land, being Parcel No. 386 in Edmonsea Mead; this was Lammas land of the same area that Breeze had rented in 1812 and 1819. In addition, a Return of Domestic Properties dated the 28th May 1840 (WO/133)) confirmed that William Breeze was deceased, and, "the property he had lived in was occupied by G Kivekkm Esq,"Supply 5/223
121JohnBrettList of Artificers, etc., Marital Status and No. of children.1. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that John Brett was working as a Labourer Foreman in the Engineers' Department earning 1/9d per day, and that he was a single man. 2. A list of Officers and Others Employed dated the 8th May 1804 (Supply 5/222) confirmed that he was still working as a Labourer in the "Engineers' Department Established", with his pay reduced to 1/6d per day, and "one day extra allowed per week agreeable to the Board's Order dated the 12th March, 1801." 3. Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806 stated that John had started working in the Corning House two years' previously, earning 2/2d per day 4. List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed - Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807 recorded that Corning House Men were also allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d. 5. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810 (List of Pay) confirmed that John was still a Corning house Man who then earned 2/6d day, and that he was allowed to watch for 1/6d. 6. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) indicated that Mr. Brett, still a Corning House Man, then earned 3/3d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night. 7. Brett was still a Corning House Man on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) with the same rate of pay and allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night.Supply 5/221
122RichardBrett00/00/1797List of Employees1. List of Employees (WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816) recorded that Richard was employed as a casual Labourer earning 2/4d per day in the Engineers' Department, and was first employed by the Board on the 22nd October 1815 as a Labourer. He was an 18-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey.WO54/516
123WilliamBride00/00/1759Record of Personnel in Storekeeper's Department1. William Bride started work in the Corning House as a General Labourer on the 21st April 1794 earning 1/6d per day (Supply 5/216 dated the 31st August 1794), but by December 1794, he had been transferred to the Dusting House. He was still in the Dusting House between in September 1798, and was a Private in the Voluntary Company (Supply 5/219). 2. A signed document (Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800) relating to a Petition on Pay showed that he was illiterate and was still working as a General Labourer. 3. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was working as a Labourer, was a married man, and had 2 children. In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 4. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5221) confirmed that he was still employed as a Labourer, and was cleaning and deepening the river and canals, etc., and performing sundry necessary work. 5. Recorded as working in the Dusting and Corning Houses as a Labourer, his pay was then 2/1d per day; all Labourers received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every 5th night (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804). 6. Bride was still earning 2/1d per day in the Dusting House on the 30th January 1806, and at that date he had served 12 years (Supply 5/224). 7. Still working in the Dusting House and earning 2/1d per day, in addition, Dusting House men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d (List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed - Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807). 8. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Bride was still employed as a Dusting House Man but then earned 2/3d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 9. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810 confirmed that he was still a Dusting House Man who was paid 2/3d day, and allowed to watch for 1/6d per night. 10 List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Bride was still a Dusting House Man whose wage had increased to 3/-d per day, and in addition, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night. 11 Still employed as a Dusting House Man earning 3/-d per day as well as being allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814). 12 List of Persons in Employment dated the 2nd March 1816 (Supply 5/230) recorded that Mr. Thomas (clerical error) Bride was a Dusting House Man with 22 years' service, and that he was aged 56, and daily superannuation of 3/-d was recommended. In the attached notes was the comment that Mr. William Bride and others should be superannuated because "of the hurts they have received in this dangerous Manufactory". It was also stated therein that Mr. Bride, "being very severely ruptured, is quite unfit for any exertion." However, in a letter dated 6th March 1816 (Supply 5/200), Mr. Bride was finally awarded superannuation of only 2/6d per day for six days in the week, commencing on the 1st April 1816. 13 A supplement to a document dated the 8th November 1818 (Supply 5/231) listed persons who had been superannuated on account of their length of service in the departments. Among the recipients was William Bride, Dusting House Man, who received a pension of 15/-d per week which commenced on the 1st April 1816. 14 List of Persons Receiving Superannuation (Supply 5/232 dated the 17th November 1821) confirmed entry No. 13 above in respect of William Bride. 15 A document dated the 6th December 1821 (Supply 5/232) gave the estimated pay of persons between the 1st January and 31st December 1822 along with their superannuated allowance, as well as "the allowance to widows and orphans of those who have lost their lives at this place". It was confirmed that William Bride, lately a Dusting House Man, was in receipt of £39 superannuation per annum. A similar document, (Supply 5/232 dated the 28th December, 1821) recorded that the same pension would be paid in 1822, as well as in 1826 according to Winters (p.96).Supply 5/216
124SamuelBritton00/00/1770Pay List1. Samuel Britton was a Millwright who was paid £1.9.9d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809 (Supply 5/228 dated the 22nd July 1809). 2. In 1812 he was employed as a Carpenter earning 5/2d per day (WO54/512 dated September, 1812). 3. WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816 confirmed that Samuel was employed as a casual Millwright by the Engineers' Department. He had first worked for the Board on the 29th March 1806, and was a 44-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey, with 1 married and 1 unmarried child. He was paid 5/2d per day. 4. According to WO54/520 dated the 28th February 1817, Samuel was aged 45 and still lived in Waltham Abbey, his family details remaining the same. He earned 5/2d per day, and was employed "occasionally as the Service required." This was also the case in 1818 and 1819 (WO54/524 and WO54/528 respectively). 5. List of Employees dated the the 13th September 1820 (WO54/532) confirmed that Samuel was still employed as a Millwright. He was then aged 49, and all other details, including his pay, remained unaltered. 6. WO54/536 dated the 2nd April 1821 recorded that Britton was now aged 50 years, with all other details previously shown remaining unchanged. 7. A statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December 1821 shewing the amounts received by the storekeeper", indicated that Mr. Britton had been living in a house purchased by the Board of Ordnance. (Supply 5/232 dated the the 4th April 1821) and that his rent was £16 per annum. This house, Tenement No. 25, with a large garden, has been identified as being on the north side of High Bridge Street to the west of Powder Mill Lane at the western end of a group of tenements known as the Bank Cottages (part of Plot No. 44 on the 1842 Waltham Abbey Town Map, or Plot 44 on the Waltham Abbey Town Map in Appendix 1. Similar information was repeated in Supply 5/232 dated the 16th February 1822 for the year 1821. 8. Return of Personnel Employed in the Engineers' Department (WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823) recorded that Samuel was still paid 5/2d per day for 313 days as a Millwright, giving him an income of £81.17.2d for the year. At that date he was nearly 53 and had served nearly 17 years. 9. WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 is a repeat of the record dated the 1st April 1823, and confirmed Samuel was paid 5/2d per day; he had served 19 years and was aged nearly 55. 10 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826, recorded identical information as in Notes 8 and 9, with the exception that he was now nearly 56, with service of 20 years. 11 WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 and WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827, gave the same information as before. However, in April 1827, Mr. Britton had 21 years' service and was nearly 57 years of age. 12 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 showed no basic alterations from the previous Return except that he had served nearly 22 years and was aged 57. 13 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) updated the same basic information as in the notes above, showing that Britton was nearly 58 and had served 22 years. 14 Return dated the 1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, family details and pay remaining unchanged. 15 WO54/566 dated the 1st April 1829 recorded that at that date Samuel earned £80.17.2d annually. His length of service was given as 23 years and he was then nearly 59. 16 Return dated 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details remaining unchanged. 17 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for Samuel as previously, except that his service was then 24 years and he was nearly 60. 18 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 confirmed that Samuel was still a Millwright, with all further details and earnings remaining the same, but age and service updated. 19 A Return of Persons belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield, showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January 1831, recorded that Samuel Britton was one of the three Millwrights to be employed at Waltham Abbey. His duties were as a general service Millwright within the Manufactory, requiring great attention, skill and sobriety, etc. 20 WO54/575 dated April 1831 updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 21 WO54/575 dated October 1831 confirmed that Samuel still earned 5/2d per day, giving him a total of £80.17.2d per annum as indicated previously. He had then served for over 25 years and at that date was 61. 22 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return. 23 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 confirmed that he still earned £80.17.2d per annum. He had by then served over 26 years and was aged 62. 24 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 confirmed the information given previously, except that Samuel had now served 27 years. 25 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 again confirmed the information given previously, with his service and age updated appropriately. 26 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 recorded that Samuel still earned a total of £80.17.2d per annum, that he was nearly 64 years of age, and that his service at that date was 28 years.Supply 5/228
125WilliamBrodstock (also Broadstock)00/00/1789List of Foreman Artificers and Labourers Employed1. William Brodstock (also Broadstock) was working in the Corning House as a Labourer earning 2/2d per day, and had started at the Mills in the summer of 1805 (Supply 5/22 dated the 30th January 1806). 2. Still working in the Corning House earning 2/2d per day, but, in addition, Corning House Men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d (List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed - Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807) 3. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Brodstock was still a Corning House Man who then earned 2/6d. per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 4. List of Employees (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810) recorded that Mr. Brodstock was a Saltpetre Refiner who was paid 2/-d per day, and allowed to watch in turn when not working. 5. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Brodstock was still a Saltpetre Refiner but that he then earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn. This was also the case on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230). 6. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded that William Broadstock was then a Bargeman. He was a married man, aged 28, with 3 children, and lived in Enfield. He earned 3/-d per day. 7. In a letter dated September 1818 (Supply 5/231), it was stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement." The Establishment was to be reduced due to a downturn in work, and the list included Mr. William Brodstock.Supply 5/224
126BrooklandWinters' Centenary Memorial Book, pp.39/401. Robert Coleman's Minute Book dated Sunday, the 11th August, 1793, stated "Brookland Mill Stopt" and on the 14th August, "Brookland has set his Mill to work." Winters (pp.39/40). Note: it was common for a Mill to be known after its Millman.
127HoraceBroomList of Foreman Artificers & Labourers Employed1. Horace Broom worked in the Corning House earning 2/2d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). At that date he had been employed with the Ordnance for 9 months.Supply 5/224
128MatthewBroomList of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed1. According to Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807 (List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed), Matthew Broom was working in the Corning House earning 2/2d per day. In addition, Corning House Men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d. 2. Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, confirmed that Mr. Broom was still a Corning House Man, but that he then earned 2/6d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 3. Pay List (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st December, 1810) confirmed that he was still a Corning House Man at 2/6d per day, and allowed to watch at 1/6d. 4. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Broom was still a Corning House Man, but that he then earned 3/3d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night. 5. Still a Corning House Man on the 13th February 1814, Supply 5/230 confirmed Broom had the same rate of pay as in the previous entry, and was still allowed to watch in turn at 1/6d per night.Supply 5/226
129JosephBrown00/00/1771Record of Personnel in the Storekeepers Department1. Joseph Brown was employed as a Millman on the 6th February 1790 earning 2/-d per day, as he was in April to June 1791 (Supply 5/215 dated the 16th April 1791, updated weekly until the 26th June, 1791). 2. Supply 5/216 dated 31st July 1792 recorded that Joseph Brown was working in the Corning House as a Labourer on reduced pay of 1/6d per day. 3. Joseph was "Grinding Salt Petre, Charcoal & Brimstone" (Supply 5/216 dated the 31st January 1794) with pay of 1/6d per day. He continued in this occupation in August (Supply 5/216) and December 1794 (Supply 5/217), and, additionally, enlisted in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794. 4. A Report dated the 24th June 1795 (Supply 5/217) on established Artificers and Labourers employed at the Powder Mills, stated that Brown was a "Charcoal Millman" with pay of 1/6d per day. This was also the case in September 1798 (Supply 5/219) when he was also shown as a Private in the Voluntary Company. 5. A signed document relating to a Petition on Pay, (Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800) indicated that he was illiterate and was working as a Labourer. 6. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was working as a Labourer; it also indicated that he was a married man with no children. In this document, anyone who was not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 7. Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804 showed that Joseph was then working as a Refiner with pay of 2/-d per day. All Refiners received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every 5th night. 8. List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed - Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807 - indicated that Mr. Brown was still working as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/-d per day, and that he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d. 9. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Brown was still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner with his pay and allowance the same as indicated in the previous note. 10 Employee List (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810) recorded that Mr. Brown was then a Bargeman who was paid 3/-d per day. 11 List of Employees (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812) confirmed that Joseph was still employed as a Bargeman, but that his pay had increased to 3/10d per day. 12. List of Employees and their Salaries (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814) recorded that Mr. Joseph Brown was still a Bargeman at that date earning the same 3/10d per day, as does the List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231). He was a married man aged 49, still childless, and lived in Waltham Abbey, but by this date his pay had been reduced to 3/-d per day. 13 A List of Empoyees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Although Joseph's name was on the List, he was then shown as an Office Keeper and paid only 2/-d per day, but still allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night. 14 List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Brown was still employed as an Office Keeper, and that he was a married man aged 50 who had no children; he lived in Waltham Abbey and was then paid 2/11d per day, as well as having a watch allowance of 1/0d per night. 15 List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Brown was still employed as an Office Keeper, with the same pay and conditions as stated in the previous note. 16 A Statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December, 1821, shewing the amounts received by the storekeeper" dated the 4th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Joseph Brown was living in a house purchased by the Board of Ordnance, Tenement No. 40, with a rent of £5.4.0d per annum, but its location is uncertain. 17 List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/ 232) stated that Joseph was 52, and that all other details remained the same as indicated in Note 14. 18 List of Employees at the Royal Powder Mills (Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822) gave the age of Joseph, Office Keeper, as 52, with 33 years' service and pay per day of 2/11d. 19 Return showing the pay, allowances and length of service and every drescription of the persons in the employment of the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822) appears to be a more detailed, and probably more accurate, Return than that dated the 23rd January, 1822). It recorded that Joseph Brown, Office Keeper, was appointed on the 6th February 1790 as a Millman; he was allowed to watch in turn which gave him an annual earnings of £50.16.11d. He had 32 years' service, was aged 52, was a married man with no children, and lived in Waltham Abbey. 20 List dated the 21st March 1822 (Supply 5/232) was of persons to form an Establishment at Waltham Abbey to regenerate 2,000 barrels of gunpowder, as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually, and recorded that Joseph Brown, Office Keeper, was to be retained. 21 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823, confirmed that Brown was still the Office Keeper, that his pay for the year was £48.2.0d and that this amount included an allowance for watching in turn. His family and service details were as previously stated. 22 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B), Joseph had his pay reduced by £2.12.0d per annum in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the the 27th December 1822 and the 15th January 1823. 23 WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1824, recorded that Joseph still earned £48.2.0d per annum as in Note 21, which included an allowance for watching in turn, for which he received 2/-d per week. His period of service was given as nearly 35 years, he was aged 55, and was married but was childless. 24 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 confirmed he was still the Office Keeper, but gave his basic pay as £42.18.0d per annum. He was a Rounder which gave him, on average, 2/-d per week, giving him total earnings of of £55.1.4d per annum. This Return also confirmed his previous family and service details. WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825 also confirmed his service and family details. 25 WO54/554 dated the 1st April,1826, confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825, and WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, confirmed the information given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826. 26 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded that there had been no alteration to his conditions since the previous Report dated the 1st October 1826. 27 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 gave the same information as in the notes above. At that date Joseph had nearly 38 years' service and was then 56 years of age.. 28 Supply 5/205 dated the 31st January 1828 stated that the Director General of the Ordnance Medical Department agreed that Joseph Brown should be supplied with a truss to prevent him incurring further injury. 29 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) gave the same information as in the notes above, except that he had then served 38 years. 30 Return dated the 1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 31 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details again remaining unchanged. 32 Return showing employees at the 1st October, 1829 (WO54/566) indicated that Joseph still earned in total £55.1.4d per annum, that his service was then just over 39 years, that he was 57 years of age, and was married, but was childless. 33 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for Joseph as in Note 32, except that his service was given as 40 years and that he was aged 58. 34 Return WO54/570 dated October 1830, confirmed the information given in Note 32, except that his service was then just over 40 years. WO54/570 dated April 1831, updated the October 1830 Return, and confirmed that he was still employed as the Office Keeper. 35 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 36 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated Brown's age and period of service in the October 1831 Return. 37 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 updated his age and period of service in the April, 1832 Return; he was still the Office Keeper, but now had a cottage belonging to the Board - the one previously occupied by John Brown. 38 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 recorded that he was still the Office Keeper, was 61, was married and had no children. He had 43 years' service, being employed as a Millman on the 7th February 1790. His pay was still £55.1.4d per annum which included an allowance as a Rounder. 39 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, gave the same basic details as before, but his age and length of service were updated. 40 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 recorded that Joseph was still employed as Office Keeper, with his total pay remaining unchanged at £55.1.4d. His period of service was given as 40 years, and his age, 62. WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834 confirmed the information given in the note above, but he was then 63 years of age and had served just over 40 years. A Return of Domestic Properties prepared by the Engineers' Office on the 20th December 1834, recorded that Joseph was occupying a tenement in Powder Mill Lane with the same rent as before (Supply 5/237). A similar Return for 1840 showed that he was living in a cottage originally built as a surgery in 1814 for $249 (Winters, op.cit. p.79) which locates it at the entrance to the Engineers' Yard (WO44/133), being Plot 92 on Drayson's 1833 Town Map. 41 In the 1841 Census, Joseph was described as a Labourer, living in Powder Mill Lane with his wife, Phillis, aged 70. Neither were born in the countySupply 5/214
130John (1)BrownRecord of Personnel working in the Storekeeper's Department1. John Brown (1) was employed as a Labourer in February 1793, and paid 1/6d per day for refining Saltpetre (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February, 1793); he continued to do so until July 1795, when he was pencilled in as a Millman, replacing R. Jameson (Supply 5/217 dated the 3rd July 1795). 2. Robert Coleman, Clerk of the Cheque, recorded that on the 29th July 1793, John Brown (along with others) was chequered (fined) one day's pay for "having gone across the Hoppit contrary to repeated orders." (Winters, p.39). According to page 52 of Winters, on the 13th February 1796 at 4.00 p.m., the Upper 15 Head Mill blew up, but although his clothes caught fire, John Brown was uninjured 3. A signed document (Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800) relating to a Petition on Pay, indicated that John was literate, and was working as a Millman with a rate of pay of 2/-d per day. 4. Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still working as a Millman. This Report recorded that he was also a married man with 4 children. Robert Coleman recorded in his Minute Book on the 23rd October of that year that 24 men were required to work at Faversham or be discharged. Initially Brown refused to go, but it appeared that he changed his mind (Winters, p.60). 5. A Return of Artificers & Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) showed that although still employed as a Millman, John was cleaning and deepening the river and canals as well as performing other sundry and necessary work. Brown possibly left his employment with the Ordnance Board, since his name does not appear in the Faversham records, nor is he recorded in the List of Employees dated the 8th May 1804 (Supply 5/222). However, WO54/536 dated the 6th February 1822, recorded that a John Brown commenced work on the 1st March 1805 as a Labourer, and it is presumed that this is the same man. 6. In the List of Foreman Artificers and Labourers employed dated the 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224) a John Brown is described as a Foreman of the Corning House, earning 2/6d per day and that he had been employed with the Ordnance for 3 years, which is in variance with the supposition above. However, WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825 confirmed that he was appointed a Labourer on the 1st March 1805. 7. Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June,1807 described Brown as a working Foreman of the Corning Houses, with pay of 2/6d per day. In addition, as a Rounder, he was allowed 1/6d every third night to superintend the Millmen and Watchmen on duty. 8. According to an entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Brown was still a Foreman of Corning Houses, earning 3/-d per day, and every third night he was allowed 2/-d as a Rounder to superintend the Millmen and Watchmen on duty; this was also the case in 1810 (Supply 5/228) 9. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Brown was a Foreman of Corning Houses who then earned 4/-d per day, in addition to which, he was still a Rounder earning 2/-d. every third night. 10 According to the List dated the 13th February1814 (Supply 5/230), all of the above (9) still applied. 11 Lists of Officers & Others Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231 and WO54/524) confirmed that Mr. Brown was still a Foreman of the Corning Houses. He was aged 38, resided in Waltham Abbey and was married with only 3 children. He earned 3/6d per day, in addition to which he was a Rounder at 1/6d every fifth night. 12 A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. John Brown's name was on the List, but it seems his pay was reduced to 3/-d per day. 13 List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Brown was still employed as a Foreman of the Corning House, that he was a married man aged 39 with 3 children and lived in Waltham Abbey. At that date he was paid 3/4d per day, and was still a Rounder, for which he was paid 1/6d every third night. WO54/532 dated the 19th September 1820 confirmed this information, except that his allowance as a Rounder had been increased to 2/-d per night. 14 A Statement of "monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and 31st December, 1821 showing the amounts received by the storekeeper" dated the 4th April 1821 (Supply 5/232), recorded that John Brown, Foreman of the Corning house, was living rent-free in a Board of Ordnance house from December, 1810. This same information is repeated in Supply 5/232 dated the 16th February 1822 for the year 1821. The location of this cottage (together with that of Benjamin Poulter who was granted a rent-free cottage at the same time) may be that described by Winters on page 97 of his book; he records that on the 24th January, 1827, William Davis, Collector of Taxes for Cheshunt, was paid the church rate for "land at the Aqueduct Lock and the two cottages at -do-" and "Aqueduct Lock lies within the Parish of Cheshunt." 15 List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that John Brown was 45, was married and had 4 children. He still lived in Waltham Abbey, was still a Foreman of the Corning House, and was earning the same amount as in Note 13, but was now paid 2/-d every third night as a Rounder. 16 List of Employees (Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822) indicated that John Brown, Foreman of Corning House, was aged 45, had 21 years' service and was paid 3/4d per day. 17 Return showing the pay, allowances and length of service and every description of the persons in the employment of the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822) appeared to be a more detailed, and probably more accurate, Return, than that dated the 23rd January 1822. It recorded that John Brown, Foreman of Corning House, was appointed on the 1st March 1805 as a Labourer at Waltham Abbey, was appointed Foreman of Corning House on the 4th September, 1818, and that his total earnings for the year amounted to £52.3.4d. He was allowed to act as a Rounder, for which he received an additional £12.3.4d annually, and he had served for nearly 17 years. He was aged 45, and was a married man with 4 children, living in Cheshunt. Note: previously there had been three Corning House Foremen who were generally described as working Foremen. Brown's appointment as Foreman is possibly from the date he he had been appointed as sole Foreman. 18 List dated the 21st March 1822 (Supply 5/232) of persons to form an Establishment at Waltham Abbey to regenerate 2,000 barrels of gunpowder as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually, recorded that John Brown, Foreman of Corning House, was to be retained. 19 List of Employees dated the 1st October, 1822 (Supply 5/233) contained similar information as in Note 17, and confirmed that Brown had a rent-free cottage for his family to look after the waters. 20 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 gave Brown's earnings for the year as £64.6.8d, which included an allowance for being a Rounder every third night to superintend the watchmen, for which he received 2/-d. His family and service details were confirmed, and he was still entitled to a cottage owned by the Board. Details given in WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1823, included his date of appointment as a Labourer as on the 1st March 1805, as Foreman on the 4th September 1818 and reconfirmed on the 22nd May 1822. 21 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 gave his wage as £52.3.4d per annum, with an allowance of 2/-d for being a Rounder every third night, giving him a total wage of £64.6.8d per annum. It also confirmed his previous family and service details. 22 Return showing pay and allowances, etc., dated the 1st October 1825, confirmed the previous information given and recorded that he had been in continuous service with the Board since 1805 and that his total wage was £77.1.6d per annum (Winters, pp. 93-95). The actual Return of that date confirmed that Brown was earning £65.4.2d and that he was rounding every third night at 2/-d by an order of the Board dated the 30th June 1820, which gave him an annual income of £77.1.6d. He had a cottage for his family to look after the water, and had been promoted to Foreman of Stoves and Magazines on the 25th May 1825 because Braddock had been promoted to Master Refiner of Saltpetre. He had nearly 24 years' service, and at that date was 49 years of age.. 23 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. 24 WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 confirmed the information given in WO54/554 dated the the 1st April 1826. 25 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827, recorded "no alteration since the last Report dated the 1st October 1826." 26 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827. gave the same information as in the notes above. At that date John Brown (1) had nearly 26 years' service and was then 51 years of age. 27 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) gave the same information as in theprevious notes. 28 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 29 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. He stll had a cottage "to look after the water". 30. WO54/566 dated the 1st October 1829 recorded that at that date John still earned the same as in Note 22. His length of service was given as nearly 25 years, and he was now aged 52. 32 Return WO54/ 570 dated the 1st April 1830 updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details remaining unaltered. 33 WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, recorded that Mr. Brown was now 53 years of age and that he had served nearly 26 years. His earnings were still the same as in Note 22, and all other information remained the same. 34 According to Return WO54/ 575 dated the 1st April 1831, John Brown, as a Foreman of the Stoves and Magazines, earned a total of £77.1.6d, and had served 26 years. At that date he was 54 years of age. 35 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. He was still occupying a cottage paid for by the Board "to look after the water." 36 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 37 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 recorded that John Brown earned a total of £77.1.6d per annum. All other details remained the same, except that at that date he was 56 years of age and had served nearly 28years. On this Return, no mention is made of Mr. Brown occupying a cottage that was paid for by the Board. 38 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 confirmed that John Brown still earned a total of £77.1.6d per annum. His service was given as 28 years and his age as 56. This Return confirmed that he was occupying a cottage paid for by the Board, and that he continued to "look after the water." 39 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 confirmed the above details, but he was now 57 years of age. 40 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 updated the October Return for service and age, with conditions and pay unchanged. 41 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834, updated the previous Return for service and age, with conditions and pay remaining unchanged. 42 List of Domestic Properties prepared by the Royal Engineers dated the 20th December 1834, recorded that John Brown (as well as John Goats) was living on Aqueduct Island, and that the rent of his cottage was £5.4.0d per annum (Supply 5/237). 43 On the 16th April 1836, two Mills exploded when shut up and not at work; John Brown, Rounder, was called before Lt. Col. Moody as a witness, according to Winters, p.103). 44 Return of Employees dated the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623) stated that his income was £65.13.7d per annum; he was still entitled to a cottage "for the family to look after the water." and had been in the service of the Ordnance for just over 34 years. 45 A Return of Domestic Property prepared by the Royal Engineers' in May 1840 (WO44/133) recorded that James Brown (this is a clerical or transcript error) was still the Foreman of Stoves, that he was the first occupant of the cottage and "this occupant is a married man, & has the cottage free of rent, as his wife is a kind of Watch on bargemen taking more water than is necessary."Supply 5/216
131HenryBrown00/00/1762List of Foremen and Artificers etc, their rates of pay and length of service.1. Supply 5/220 dated the 30th January 1806 recorded that Henry Brown was employed as a Millman in 1805, with a rate of pay of 2/3d per day. In June 1807 he was still a Millman earning 2/3d per day, but was also allowed 3d per night when on duty. 2. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Brown was still a Millman earning 2/3d per day, but was then "allowed 6d per night when on duty." This was also the case in 1810 (Supply 5/228 of the 5th September 1810). 3. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Brown was still a Millman who earned 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d per night when on duty. This was also the case on the 13th February 1814 (Supply/230) with the same rate of pay and additional 6d per night when on duty. 4. Lists of Officers & Others Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231 and WO54/524) recorded that Henry Brown was 56, resided in Waltham Abbey, and was married with 8 children. He earned 2/8d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d per night when on duty. 5. A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Henry Brown's name was on the list as a Saltpetre Refiner who was paid 2/-d per day. However, a second List dated the 3rd September showed that he was retained as a Millman, and still paid 2/8d per day (Supply 5/231). 6. List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Brown was still employed as a Millman, that he was a married man of 57 with 8 children, and lived in Waltham Abbey. He was still paid 2/8d per day and was allowed an additional 6d when on night duties. 7. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) updated the previous entry. 8. List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Mr. Brown was 58 and confirmed he was married with 8 children. He still lived in Waltham Abbey, remained a Millman and was earning the same amount as in (6) above. 9. List of Employees at the Royal Powder Mills (Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822) stated that Henry Brown, Millman, was aged 59, had 17 years' service and was paid 2/8d per day, with an extra 6d when on night duties. 10 Return showing the pay, allowances and length of service and every description of the persons in the employment of the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 & WO54/536 dated the 6th February 1822) appears to be a more detailed, and probably more accurate, Return than that dated the 23rd January 1822. It stated that Henry Brown, Millman, was appointed on the 12th November 1804 as a Labourer at Waltham Abbey, that his position on the Establishment as a Millman was confirmed by an Order of the Board dated the 4th September 1818, and that he was allowed to watch in turn to guard the works, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night. This gave him a total wage for the year of £46.18.8d. He had just over 17 years' service, was aged 59 years, was married with eight children, and lived in Waltham Abbey. 11 List dated the 21st March, 1822 (Supply 5/232) of persons to form an Establishment at Waltham Abbey to regenerate 2000 barrels of gunpowder as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually, included Henry Brown, Millman, who was to be retained. 12 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 confirmed that Brown was still a Millman, and that his wages for the year were £44.4.0d, which included an allowance for watching in turn, for which he received 2/-d per week. His family and service details were confirmed. 13 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B) Mr. Henry Brown had his earnings reduced by £2.12.0d per annum in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the 27th December 1822 and the 15th January 1823. 14 WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1823 recorded that he was still a Millman and that his annual earnings amounted to £44.4.0d, which included an allowance for watching the works in turn, for which, on average, he received 2/-d per week. His age was given as 62, he was a widower with 8 children, and his starting date was confirmed. 15 Return showing pay and allowances, etc. dated the 1st October 1825 (Winters, pp.93-95) confirmed the previous information given and recorded that he had been in continuous service with the Board since the 12th November 1804. His wage was £44.4.0 per annum. WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 gave his earnings as £39.0.0d per annum, he was allowed to watch in turn for which he received, on average 2/-d per week, and this gave him an annual income of £44.4.0d. This Return also confirmed his previous family and service details, and all of this information is repeated in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the the 1st October 1825. 16 Winters, on p.95 of his book, states "...on the 13th March, 1826, Henry Brown ...injured by the late explosion..." 17 WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 confirmed the information given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826. 18 Supply 5/205 dated the 14th March, 1827 stated that the Board agreed that Henry Brown could occupy a cottage in Powder Mill Lane previously occupied by William Davis, and the rent was set at £5.4.0d per annum. The cottage in question formed part of plot 63 of Drayson's 1833 Town Map. 19 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded "no alteration since the last report dated the 1st October 1826." 20 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 gave the same information as in the notes above. At that date Henry Brown had nearly 23 years' service, and was then 64 years of age. 21 Supply 5/205 dated the 31st January 1828, stated that The Director General of the Ordnance Medical Department agreed that Henry Brown should be supplied with a truss to prevent him "incurring" further injury. 22 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) contained the same information as in previous notes. He had by then served just over 23 years. 23 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 24 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, family details and pay still remaining unaltered. 25 WO54/566 dated the 1st October 1829, confirmed that at that date Henry still earned the same as recorded in note 15. His length of service was given as nearly 25 years, and he was a widower, aged 65, with 8 children. 26 Return WO54/ 570 dated the 1st April 1830 updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details remaining unchanged. 27 A footnote to the Return dated the 1st October 1830 recorded that John Fleming was appointed Labourer "in the room of Henry Brown" on the 12th May 1830; in other words, it appears that Henry Brown's services were terminated, or, possibly, that he retired on that date, because his name no longer appears in the lists of employees. 28 Supply 5/207 dated the 15th July 1831 indicated that the Board agreed that Henry should be superannuated at the rate of £10 per annum. 29 He was still in receipt of a pension in 1837 (Supply 5/237). 30 The 1841 Census described Henry as an Ordnance Pensioner, aged 80, living in Powder Mill Lane with a Henry Brown, Labourer, who was, presumably, one of his sons. Henry was not born in the county.Supply 5/224
132EdwardBrownList of Foremen and Artificers, etc, with rates of pay and service.1.Edward Brown was employed as a Millman in 1805 and paid 2/3d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). At that date he had been employed with the Ordnance for 9 months. 2. In a Return dated the 18th June 1807 (Supply 5/226) he was paid the same as previously, but then allowed 3d per night when on duty. 3. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Edward was still a Millman earning 2/3d per day, and "allowed 6d per night when on duty."Supply 5/224
133WilliamBrown00/00/1766List of those Employed and their Pay1. Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809 indicated that William Brown was a Master Carpenter. He was paid £1.15.0d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July,1809. 2. WO54/512 dated 5th September, 1812 recorded that William was first appointed on the Establishment on the 1st August, 1806 as the Foreman Carpenter at Waltham Abbey. According to this Return, he was paid 6/4d per day for six days' work and one and a half days' pay for working on a Sunday. He was also entitled to 6/-d per week to train an Apprentice. 3. WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816 recorded he was the Master Carpenter, a 49 year old widower with no children. He was still paid 6/4d per day on the Establishment, and this document indicated that he had trained as a Carpenter. 4. WO54/520 dated the 28th February 1817, stated that William Brown was the Master Carpenter. This Return states that he had trained as a Cabinet Maker. He was 50 years old at that date, and his family details remained the same as before. However, he was then only earning 5/10d per day, with an allowance of 6/-d per week for an Apprentice. 5. WO54/524 dated 1818 gave identical details as in Note 4, but his age was given as 52. 6. WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819 stated that his allowance for training an Apprentice had been increased to 8/-d per week. 7. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (WO54/532) recorded that William was then aged 54, lived in Waltham Abbey, and confirms that he was a widower without children. He still earned 5/10d per day with the same allowance of 6/d per week for an Apprentice. 8. WO54/536 dated the 2nd April 1821 recorded that he was aged 55 years; his terms of employment, etc., remaining unchanged. 9. WO54/536 dated the 31st December 1821 repeated the details given in the Return dated the the 2nd April 1821. 10 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 listing personnel employed in the Engineers' Department, confirmed William was paid 5/10d per day for 313 days, giving him an income of £91.5.10d for the year as the Master Carpenter; his family and service details were also confirmed. 11 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 listing personnel employed in the Engineers' Department, confirmed that William was still paid 5/10d per day for 313 days as the Master Carpenter, giving him the same annual income of £91.5.10d. His service was nearly 19 years, and at that date he was aged 58. 12 WO54/550 dated the 13th October, 1825 was a repeat of the record dated the 1st April 1825. 13 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 gave identical information as that in Notes 11 and 12, with the exception that he was 59 years of age, with service of nearly 20 years. 14 WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 upated the previous Return. 15 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 gave the same information as in the notes above. However, at that date William had nearly 21 years' service and was then over 60 years of age. 16 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 contained no basic alterations since the previous Return. 17 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) updated the same basic information as in the notes above. 18 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 19 WO54/566 dated the 1st April 1829, confirmed that William at that date still earned the same as in Note 11. His length of service was given as nearly 23 years, and he was just over 62 years of age. 20 Return dated the 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details remaining unaltered. 21 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for William as in Note 11, except that his service was nearly 24 years and he was just over 63. 22 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 confirmed that William was still the Master Carpenter, with family details and pay unchanged, but length of service and age updated. 23 A Return of Persons belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield, showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January, 1831, recorded that William Brown was one of the 3 Master Artificers to be employed at Waltham Abbey and Enfield; he was the Master Carpenter and was to be paid 5/10d per day. His duties were to work with Artificers and Labourers in the Gunpowder Manufactory, consequently requiring great attention, sobriety, and steadiness of conduct. 24 WO54/575 dated April 1831 updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 25 WO54/575 dated October 1831 confirmed that William still earned 5/10d per day, giving him a total of £91.5.10d per annum as indicated in Note 11 above. He had served 25 years and was 65 years of age. 26 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831, Return. 27 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 confirmed that William still earned £91.5.10d per annum. He had by then served 26 years and was 66 years of age. 28 According to the Return dated the 1st April 1833 (WO54/587), all the details indicated in Note 27 were confirmed. 29 Under an order of the Board dated the 15th March 1833, William Brown, Master Carpenter, was to be discharged and granted a pension of £31.10.9d per annum until an opportunity to employ him again should arise (Supply 5/208 dated the 26 July 1833). 30 William retired on the 4th July 1833, and was in receipt of a pension which he was still receiving in 1837 (Supply 5/237).Supply 5/228.
134SamuelBrown00/00/1819Return of Employees1. Samuel Brown was a general Labourer who started at the Gunpowder Mills on the 6th May, 1835. He earned £39 per annum, which included an allowance to watch in turn. He was a 20-year-old bachelor. (WO54/623 dated the 1st October 1839). 2. A transcript of the 1841 Census for Waltham Abbey does not record his name. 3. On the 13th April 1843, some 40 barrels of gunpowder exploded in the Corning House together with another 20 in the Press House; 7 men were killed and much damage was caused in the town. Among those killed was Samuel Brown. (Winters, p.106) 4. A graphic description of the explosion and damage caused, etc., was given in the London Illustrated News dated the Saturday, the 22nd April 1843 (WAAC). Samuel left a widow and two young children.WO56/623
135John (2)BrownReturn of Employees1. John Brown (2) was working as a Labourer. He was a married man with 1 child, according to Supply 5/221 dated the 8th May 1801. 2. His name is not listed in the Return of Employees dated the 8th May 1804 (Supply 5/222).Supply 5/221
136WilliamBuckLetter Book1. According to Supply 5/238 dated the 15th September 1841, William Buck's pension was to be paid to his widow, Susannah. He was a late Master Carpenter.Supply 5/238
137WilliamBunce00/00/1770Pay List1. Pay List (Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809) recorded that William Bunce was a Carpenter, First Class. He was paid £1.9.9d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809. 2. WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 listing personnel employed in the Engineers' Department, recorded that he was paid 4/1d per day as a Carpenter for 313 days, giving him an income of £63.18.1d per annum. It would appear that he initially worked for a contractor employed by the Board in 1791, and apparently had continuous work with them until he was taken on the Establishment with other Carpenters on the 8th March, 1822. This Return shows that he had nearly 34 years' service, starting on the 3rd July, 1791. He was aged 52, living in Waltham Abbey, and had 6 children. An 1825 valuation of property showed that William was living in one of the cottages at the junction of High Bridge Street and Powder Mill Lane, being one of the tenements in Plot No. 60 on Drayson's 1833 Map. Sometime after this, William moved to one of the cottages in the old Tanyard, Tenement No. 54 on the same Map. 3. WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825, confirmed that William was still paid 4/1d per day for 313 days as a Carpenter. His service was given as nearly 36 years, and he was then aged nearly 55, was married and had 6 children. 4. WO54/550 dated the 13th October 1825, is a repeat of the Return dated the 1st April 1825. A note in "former appointments" recorded that he had been in the employment of a contractor, who worked for the Ordnance on the 3rd July, 1791. 5. WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 gave identical information as in Notes 3 and 4, except that he was nearly 56, with service of nearly 37 years. 6. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 confirmed the information given in the previous Return. 7. WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 gave the same information as in the notes above. However, at that date Mr. Bunce had nearly 38 years' service and he was over 56 years of age. 8. WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 contained no basic alterations from the previous Return. 9. Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) updated the basic information given in the notes above. 10 Return dated the 1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service with family details and pay unchanged. This Return confirmed that Mr. Bunce trained as a Carpenter. 11 WO54/566 dated the 1st April 1829 stated that William at that date still earned the same as in Note 3. His length of service was given as just over 39 years, and his age as nearly 59. 12 Return dated the 1st October, 1829 (no reference) updated his age and length of service, family and pay details remaining unaltered. 13 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for Mr. Bunce as in Note 3, except that his service was just over 40 years, and he was nearly 60 years of age. 14 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 recorded that William was still a Carpenter, his family details and earnings remained unchanged, but his length of service and age had been updated. 15 A Return of Persons belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield - showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January, 1831- recorded that William Bunce was one of the 7 Carpenters to be employed at Waltham Abbey Powder Mills and Enfield Small Arms Factory. He was paid 4/1d per day, and required to undertake general services as a Carpenter in the Manufactory, requiring great care, attention and sobriety, etc. 16 WO54/575 dated April 1831 updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return; all other details remained unchanged. 17 WO54/575 dated October 1831 confirmed that William still earned 4/1d per day as indicated in Note 15, giving him a total of £63.18.1d per annum. He had then served just over 41 years, and was aged 61. 18 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, and again, all other details remained unchanged. 19 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 confirmed that he still earned £63.18.1d per annum. He had by then served just over 42 years and was aged 62. 20 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 confirmed the information given in Note 19, except that he was then nearly 63 years of age and had served nearly 43 years. 21 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 recorded that his basic details remained unchanged, but his age and length of service had been updated. 22 A Return of Properties owned by the Board prepared by the office of the Royal Engineers on the 20th December1834, recorded that Widow Bunce occupied a cottage in West Street (High Bridge Street) and that she (or her husband) had been in occupation since the 6th April 1829 (Supply 5/237). Another Return of the same date showing showing how vacant properties were proposed to be let, recorded that William Bunce had died, that the cottage had been leased to his widow on the 6th April 1829 but that the cottage was to be let to J. Lording, Labourer (also 5/237). The property has been identified as one of those purchased from Mr. Cannop in 1818 - see notes on Jeremiah Betts.Supply 5/228
138RBurrWinters' Centenary Memorial, p.321. R. Burr was working as a Storehouseman in November 1789, earning 2/-d per day. No other details are available. (Winters, p.32)
139GeorgeButcher00/00/1769Return of Employees1. George Butcher was first employed by the Board as a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the the 1st October 1815, earning 2/4d per day. He was a 46-year-old married man with no children, living in Epping (WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816).WO54/516
140SamuelButler00/00/1770Employees in the Engineers' Dept. & their Pay1. Samuel Butler was a Millwright who was paid £1.9.9d for work carried out between the 15th and 21st July 1809 (Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809). 2. WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 listing those employed in the Engineers' Department, recorded that Samuel was paid 5/2d per day for 313 days as a Millwright, This gave him an annual income of £80.17.2d. His service was 19 years, and he was aged nearly 55; he was a married man with 2 children.Supply 5/228
141JohnButteList of Officers Employed1. John Butte was employed as a Corning House Man earning 2/6d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." (Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808).Supply 5/227
142Col. JohnBy00/00/17791. Colonel By's name appears on many documents and Returns made to the Royal Ordnance Board from Waltham Abbey. Having studied at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, (John By, Builder of the Rideau Canal, p.6, Legett, Ottowa, 1982) was commissioned in the Royal Artillery in 1799 before being transferred to the Royal Engineers in the same year, serving in Canada and the Peninsular War (WO54/241). In 1812, By was appointed Officer Commanding Royal Engineers at the Royal Gunpowder Mills at Waltham Abbey and Faversham, the Government Magazines at Purfleet, and the Government Armoury at Lewisham, holding this post until 1821 when he retired (WO54/251). In 1812, By was given the important task of planning and erecting the Government's Small Arms Factory at Enfield (WO55/753). In addition, he organised the official fireworks' display to commemorate the Peace of Paris in 1814. He was recalled to the Army in 1823 and promoted Lt. Colonel in 1824. 2. In 1826 he was posted to Canada to carry out what represented the pinnacle of his career - the building of the Rideau Canal from the Ottawa River to the fortress at Kingston on Lake Ontario. The canal was built for strategic reasons, bypassing a section of the St. Lawrence River on the military supply route from Montreal to Kingston, which was vulnerable to American attack. By's operational centre, originally named Bytown, became the city of Ottawa (Legett, op.cit. pp.23/24). The Rideau Canal was completed in 1832, a masterpiece of civil engineering which is still in use today. 3. Colonel By died in 1836 at Frant, where he is buried.
143RobertByner00/00/1794Personnel Employed by the R.G.M.1. Robert Byner was employed as a casual Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department, having first been employed by the Board on the 6th March 1813. He was a 21 year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey, and had previously trained as a Cordwainer. (WO54/516 dated February 1816).WO54/516
144ThomasByner00/00/1796Return of Employees1. Thomas Byner was first employed by the Board on the 14th November 1812 as a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day; he was a 19-year-old bachelor who lived in Waltham Abbey (WO54/516 dated February 1816).WO54/516
145W. C.Byres00/00/1815Return of Employees1. W. C. Byres was appointed Clerk in the Engineers' Department on the 24th May 1837, and, following the death of Thomas Littler in July 1839, with the promotion of David Wilkie to First Clerk, was appointed Second Clerk on the 19th August 1839. His salary was £80 per annum, with a house provided. He had just over 2 years' service, and was a 24-year-old batchelor (WO56/623 dated 1st October, 1839). 2. Byres' name does not appear in the 1841 Census for Waltham Abbey.WO56/623
146JohnCadwell00/00/1765Return of Employees1. John Cadwell was employed as a casual Bricklayer's Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department, having first been employed by the Board on the 21st August 1813 as a general Labourer. He was a 50-year-old widower living in Waltham Abbey with 2 children, one married and the other unmarried (WO54/516 dated February 1816).WO54/516
147CharlesCallensoe00/00/1740Personnel Record1. Charles Callensoe, born circa 1740, was seconded form the Royal Powder Mills at Waltham Abbey on the 17th December 1787 for training at Faversham (Supply 5/70). At Faversham he worked as a Labourer marking powder barrels and as a Stoveman. He was "entered for Waltham Abbey Powder Mills" on the 8th March 1788 (Supply 5/113). 2. According to a Report dated 24th January 1789, Mr. Callensoe had been transferred from Faversham ((Supply5/212). 3. He was working as a Millman according to the List of Persons Employed dated 27th November 1788 (Supply 5/212), but on the 29th January 1789 (also Supply 5/212) Mr. Callensoe was described as a Stoveman. The List of Personnel and Pay dated the 21st March 1789 (Supply 5/212) recorded that he was earning 1/6d per day. 4. In Supply 5/213 dated the 18th April 1789, he was described as "cutting and planting willow trees, cutting of canal at the new Corning House, removing earth to the Stove, unloading a barge of coals & charring wood." 5. Supply 5/214 dated September 1789 recorded that he was 49 years of age and was "Warding at the Refining House Field Gate and Bank of Canal."Supply 5/212
148BCampRecord of Personnel working in the Storekeeper's Department1. Mr. B. Camp started work grinding Saltpetre and Charcoal on the 31st August 1793 replacing John Haynes, who had been discharged for stealing coal (Supply 5/216). 2. He was employed in the Corning House from September 1793, with pay of 1/6d per day, according to a Report of Artificers Employed in the Store Keeper's Department dated the 31st August 1793 (Supply 5/216). This was also the case in January and August 1794 (both also Supply 5/216). 3. Robert Coleman reported on the 11th March 1794 that Camp had been chequered (fined) for striking George Pain whilst working in the Corning House. 4. Camp enlisted as a Private in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794, and by the end of that year he was described as "separating gunpowder." (Supply 5/217). 5. In June and July 1795 (also referenced Supply 5/217) he was described as a Puntman.Supply 5/216
149HenryCamps00/00/1740Personnel Record1. Henry Camps was born circa 1740, and saw military service in America. Prior to the capture of Quebec in 1759, he had been taken prisoner by the French and confined in a fort situated on the Canadian Lakes (Supply 5/229). During the American War of Independence (1778-1783) he was the Conductor of Artillery Stores, and appointed Office Keeper at the Powder Mills on the 1st June 1788 at the age of 48 with pay of 2/-d per day (Supply 5/212 dated the 27th November 1788) . This was on the order of William Congreve, Deputy Controller, according to Supply 5/214 dated September1789, which recorded that he was then 49 years of age and "employed attending the office." He was given 8/8d for postage on the 30th September 1790, having apparently paid for official post out of his own pocket (WASC 1382). 2. Mr. Camps was transferred as a Storehouse Man on the 12th July 1792 at the same 2/-d per day (Supply 5/216 dated the 31st July 1792), and was still in the same position in 1793 and 1798 (Supply 5/216 of the 31st August 1793 and Supply 5/219 dated September 1798). 3. Two years later, he was still the Storehouse Man, and a signed document relating to a Petition on Pay (Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800) indicated that he was literate. 4. Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confimed that he was still the Storehouseman, and was a widower with 3 children. 5. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still employed as the Storehouse Man "attending to the Storehouse to deliver the stores." Supply 5/223 dated the 28th March 1805, recorded that he was then receiving weekly pay of 17/6d as well as an allowance of 1/6d every third night for Rounding. 6. There were three cats on the Establishment and Henry was paid 4d per cat per week for their keep according to Winters' Centenary Memorial (p.64). 7. In the List of Foreman Artificers and Labourers employed dated the 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224), Henry is described as a Storehouse Man earning 2/6d per day, and he had been employed with the Ordnance for 18 years. 8. A Petition from the Storekeeper, Hugh Mathews, and the Clerk of the Cheque, William Breeze, to the Board (Supply 5/226 dated the 17th April 1807) recommended that Henry Camps be promoted to the position of "Foreman of General Storehouse" with a nominal increase in pay. The Petition went on to say that in the course of his duties, Henry had ruptured himself, necessitating the use of a truss. To the Petition was appended a statement from Robert Hilton, Surgeon at the Royal Powder Mills, stating that Henry Camps had suffered a serious injury which required the immediate use of a truss, although no mention is made of the Board concurring with this request. 9. In June 1807 Mr. Camps is described as "storehouseman" with pay of 2/6d per day, and allowed 1/6d every third night as Rounder to superintend the watchmen. (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807). 10 According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Camps was still a Storehouseman who now earned 3/-d. per day, and every third night was allowed 2/-d as Rounder to superintend the Watchmen on duty. This was still the case two years' later ( Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810). 11 List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Camps was still a Storehouse Man. However, he then earned 3/10d per day. 12 According to a letter to the Board (Supply 5/229 dated the 28th June, 1813) Henry died that day while unloading a barge which had arrived from the Tower with hoses, his death having been occasioned by a blow which he received during the morning of the 27th June 1813. A sudden and violent gust of wind had blown the door of the bargehouse against him, thereby throwing him on to the gunnels of the barge, "...by which accident the abdomen and parts adjacent were so much injured as to cause his death 24 hours afterwards." 13 Henry, described as the Senior Storehouseman, was "about " 74 years of age when he died, and had seen service in America. Prior to the capture of Quebec, he had been taken prisoner by the French and confined in a fort situated on the Canadian lakes. He left 3 children, a son who was a Sergeant in the army in Spain, and 2 daughters, the youngest of whom, Caroline, was unmarried and entirely dependant on her late father. The Storekeeper, H. J. Mathews, and J. Wright, the Clerk of the Cheque, requested that the Board pay Caroline an allowance of 9d per day commencing September1813, and according to Winters (p.75), this request was granted.Supply 5/212
150WilliamCamptonWinters' Centenary Memorial (p.28)1. William Campton was a Labourer by trade, set to work by Daniel Cornish in October 1787 at 9/- per week, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase by the Government from Mr Walton (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.28).
151John (1)CannonList of Employees and their Pay1. John Cannon (1) according to the List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn. 2. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814, recorded that he was working as a Corning House Man at that date, earning 3/3d per day; in addition, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night.Supply 5/229
152John (2)CannonList of Employees1. John Cannon (2) was employed as a Labourer "drawing and setting stoves and in the willow plantation". He was paid 2/8d per day and allowed to watch in turn, according to the List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229). 2. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814, recorded that John (2) was then employed as a Saltpetre Refiner; he was still paid 2/8d per day and allowed to watch in turn.Supply 5/229
153JosephCannonList of Employees1. Joseph Cannon was employed as a Labourer "drawing and setting stoves and in the willow plantation." He was paid 2/8d per day and allowed to watch in turn according to List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229). 2. On the 13th February 1814, Joseph was recorded as a Punt Man, still earning 2/8d per day and allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/230). His name does not appear in subsequent Returns so it is assumed that he was one of those dismissed at the cessation of the Napolionic Wars. 3. However, according to the Return of Employees dated the 1st April 1830 (WO54/570), Joseph Cannon was appointed as a Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the 27th August 1829. His rate of pay was given as 2/2d per day for 313 days, making a total of £33.18.2d annually. His length of service was given as 6 months; he was 40 years old, married with 6 children, and had not been brought up to any trade. 4. Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 recorded that Joseph was still working as a Labourer and that his family details and pay were unchanged; his length of service and age in this Return were updated. 5. A Return of Persons Belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield, showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January 1831 recorded that Joseph Cannon was one of the 15 Labourers to be employed at Waltham Abbey Powder Mills and the Enfield Small Arms Factory; he was paid 2/2d per day and employed to undertake different services as a Labourer in the Manufactories, where steadiness and sobriety were particuliary required (WO54/570) 6. WO54/575 dated April 1831 updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 7. WO54/575 dated October 1831 confirmed that Joseph still earned 2/2d per day as indicated in Note 3, giving him a total of £33.18.2d per annum. At that date he had served 2 years and was aged just over 41. 8. WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 9. WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 confirmed that Joseph Cannon still earned £33.18.2d per annum. His service was given as 3 years and at that date he was 42. 10 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, gave the same information as in note 9 above, except that Joseph was aged 43, and had served for just over 3 years. 11 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, confirmed that his basic details remained unchanged, but his age and length of service were updated.Supply 5/229
154LewisCapet00/00/17951. Lewis Capet, according to WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816, was employed as a casual Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department. He was first employed by the Board on the 27th February 1815, and was a 20-year-old bachelor living in Cheshunt.WO54/516
155JohnCarr00/00/1799Return of Employees1. John Carr, according to a letter (Supply 5/229 dated the 3rd October 1811) was approved as an Apprentice to Master Worker, William Newton. John was to lodge with his father, John Carr, Shoemaker of Waltham Abbey. His Apprenticeship started on the 30th September 1811 according to WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823. 2. Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812, confirmed that John was still Apprenticed to the Master Worker and earned 6/-d. per week, with his Master getting 6/-d per week for this Apprentice. 3. At the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) his situation was the same, and his Master was still getting 6/-d per week. 4. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that John Carr was still Apprenticed to the Master Worker. He was a single man, aged 19, and lived in Waltham Abbey. At this date he earned 7/-d per week. 5. A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) showed the names of the people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818; Carr's name was included, with his pay increased to 9/-d per week. 6. Petition from John Carr dated the 6th January 1819 (Supply 5/202) recorded that at that date he had completed his Apprenticeship under the Master Worker, and begged that he remain at the Mills to support himself and his family. The Board agreed to retain him as an Artificer under the Master Worker. 7. List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) recorded that John Carr was employed as Brimstone Refiner. He was still single, aged 20, and lived in Waltham Abbey. He was paid 2/4d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. 8. List of Officers on Employment dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) stated that John was 22, still single, still lived in Waltham Abbey and still earned 2/4d per day as a Saltpetre Refiner. However, he received 1/6d per night when allowed to watch in turn. 9. List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) indicated that John's details remained the same as in Note 8. 10. List of Employees at the Royal Powder Mills (Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822) gave the age of Mr. Carr, Saltpetre Refiner, as 23, with just over 10 ten years' service, and pay per day of 2/4d. 11. Return dated the 6th February 1822 (Supply 5/232) showed length of service and other full details of those persons employed by the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821. This appeared a more detailed and accurate Return than that of the 23rd January 1822, i.e., it stated that John Carr, Saltpetre Refiner, was Apprenticed to the Master Worker on the 30th September 1811 and by Orders of the Board dated 4th September 1818 and the 4th October 1819, became a Saltpetre Refiner. His annual pay was £41.14.4d, and according to this Return, at the 31st December 1821, he had just over 10 years' service, was 23, was single and lived in Waltham Abbey. 12 In the Spring of 1822, the Ordnance Board decided to reduce the production and regeneration of gunpowder and the Establishment at Waltham was to be reduced; accordingly, Empson Middleton and James Wright drew up a list of people to be dismissed (Supply 5/232 dated the 21st March 1822). John Carr was one of the men who was to be dismissed on the 1st June, 1822. However, a List of Employees dated the 10th October 1822 (Supply 5/233) recorded that he was retained as a General Workman carrying out whatever type of work was required anywhere within the Manufactory. 13 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823, confirmed that Carr was classed as a "a Labourer for general purposes to be sent to all parts of the Manufactory wherever their services may be requested." His pay for the year was £33.16.0d, and his service details were confirmed. 14 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B), John Carr had his pay reduced by £2.12.0d per annum, in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the the 27th December 1822 and the 15th January 1823. 15 According to the Return dated the the 1st October 1824 (WO54/546) John earned £39.0.0d per annum, which included an allowance for watching in turn, for which he received 2/-d per week. His period of service was given as 13 years, he was then aged 26, and he was still single. He had trained as a Gunpowder Maker. 16 Return showing pay and allowances, etc., dated the 1st October 1825 (Winters', pp. 93/95) confirmed the previous information given. It also recorded that he had been in continuous service with the Board since the 18th September 1811, and that his earnings were £33.16.0d. per annum. 17 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825, recorded that he was employed as a General Purpose Labourer and confirmed his basic pay as £33.16.0d per annum. He was still allowed to watch in turn, which gave him, on average, 2/-d per week, making his total pay £39.0.0d. WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825 confirmed the information given 6 months earlier. 18 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826, confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825, except that he was then a married man. 19 WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 confirmed the information given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 but recorded that he then had 1 child. 20 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded "no alteration since the last Report dated the 1st October 1826." except that his length of service started at the end of his Apprenticeship in January 1819. 21 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 gave the same information as in the notes above. He was then 28 years of age, married, and had 1 child. 22 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) gave the same information as in the notes above, with the exception that he served 9 years at that date. 23 Return dated the 1st October 1828 (WO54/562) showed no alteration to the details given in the April Return above. 24 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, with pay unchanged, but recorded that he then had 2 children. 25 Return of Employees at the 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) indicated that Mr. Carr, as in Note 17, still earned in total £39.0.0d per annum, that his service was over 10 years, that he was 29, was married and had 2 children. 26 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for John Carr as in Note 25, except that his service was 11 years and he was now aged 30. 27 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 confirmed the information given in the previous Return. 28 WO54/575 dated April 1831 updated the October 1830 Return, and confirmed he was still employed as a General Labourer within the Manufactory. 29 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 30 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return. 31 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 recorded that John was dismissed by the Board's Order No. 1082 dated the 26th September 1832.Supply 5/229
156Thomas (1)Carter00/00/1765Record of Personnel Working in the Stores Department1. Thomas Carter (1) was employed as a Labourer on the 8th March 1810. According to Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, Thomas (1) was a Millman who was paid 2/3d per day, and allowed 6d per night when on duty. 2. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) stated that Mr. Thomas Carter was a Corning House Man who earned 3/3d per day, and in addition, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night. 3. Thomas (1) was still a Corning House Man on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) with the same rate of pay as previously, and allowed to watch in turn. 4. List of Officers on Employment dated the the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Mr. Thomas Carter was a Saltpetre Refiner, aged 53, who lived in Waltham Abbey. He was married with 9 children, but then earned only 2/4d per day, with the same allowance of 1/6d per night when watching. 5. List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) stated that Thomas was only 50 and still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner; all other entries remain the same as in Note 4. 6. List of Employees at the Royal Powder Mills (Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822) gave the age of Thomas, Saltpetre Refiner, as 51, with 12 years' service and pay per day of 2/4d. 7. Return dated the 6th February 1822 (Supply 5/232) showed length of service and other full details of those persons employed by the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821. This appeared to be a more detailed and accurate Return than that of the 23rd January 1822, and confirmed that Thomas Carter (1), Saltpetre Refiner, was appointed a Labourer at Waltham Abbey on the 8th March 1810, and by Orders of the Board dated the 4th September 1818 and the 4th October 1819, as a Saltpetre Refiner. He was allowed to watch in turn to guard the works, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night, giving him total annual income of £41.14.4d. According to this Return, at 31st December 1821 he had nearly 12 years' service, was 51 years old, was married with 8 children, and lived in Waltham Abbey. He had previously trained as a Shoe Maker. 8. List dated the 21st March 1822 (Supply 5/232) of persons to form an Establishment at Waltham Abbey to regenerate 2000 barrels of gunpowder, as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually, indicated that Thomas Carter, Saltpetre Refiner, was to be retained. 9. WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823, confirmed that Carter was still a Saltpetre Refiner, that his pay for the year was £39.0.0d, which included an allowance for watching in turn for which he received 2/-d per week. Family and service details were confirmed except that according to this Return he then only had 7 children. 10 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B) Thomas Carter (1) had his pay reduced by £2.12.0d per annum in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the 27th December 1822 and the 15th January 1823. 11 WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1823 recorded that he was still a Saltpetre Refiner and that his annual pay was £39.0.0d, which included an allowance for watching the works in turn, for which, on average, he received 2/-d per week. His service and family details were confirmed. 12 Return showing pay and allowances, etc., dated the 1st October 1825 in Winters (pp 93-95), confirmed the previous information, and that he had been in continuous service with the Board since the 8th March 1810. His annual income was £33.16.0d. per annum. 13 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 recorded that Thomas (1) was still a Saltpetre Refiner and confirmed his basic pay as £33.16.0d per annum. He was allowed to watch in turn which gave him, on average, 2/-d per week, making his total pay £39.0.0d per annum. It also confirmed his previous family and service details. These details were repeated in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. However, it should be noted that here are inconsistencies with his age. 14 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the basic details given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 confirmed the information given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826. 12 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded "no alteration since the last report dated the 1st October 1826." 13 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 recorded that on the 24th February 1827, Thomas was promoted to being a Corning House Man with basic pay of £42.18.0d per annum. He was still allowed to watch in turn, which gave him a total annual income of £48.2.0d. At that date he had just over 17 years' service and was then 62 years of age, was still married and had 7 children. 14 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) gave the same information as in the notes above, with the exception that he had served nearly 18 years. 15 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, family details and pay remaining unchanged. 16 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay unaltered.. 17 WO54/566 dated the 1st October 1829, confirmed that at that date Thomas (1) still earned the same as in note 13. His length of service was given as nearly 20 years, and he was aged 63. 18 Return WO54/ 570 dated the 1st April 1830, updated his age and length of service, family and pay details remaining unchanged. 19 WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 stated that Thomas Carter was 64 years of age and that he had served just over 20 years. His pay was still the same as in Note 13, and all other information remained the same. 20 According to the Return WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831, Thomas was 65 years of age and had served nearly 21 years. He was still earning a total of £48.2.0d. 21 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return. All other details remained unchanged. 22 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated Thomas's age and period of service in the October 1831 Return. 23 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 updated his age and period of service in the April, 1832 Return, and confirmed that he was still a Millman. 24 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 confirmed that Thomas Carter was a Millman who still earned a total of £48.2.0d per annum. His service was given as nearly 23 years, and his age as 67. 25 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 stated that Mr. Carter was 68 years of age and had served just over 23 years. He was still in receipt of an annual wage of £48.2.0d, and his family details remained the same. 26 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 recorded that although Thomas was still employed as a Corning House Man, his basic wage had been cut to £35.17.9d per annum; he was still allowed to watch in turn, which increased his annual income to £41.1.9d. 27 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834 updated the previous Return for service and age, with conditions and pay remaining unchanged. 28 Return of Employees dated the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623) stated that since the 5th September 1837, Thomas Carter (1) had been employed as a Corning House Man with pay of £42.18. 0d; he was 72 years of age at that date, and although he was allowed to watch in turn, it appears that due to his age, he declined. 29 A transcript of the 1841 Census recorded that a Thomas Carter of a similar age was living with his wife, Elizabeth, (aged 60) in North Upshire near the Green Man. He is described therein as an Agricultural Labourer, and was born in the county.Supply 5/228
157WilliamCarter00/00/1765Record of Personnel in Storekeeper's Dept.1.William Carter was refining and milling Saltpetre, and paid 1/6d per day according to Supply 5/216 dated the 31st August 1794. These details were confirmed on the Return dated the 31st December 1794 (Supply 5/217). 2. William was still a Refiner on the 24th June 1795, according to Supply 5/217; this document states that he started with the Ordnance on the 21st November 1791. 3. According to Supply 5/219 dated September 1798, he enlisted with the Waltham Volunteers. 4. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay, showed that he was illiterate and was still working as a Refiner. 5. A Report of Employees dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) indicated that he was a married man with 6 children. 6. List of Employees dated the 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224) confirmed that William was still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner with just over 15 years' service and paid 2/-d per day. Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807 confirmed this information, but he was then allowed to watch in turn when not working "extra". Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808 and Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810 confirm the information given above, as did Supply 5/229 of the 29th August 1812, but this Return recorded he was now paid 2/8d per day. 7. Mr. Carter was still a Saltpetre Refiner according to the Return dated the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230); he was still being paid 2/8d per day, and when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn. 8. Lists of Officers & Others Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231 and WO54/524) stated William was still a Saltpetre Refiner, but his pay had been reduced to 2/4d per day. He was still allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. He was a 53-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey, and now had 7 children. 9. During 1818, it was proposed to reduce the Establishment at Waltham Abbey; William was to be retained, but he was subsequently reclassified as a Brimstone Refiner. 10 As a Brimstone Refiner (WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819) he was paid 2/4d per day and allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. He was then a 54-year-old married man with 7 children, living in Waltham Abbey. 11 List of Employees (Supply 5/232 dated the 13th September 1820) recorded that William was a Saltpetre Refiner who was still paid 2/4d per day, and now allowed to watch for 1/6d per night. His age was given as 55, and, according to this Return, he had 8 children. An update (Supply 5/232 of the 9th April 1821) gave similar information. and is confirmed in Supply 5/232 for 1822. 12 List of Employees dated the 6th February 1822 (Supply 5/232) confirmed that William started with the Ordnance on the 21st November 1791 as a Labourer, and that he was then a Saltpetre Refiner with an annual remuneration of £41.14.4d, which included allowances for watching. This document stated that he had been trained as a Butcher before working at the Mills, that he was 57 with 30 years' service, that he was married and had 9 children. He was still living in Waltham Abbey. 13 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 confirmed that Carter was still a Saltpetre Refiner, and that his pay for the year was £39.0.0d, which included an allowance for watching in turn, for which he received 2/-d per week. His family and service details were confirmed. 14 WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1823, recorded that he was still a Saltpetre Refiner and that his annual earnings were £39.0.0d, which included an allowance for watching the works in turn, which, on average, paid him 2/-d per week. 15 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B) William Carter had his pay reduced by £2.12.0d per annum in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the 27th December, 1822, and 15th January 1823. 16 WO/550 dated the 1st April 1825 confirmed William was still a Saltpetre Refiner and gave his basic pay as £33.16.0d per annum. It also confirmed that he was allowed to watch in turn, which gave him, on average, 2/-d per week, making his pay £39.0.0d per annum. It also confirmed his previous service details, but this Return recorded that he had only 7 children. 17 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826, recorded that William Carter had died.Supply 5/216
158Thomas (2)Carter00/00/1792List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc.1. Thomas Carter (2) was employed as a Cooper earning 1/9d per day. According to Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812 he was not allowed to watch, and, therefore, must have been under 14 when he started work. 2. In Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814, he was described as Thomas (2) and this document confirmed he was still a Cooper, then earning 2/4d per day, but still not allowed to watch. 3. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Thomas Carter was still a Cooper, and that he was a married man, aged 20, with no children, who lived in Waltham Abbey. He then earned 3/6d per day, but was not allowed to watch. 4. In a letter dated September 1818 (Supply 5/231), it was stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement." (Reduction in the Establishment following the end of the Napoleonic wars). The list included Mr. Thomas Carter. 5. Winters (pp.93-95), stated that in a Return showing pay and allowances, etc. dated the 1st October 1825, Thomas was re-engaged on the 20th December 1824 to make cement casks for Harwich. WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825 confirmed that at that date he had been employed for 9 months as a Cooper making cement casks for Harwich, with pay of £54.12.0d per annum. He had been trained as a Cooper, and was a 26-year-old married man, with 2 children. After 1825, no further references to Thomas Carter (2) can be found, and it is possible that he had left the area.Supply 5/228
159CharlesCarter00/00/1803List of Employees1. Charles Carter, according to a List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) was Appenticed to the Master Worker. He was a single man who lived in Waltham Abbey, and earned 6/-d per week. 2. A List of Empoyees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818; Charles Carter's name was on this list with his pay increased to 6/2d per week. 3. List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Carter was still Apprenticed to the Master Worker, lived in Waltham Abbey and that he was paid 6/2d per week. 4. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) recorded that 16-year-old Charles Carter was still an Apprentice, but that his pay had increased to 6/4d per week. 5. According to the List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) Charles was 17 at that date and Apprenticed to the Master Mixer of Composition; he was then paid 6/8d per week. 6. List of Employees at the Royal Powder Mills (Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822) gave Charles' age as 18; he was still an Apprentice with over 6 years' service, and then earned 7/-d per week. 7. Return showing the pay, allowances, length of service and every drescription of those employed in the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822) appeared to be a more detailed , and probably more accurate, Return than that dated the 23rd January 1822. It stated that Charles Carter was appointed Apprentice to the Master Worker on the 14th August 1815 at Waltham, and then as a Gunpowder Maker. His total earnings for the year amounted to £17.14.3d. At that date he had nearly 7 years' service, was aged 19, was a single man, and he lived in Waltham Abbey. 8. Return dated the 1st October 1822 (Supply 5/233); this document recorded that Charles Carter, Apprentice, having completed his Aprenticeship with the Master Worker, had been discharged by the Board's Order dated the 22nd May 1822. 9. List of Persons Employed by the Engineers' Department (WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825) confirmed that Charles Carter, a single man aged 22, had been employed as a Labourer for 4 months from June 1825 on a temporlary basis, and was to be discharged at the end of that month. He was paid 2/2d per day. 10 Although Charles was apprehended, together with William Taylor, by the Thames Police for being in possession of Government stores from the Waltham Abbey Mills, the outcome of this is unknown. (Supply 5/208 dated April 1833). 11 Nevertheless, a Return of Employees dated the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623) recorded that Charles was employed as a General Labourer on the 17th April 1837, with pay of £39 per annum, which included an allowance to watch in turn. He was then a 34-year-old married man with 1 child. 12 Supply 5/238 of the 30th November 1840 indicated that Charles Carter, a Labourer in the Mixing House, was appointed Millman. 13 The 1841 Census recorded that Charles was 35 years old, and that he and his wife, Ann, aged 25, were living in Broomstick Hall Road with their chidren Charles (4), George (3) and Thomas (3 months). All were born in Essex.Supply 5/231
160DanielCarterReturn of Employees1. Daniel Carter, according to the Return of Employees dated the the 1st October 1839 (WO56/623) was employed as a General Labourer in April 1837 at the age of 34. He was, however, discharged in September or October of 1839 according to this Return.WO56/623
161AbrahamCarter00/00/1802Return of Employees1. Abraham Carter, according to the List of Persons Employed by the Engineers' Department (WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825) was a single man aged 23, and had been employed as a Labourer for four months since June 1825 on a temporary basis, at 2/2d per day. He was to be discharged at the end of October 1825.WO54/550
162Thomas (3)Carter00/00/1797List of Employees in the Engineers' Department1. Thomas Carter (3) was employed as a casual Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department, and was first employed by the Board on the 9th September 1815. He was an 18-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816).WO54/516
163IsaacCass00/00/1732Personnel Record1. Isaac Cass was a Labourer by trade and and was set to work by Daniel Cornish in October 1787 at 9/-d per week, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase by the Government from Mr Walton (Winter's Centenary Memorial, p.28). 2. Record dated 27th January 1789 (Supply 5/212) stated that Mr. Cass was "to be tried as a Millman". He was appointed a Millman in the Corning House "...having lately been employed by Mr Walton." 3. His pay on the List of Artificers and Labourers Employed dated the 21st March 1789 (Supply 5/212) was given as 2/-d per day. 4. In Supply 5/213 dated the 18th April 1789 Isaac's job was described as "cutting and planting willow trees, cutting of canal at the new Corning House, removing earth to the Store, unloading barge of coals & charring wood." 5. Supply 5/214 dated September 1789, recorded that he was 57 and employed as a Millman. He is also described as a Millman in March 1790 and April 1791 (Supply 5/214 and 5/215) and again in July to September 1792, as well as in February 1793 (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February 1793). This was also the case in August to Sept 1793 (Supply 5/216 dated the 31st August 1793) and in January, August and December, 1794 (Supply 5/216 of the 31st January 1794, 5/216 of the 31st August 1794 and 5/217 of the 31st December 1794 respectively). 6. By the 24th June 1795, Isaac was working in the Dusting House on reduced pay of 1/6d per day (Supply 5/217 dated the 3rd July 1795. 7. A signed document, a Petition on Pay (Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800) indicated that he was literate and was working as a Warder. 8. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) showed he was working as a Labourer and was unmarried. Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 9. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still employed as a Warder "attending at the field gate, the Refining House and the upper part of the works."Supply 5/212
164JohnCassList of Employees and their Pay1. John Cass, according to the List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner who earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn. This remained the case on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/229
165LukeCawthornList of Officers & Others Employed1. Luke Cawthorn was working as a Labourer in the "Engineers' Dept. Established", earning 1/6d per day with "one day extra allowed per week, agreeable to the Board's Order dated 12th March 1801." (List of Officers and Others Employed dated the 8th May 1804 - Supply 5/222).Supply 5/222
166JamesCellopList of Officers etc employed.1. James Cellop was employed as a Millman with a rate of pay of 3/-d per day, and an additional 6d per night when on duty (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814)Supply 5/230
167WilliamChampnessList of Employees and their Pay1. William Champness was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner, and earned 2/8d per day; in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn. (List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229). 2. WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816, indicated that William was now employed as a casual Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department, having started in that capacity on the 12th September 1815. He was a 23-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey, with 1 child.Supply 5/229
168JosephChapelList of Artificers etc., their Marital status and Number of children.1. Joseph Chapel was working as a Labourer and paid 1/6d per day according to a Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221). He was unmarried. Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer.Supply 5/221
169JohnChaplin00/00/1787Employee Return1. John Chaplin was appointed as a Labourer within the Manufactory on the 11th February 1834, and was a 46-year-old married man with 7 children. He had worked in the Royal Ordnance Laboratory as a Labourer since the 1st May 1806 and had some 28 years' service. He was paid £28.5.6d per annum and was allowed to watch in turn, which gave him total annual pay of £33.9.6d (WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834). 2. WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834 confirmed the information given in Note 1, except that he was then 47 years old and had served just over 28 years. 3. Return of Employees dated the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623) indicated that he was employed as a Millman on the 26th October 1836 with pay of £46.16.0d, which included an allowance to watch in turn. He had 33 years' service, was a married man, was now aged 52, and had 7 children. 4. The 1841 Census recorded that John was only 50 years' old at that date, and that he and his wife, Sarah, who was described as a 45-year-old charwoman, were living in Camp's Alley with 5 of their children, John, aged 15 - described as a Labourer working at the Gunpowder Mills - Mary, aged 15, Eliza, aged 14, Rachael, aged 11 and Richard, aged 9. With the exception of Richard, they were all born in Essex.WO54/593
170WilliamChaplinReturn of Employees1. William Chaplin, according to the Return of Employees dated the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623) was to be employed as a general Labourer on the 2nd October 1839, in place of Charles Horam who had been discharged. He was to be paid of £39 per annum, which included an allowance to watch in turn.WO56/623
171ThomasChaplinLetter out book1. Thomas Chaplin, a general Labourer, replaced Charles Carter as a Labourer in the Mixing House on the 30th November 1840 (Supply 5/238 dated the 26th April 1841).Supply 5/238
172WilliamChapmanPetition on Pay1. William Chapman was illiterate and working as a general Labourer, according to a signed document of the 2nd February 1800 (Supply 5/220 relating to a Petition on Pay). 2. Chapman was employed as a Labourer "drawing and setting stoves and in the willow plantation", paid 2/8d per day and allowed to watch in turn, according to the List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229). 3. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814, recorded that he was then employed as a Cooper, but his pay had been reduced to 2/4d per day, and he was then not allowed to watch.Supply 5/220
173JosephChappleList of Foremen, Artificers & Labourers Employed1. Joseph Chapple was working as a Labourer "Setting & drawing stoves, loading and unloading barges etc." at 2/-d per day (Supply 5/226 dated the18th June 1807). At that time and had 9 months' service 2. Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, showed Mr. Chapple was now employed as a Corning House Man earning 2/6d. per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 3. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810 recorded that Joseph was then a Corning House Man who was still paid 2/6d day, and allowed to watch for 1/6d. 4. At 11.15 a.m. on the 27th November 1811, there was a huge explosion at No. 4 Press House; the ensuing fire engulfed the Corning and Reel Houses, which also exploded. There was much damage to the town with many windows shattered, and reports in the press recorded that the explosion was heard as far away as Hackney, Blackwall and Marylebone (Winters, p.72). Among those killed was Joseph Chapple, a widower, who left a 17-year-old daughter, Sarah, who was in service, and who was generally considered to be dependant "to a great measure" on her late father. 5. In a letter dated 29th November 1811 (Supply 5/199), the Board had agreed to pay "a donation of ten guineas" to Sarah, "the daughter of Joseph Chapple." His other children were provided for according to a letter dated the 3rd December, 1811 (Supply 5/229). This letter confirms that before his death, Mr. Chapple was employed as a Millman in the Corning House at 2/6d per day.Supply 5/224
174EdwardChaseRecord of Personnel Working in the Storekeeper's Department1. Edward Chase was a Labourer setting and drawing stoves, and in the punts for 1/6d per day (Supply 5/215 dated the 16th April 1791).Supply 5/215
175AnthonyChildsList of Officers, Foremen, and Artificers etc., employed in the Storekeeper's Dept.1. Anthony Childs was employed as a Puntman and paid 2/-d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810). 2. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) stated that Mr. Childs was then a Corning House Man earning 3/3d per day, and in addition, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d per night. 3. Anthony was still a Corning House Man on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) with the same rate of pay and allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night.Supply 5/228
176WilliamChillisList of Foremen, etc. in the Manufactory.1. William Chillis was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner in June 1807 and was paid 2/-d per day. In addition, he was allowed to watch in turn when not working, for which he was paid 1/-d (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807). 2. An entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808 confirmed Mr. Chillis was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/-d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 3. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810 was a repeat of the previous two entries.Supply 5/226
177JamesChillisList of Employees and their Pay1. James Chillis was a Brimstone Refiner who earned 3/-d per day, according to a List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229). Iin addition, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night. This information also applied on the 13th February 1814 according to Supply 5/230 of that date.Supply 5/229
178JohnChillisList of Employees and their Pay1. A 'Chillis, J' was recorded as a "new entrant" in Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, and employed as a Brinstone Refiner with pay of 2/-d per day. The name of J. Chillis does not appear again in the records until 1812 when the name John Chillis appears, and it is assumed that this is one and the same man. 2. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that a John Chilis was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner at 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, was allowed to watch in turn. This remained the case on the 13th February 1813 (Supply 5/230). 3. In a letter from the Office of Ordnance dated the 3rd November 1817 (Supply 5/201) it was stated that the Ordnance Surgeon, Mr. Hilton, has "represented the life of John Chillis, a Labourer... to be in danger for want of proper trusses to be used by him in a case of Hernia occasioned by his work in the manufactory, and which cannot be reduced". As a consequence, directions were given to the Director General of the Ordnance Medical Department "to cause two trusses of the description you have stated, to be immediately forwarded to Waltham Abbey for the use of this man."Supply 5/224
179PeterClarkList of Artificers, etc. Employed1. Peter Clark was working as a Labourer earning 1/6d per day, and was married with 5 children. (Supply 5/221 dated the 8th May 1801). Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 2. In his book "Centenary Memorial" (p.59) Winters stated that men were employed in repairing the Corning House which blew up on the 18th April 1801 and that Peter Clark was one of those men. He also recorded that the fire was caused "from the blow of a copper hammer on pit wheel." 3. In a letter dated the 23rd June 1801 (Supply 5/195) it was stated that the writer had "the Board's commands to transmit to you on the other side hereof a list of the men who have been burnt and otherwise hurt by the fire which lately destroyed (16th June, 1801) the Corning House at Waltham Abbey; and I am to desire the storekeeper will pay the men all their pay until they are recovered." The list included Peter Clark, and therein stated that "we beg to represent the situation of the poor men who were burnt when the Corning House took fire 16th instant while under repair." It further stated "These men are burnt in a dreadful manner, their pain is very great…" and "Our surgeon has represented the necessity of the men most burnt having immediate assistance in wine, as a considerable Suppuration is come on their constitutions. They cannot Support it without wine, and we have directed wine to be immediately provided to them, and request your permission for our continuing to Supply these poor men with such wine or other proper Support as their surgeon may think their respective situations require." 4. In a letter to the Board dated the 29th July 1801 (Supply 5/221), it is stated that the men who were burnt at the Corning House on the 16th June, had requested that they be reimbursed for the loss of clothing. The list included Mr. Clark, whose claim amounted to £2.12.6d in all - for a hat (4/-d), stockings (2/6d), shirt (5/6d), coat (6/6d), Breeches (4/-d), waistcoat (6/-d) and sheets (£1.4.0d.). The same letter went on to say that Mr. Clark, amongst others, suffered so much that he wished for death to release him from his torture, and that it was a matter of surprise that he was recovering. The constant attention the men needed meant that their wives could not undertake seasonal work (haymaking), at which they could earn sufficient to pay the rent. It was requested that financial allowances be made. 5. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) stated that Mr. Clark and others had been so severely burnt in the Old Corning house, that it would be dangerous to expose him with the other men in repairing the river banks at that time, but that instead, he should perform trifling jobs as they occurred.Supply 5/221
180John (1)ClarkList of Foremen and Artificers, etc., their rates of pay & service.1. John Clark (1) started work as a Millman in 1805, earning 2/3d per day, and his service was given as 9 months ( Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). 2. He was still employed as a Millman in June 1807 and allowed 3d per night when on duty (Supply 5/226) 3. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Clark was still a Millman earning 2/3d per day, and "allowed 6d per night when on duty." This was also the case in 1810 (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810).Supply 5/224
181WilliamClark00/00/1780List of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers Employed1. William Clark commenced work in the autumn of 1805 as a Labourer, "Drawing and Setting Stoves etc.", earning 2/-d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). 2. According to the List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed - Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807 - William then worked in the Corning House earning 2/2d per day. In addition, Corning House men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d. 3. Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, confirmed Mr. Clark was still employed as a Corning House Man, but with his pay increased to 2/6d. per day, and, again, "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 4. Pay List (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810) confirmed the information given in Note 3. 5. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Mr. Clark was still a Corning House Man, but that he now earned 3/3d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d per night. 6. William was still a Corning House Man on the 13th February 1814 with the same rate of pay and allowed to watch in turn, for the same 1/6d per night (Supply 5/230). 7. Lists of Officers & Others Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231 and WO54/524) confirmed that William Clark was still working in the Corning House, that he was 38, resided in Waltham Abbey, and was married with 1 child. He then earned 2/11d per day and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid only 1/-d per night. 8. A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) showed the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818, and Clark's name was not on that list. However, a second list dated the 3rd September, modified the cut- back and Clark was retained on the same wage, although he was then not allowed to watch. 9. List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) recorded that Clark was still employed in the Corning House and that he was a married man aged 39, with 1 child. He lived in Waltham Abbey, was paid 2/11d per day and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. 10 List of Officers on Employment dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Mr. William Clark was now 40. He then lived in Cheshunt, earned only 2/4d per day as a Saltpetre Refiner, but was allowed 1/6d per night when watching in turn. 11 List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) confirmed that William was 40, was married with 1 child, but was then employed as a Saltpetre Pefiner; all other entries remained the same as in Note 5. 12 List of Employees at the Royal Powder Mills (Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822) gave the age of William, Saltpetre Refiner, as 42, with 16 years' service and pay per day of 2/4d. 13 Return dated the 6th February 1822 (Supply 5/232) showed length of service and other full details of the persons employed by the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821. This appeared to be a more detailed and accurate Return than that of the 23rd January 1822. William Clark, Saltpetre Refiner, was appointed a Labourer at Waltham Abbey on the 13th June 1805, and by Orders of the Board dated 4th September 1818 and the 4th October 1819, as a Saltpetre Refiner. He was allowed to watch in turn to guard the works, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night, giving him total annual pay of £41.14.4d. According to this Return, at the 31st December 1821, he had 16 years' service, was 42 years of age, was married with 1 child, and lived in Cheshunt. 14 In the spring of 1822, the Ordnance Board decided to reduce the production and regeneration of gunpowder. The Establishment at Waltham was to be reduced, and, accordingly, Empson Middleton and James Wright drew up a list of people to be dismissed (Supply 5/232 dated the 21st March 1822). The list included William Clark, and the men were subsequently dismissed on the 1st June. Several Petitions were submitted by the men asking for financial assistance; many were long-service employees in their middle age, and they pointed out that they had little hope of finding employment after the hay and corn harvest had been gathered. The Storekeeper at Waltham was sympathetic and forwarded their Petitions to the Board for their consideration. William Clark was one of the petitioners, and as a consequence he was awarded two weeks' pay to ease his financial burden.Supply 5/224
182Benjamin (2)ClarkReturn of Employees1. Benjamin Clark (2) was employed as a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week (WO54/512 dated September 1812).WO54/512
183DanielClarkList of Employees1. Daniel Clark was first employed by the Board on the 14th October 1814 as a casual Labourer, earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department He was a 21-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey.WO54/516
184John (2)Clark00/00/1793List of Employees1. John Clark (2) was first employed by the Board on the 11th November 1815 as a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department. He earned 2/8d per day, and was a 22-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey, with 1 child (WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816).WO54/516
185Benjamin (1)Clarke/Clark00/00/1764Record of Personnel working in the Storekeeper's Department1. Benjamin Clarke/Clark (1) started on the 8th October 1794 as a Labourer in the Corning House, earning 1/6d per day. (Supply 5/217 of the 31st December 1794). Note: the spelling of his name varies throughout the documents. According to Supply 5/217 dated 3rd July 1795, he was still a Labourer in the Corning House. 2. Supply 5/219 of September 1798 recorded that Benjamin (1) was a Refiner who had enlisted as a Private in the Voluntary Company on the 8th October 1794. 3. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay indicated that he was illiterate and was still working as a Refining House Labourer . 4. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed he was working as a Labourer, and that he was a single man. Note: in this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. Robert Coleman recorded in his Minute Book on the 23rd October 1801, that 24 men were required to work at Faversham or be discharged. Benjamin Clark was one who agreed to go according to Winters' (p.60). However, the Faversham Gunpowder Personnel Register dated 1573 - 1840 does not record Clarke's name, so it can only be assumed that his services were terminated, but that he was subsequently re-engaged. 5. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Clark was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/-d. per day, and "when not working extra, they are allowed to watch in turn." 6. Return of Employees (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810) confirmed that he was Saltpetre Refiner, that he was paid 2/-d per day, and that he was allowed to watch in turn when not on duty. 7. List of Employees (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812) recorded that Benjamin was employed as a Warder in August 1812, with pay of 2/8d per day but not allowed to watch in turn. This information is confirmed at the 13th February 1814, according to Supply 5/230. 8. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Benjamin was still a Warder; he was a widower, aged 54, with 3 children who lived in Waltham Abbey. At that date he earned 2/4d per day. 9. In a letter dated September 1818 (Supply 5/231) it is stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement", i.e., a reduction in the Establishment due to a downturn in work. The list included Mr. Benjamin Clarke.Supply 5/217
186WilliamClaverlyPay List1. William Claverly was employed as a Common Labourer. He was paid 17/-d for 7 days for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809 (Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809), 2. According to Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, he was employed in setting and drawing stoves and in the willow plantations, etc., for which he was paid 2/-d per day and allowed to watch in turn. 3. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Mr. Claverly was then a Corning House Man who earned 3/3d per day, and in addition, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d per night. 4. He was still a Corning House Man on the 13th February 1814, with the same rate of pay and still allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/228
187CharlesClayden/Claydon/Clayton00/00/1784List of Foreman Artificers and Labourers1. Charles Claydon, according to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, had 3 months' service working in the Corning House at that date, and earned 2/2d per day WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825, recorded that he was first employed as a Puntman on the 24th October 1805, so it would appear he was transferred as a Corning House Man shortly afterwards. 2. Charles was still working in the Corning House earning 2/2d per day. In addition, Corning House Men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d. (List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed - Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807) 3. According to the entry in Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Claydon was still employed as a Corning House Man, but then earning 2/6d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 4. Employee List dated the 1st September 1810 (Supply 5/228) confirmed the information given in the previous note. 5. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Mr. Claydon was still a Corning House Man who then earned 3/3d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d per night. 6. According to the List of Employees dated the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) Mr. Claydon was now a Reeling House Foreman earning 3/10d per day, in addition to which, he was still allowed to watch in turn at 1/6d per night. 7. Lists of Officers & Others Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231 and WO54/524) recorded that Charles was working in the Corning House, that he was 33, resided in Waltham Abbey and was married with 5 children. He earned 2/11d per day and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night. 8. A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) showed the names of people who were to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818; Claydon's name was on the list with his pay remaining unchanged, but he was then not paid watch money. 9. Charles' name was included in a list attached to a letter dated September 1818 (Supply 5/231) wherein it stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement." 10 However, on a List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) Clayden was apparently still employed in the Corning House. He was then a married man, aged 34, with 5 children, who lived in Waltham Abbey. His pay was still 2/11d per day, and he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. 11 List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) confirmed the information given in Note 10, although he was then allowed 1/6d per night to watch. In addition, according to this Return, he only had 4 children. 12 A document dated the 4th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) was a statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December 1821 and showed the amounts received by the Storekeeper. It indicated that Charles Claydon was living in a house owned by the Board of Ordnance (Tenement No. 4) leased to him at £5.4.0d per annum. The property has been identified as being in Romeland. The same information is repeated in Supply 5/232 dated the 16th February 1822 for the year 1821. 13 List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Mr. Charles Claydon was then 39, was married, had 4 children and still lived in Waltham Abbey. All other information remained the same as in Note 11. 14 List of Employees at the Royal Powder Mills (Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822) gave the age of Mr. Charles Claydon, Corning House Man, as 39, with pay per day of 2/11d. 15 Return showing the pay, allowances and length of service and every description of the persons in the employment of the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated 6th February 1822) appeared to be a more detailed, and probably more accurate, Return than that dated the 23rd January 1822. It recorded that Charles Claydon, Corning House Man, was appointed on the 24th October 1805 as a Puntman at Waltham Abbey. His position on the Establishment as a Corning House Man was confirmed by an Order of the Board dated the 4th September 1818, and he was allowed to watch in turn to guard the works, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night, which gave him total annual pay for the year of £50.16.11d. He had just over 16 years' service, was aged 40, and was a married man with 4 children, living in Waltham Abbey. 16 List dated the 21st March 1822 (Supply 5/232) of Persons to form an Establishment at Waltham Abbey to regenerate 2000 barrels of gunpowder as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually, included Charles Claydon, Corning House Man. A Statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit" dated he 4th April 1822, recorded that Charles was one of several employees "having occupied their present residences previous to the Hon. Board purchasing the same, sanction will be asked for their future residing in them." Under an Order dated the 4th May 1821, the property was leased to him for an annnual rent of £5.4.0d, (Supply 5/232) although where the property was is unknown. In the spring of 1827, Charles moved to Romeland to another tenement owned by the Board off High Bridge Street. A List of Properties prepared by the Royal Engineers' Office recorded that on the 6th April 1827, Charles Clayton was granted the lease of a tenement owned by the Board (Supply 5/237 and WO44/133) for which he was charged £5.4.0d per annum. The cottage is Plot No. 71 on the Drayson Town Map of 1833, and according to the 1825 Rateable Valuation for Waltham Abbey, had then been occupied by a Thomas Clayton (D/DHf B29). Charles continued to work as a general Labourer and retained his right to watch in turn until October 1827, when he was classified as a Leading Hand. This allowed him to act as a Rounder, which increased his annual income to £47.17.4d (WO54/558) Sometime between 1834 and 1840 he moved into a cottage within the Storehouse Yard following the death of Benjamin Archer, and this was Plot No. 21 on Drayson's 1833 Town Map. 17 A Return of Employees dated the 10th October 1822 (Supply 5/233) showed that he was required to carry out any type of work required anywhere within the Manufactory. 18 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823, recorded that Clayden was classed as a "a Labourer for general purposes to be sent to all parts of the Manufactory wherever their services may be requested." - in other words a general Labourer. He was paid £33.16.0d per annum, and this record showed that he was then a widower with 4 children. 19 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 ( - Alteration in Return B), Charles had his pay reduced by £2.12.0d per annum in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the 27th December 1822 and the 15th January 1823. 20. WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1824 recorded that Charles earned £39.0.0d per annum which included an allowance for watching in turn, for which he received 2/-per week. His period of service was given as 19 years, he was then aged 42, and was a widower with 4 children. 21 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825, confirmed he was still a general purpose Labourer, and that he was earning £33.16.0d per annum. He was allowed to watch in turn, which gave him, on average, 2/-d per week, giving him total pay of £39.0.0d per annum; this Return also confirmed his previous family and service details. 22 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the the 1st October 1825. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 confirmed the basic details given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826. 23 According to WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827, although Charles was still classified as a General Labourer, he was a Leading Hand. This allowed him to act as a Rounder every third night, which increased his annual income to £47.17.4d. Family details were confirmed as in the notes above. At that date Charles Claydon had 22 years' service and was then 44 years of age. 24 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) gave the same information as in the notes above, with the exception that he had then served nearly 23 years. 25 Return dated the 1st October 1828 ((WO54/562)) updateed his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 26 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay unchanged. 27 Return of Employees as at the 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) recorded that Charles earned in total £45.17.4d per annum, that his service was nearly 24 years, that he was 45 years of age, and that he was married, with 4 children. 28 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for Charles as in Note 27, except that his service was given as just over 24 years and that he was aged 46. 29 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, confirmed the information given in Note 27. WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831 updated the October Return, and confirmed that he was still employed as a General Labourer within the Manufactory. 30 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 31 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return. He was a Rounder every 3rd night, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night, giving him annual pay of £47.17.4d. 32. WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832, updated his age and period of service in the April, 1832 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 33 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 confirmed that at that date Charles was still earning £45.17.4d annually. His period of service was given as 27 years, and his age as 49. 34 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 stated that Charles was 50 years of age, and had served for 28 years. On the 15th July 1833, he had been promoted to a Corning House Man, replacing James Pallett who had died This Return recorded that his annual wage was then £53.16.0d, which included an amount for Rounding every 3rd night of 2/-d. 35 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 recorded that although Charles was still employed as a Corning House Man, his basic pay had been cut to £35.17.9d per annum. He was still a Rounder every 3rd night, for which he was paid 2/-d each time, and this increased his annual pay to £48.1.9d. His age and service details were updated. 36 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834 updated the previous Return for service and age, but his conditions and pay remained unchanged. 37 A List of Properties prepared by the Royal Engineers on the 20th December 1834, recorded that Charles Claydon had leased or rented Tenement No. 72 since the 6th April 1827. This property was in Romelands although the document described it as on "Horse Mill Island." This may have been a clerical error, since Charles was soon to move into another cottage following the retirement of Benjamin Archer. That cottage was located within the Salpetre Refinery, where a track via a footbridge, led to the island. 38 Return of Employees dated the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623) indicated his pay was £55.0.8d per annum, which included an amount for being allowed to watch in turn. He had been restored as a Corning House Man on the 5th September 1834; all other details remained unchanged. 39 The 1841 Census recorded that Charles was living in a cottage on the south side of High Bridge Street with, presumably, his second wife, Elizabeth. Both were in their fifties, and living with them was a Sarah Pegrum, aged 90, perhaps his mother-in-law.Supply 5/224
188ThomasClaydonList of officers, foremen, artificers etc.1. Thomas Claydon was a Labourer in various parts of the Manufactory, setting and drawing stoves and loading and unloading barges, etc., for which he was paid 2/-d per day (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807).Supply 5/226
189JosephClaydonList of Officers, Foremen, and Artificers, etc. employed in the Storekeeper's Department1. Joseph Claydon was employed in setting and drawing stoves and in the willow plantations etc. at 2/-d per day. He was also allowed to watch in turn. (Supply 5/228 dated September 1810). 2. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Joseph was a Corning House Man who earned 3/3d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night. 3. Joseph was still a Corning House Man on the 13th February 1814, with the same rate of pay and allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/228
190JohnClowdeslyC.V's of Clerks at Waltham Abbey1. John Clowdesly was appointed by General Conway at Portsmouth on the 12th October 1772, and made Extra Clerk at Portsmouth on the 24th February 1776. He was an Extra Clerk at Woolwich on the 24 April 1777, and became Clerk of the Cheque at Purfleet on the 12th August 1780 (Supply 5/216 dated the 23rd August 1792). 2. He was appointed Clerk of the Cheque at Waltham Abbey on the 1st April 1788 (FGP, p.21).Supply 5/216
191JohnCoal00/00/1786List of Officers and Foremen, etc.1. John Coal was employed as a Casual Bricklayer's Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department, according to WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816. He was first employed by the Board on the 12th June 1813, and was a 30-year-old married man living in Enfield, with 1child.WO54/516
192StephenCockPersonnel Record1. Stephen Cock was a Labourer by trade, set to work by Daniel Cornish in October, 1787 at 9/-d per week, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase by the Government from Mr Walton (Winters, op.cit.p.28). 2. A Report dated the 27th November 1788 (Supply 5/212) recorded that Stephen was to be tried as a Millman, yet a further Report dated the 21st March 1789 (also Supply 5/212) recorded that Cock was at that date "Setting and Drawing Stoves, etc." at 1/6d per day. 3. A letter dated the 12th September 1789 from J. Wright and J. Clowdersly to Major Congreve said, "We beg leave to report that last night at 6 O'clock the 2nd of No. 16 Head Mills blew up; the charge had not been upon the bed more than five Minutes and the Mill did not receive any injury, it was set to work this day at 10 O'clock. The Master Worker has removed James Bennett and Stephen Cock out of the Mills as he found them incapable of doing their buisiness, we therefore desire to know if you would have them discharged. We have given notice to Richard Stevens and Thos Wright that they are not to be employed after the 20th Instant which we hope will meet your approbation." (WASC 1392).Supply 5/212
193AbrahamCockhamList of Employees and their Pay1. Abraham Cockham was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). This remained the case on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/229
194JohnCodwellList of Employees.1. John Codwell was employed as a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week (WO54/512 dated September 1812).WO54/512
195WilliamColbertReturn of Employees1. William Colbert, according to WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, was originally brought up as a musician to the Dragoons. He commenced work with the Board on the 31st May 1800, but where was not known. His employment at Waltham Abbey dated from the 18th May 1832, and he had not worked there previously. In April 1833, he was the Foreman of Labourers, with a daily rate of pay of 4/9d for 313 days, giving him annual earnings of £74.6.9d. His period of service was given as 33 years, and he was then aged 67, a widower with 6 children. 2. Under an order of the Board dated the 15th March 1833, William Colbert, Labourer with the Engineers' Department, was to be discharged and granted a pension of £29.14.9d per annum, until an opportunity arose to employ him again. (Supply 5/208 dated 26 July 1833).WO54/587
196ThomasCole00/00/1739List of Artificers, etc.1. Thomas Cole was employed as a Labourer in the Engineers's Department at 1/6d per day. Between August and September 1790 he worked within the Manufactory, with his wages submitted by William Spry, Colonel commanding the Royal Engineers, and paid by the Storekeeper, James Wright. Thomas signed for his pay with a firm hand (WASC 1382). 2. According to a Report dated the 8th May 1801, Thomas was working as a Labourer Foreman in the Engineers' Department; he was a married man with 1 child, and was paid 1/9d per day, having started work at the Mills in 1790 (Supply 5/221). 3. In a letter dated the 23rd June 1801 (Supply 5/195) it was stated that the writer had "the Board's commands to transmit to you on the other side hereof a list of the men who have been burnt and otherwise hurt by the fire which lately [16th June, 1801] destroyed the Corning House at Waltham Abbey; and I am to desire the storekeeper will pay the men all of their pay until they are recovered." Winter's in his book "Centenary Memorial" made it clear that the men were employed in repairing the Corning House which had blown up on the 18th April 1801, and that the fire was caused "from the blow of a copper hammer on pit wheel." 4. The list dated the 23rd June 1801 (Supply 5/195) included Mr. Cole, and stated therein, "we beg to represent the situation of the poor men who were burnt when the Corning House took fire 16th instant while under repair." It further stated that Mr. Cole and two others were "Burnt so as to prevent them working, but they may soon be well." and "Our surgeon has represented the necessity of the men most burnt having immediate assistance in wine, as a considerable Suppuration is come on their constitutions. They cannot Support it without wine, and we have directed wine to be immediately provided to them, and request your permission for our continuing to Supply these poor men with such wine or other proper Support as their surgeon may think their respective situations require." 5. In a letter to the Board dated the 29 July 1801 (Supply 5/221), it was recorded that the men, including Thomas Cole, who were burnt at the Corning House on the 16th June, suffered so much that they wished for death to release them from their torture, and it was a matter of surprise that they were recovering. The constant attention the men needed meant that their wives could not undertake seasonal work (haymaking) when they could earn sufficient to pay the rent. It was requested, therefore, that financial allowances be made. 6. A List of Officers and Others Employed (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804) showed Thomas was still working as a Labourer in the "Engineers' Department Established", earning 1/6d per day with "one day extra allowed per week agreeable to the Board's Order dated 12th March 1801." 7. A List of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers Employed dated the 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224) showed Thomas was a Warder earning 2/-d per day, and that he had 16 years' service, which agrees with the first entry. 8. He was still a Warder in 1807 and 1808 according to the List of Officers, Foremen, and Artificers, etc. Employed dated the 23rd August 1808, when he earned 2/-d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/227). 9. List of Employees (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812) confirmed that he was still employed as a Warder in August 1812, but that his pay had increased to 2/8d per day. 10 List of Employees (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814) confirmed the information given in Note 8. 11 List of Persons in Employment dated the 2nd March 1816 (Supply 5/230) recorded that Mr. Thomas Cole was still a Warder who had served 27 years, and his age was given as 76. It was recommended that he receive a daily superannuation of 2/8d. In the attached notes was the comment that Mr. Cole and others should be superannuated "...because of the hurts they have received in this dangerous manufactory." It was also stated therein that Mr. Cole "has been getting more feeble every month for several years past, and is now incapable of exertion and quite worn out." However, in a letter dated 6th March 1816 (Supply 5/200), Mr. Cole was finally awarded superannuation of only 2/-d per day for six days in the week, commencing on the 1st April 1816. 12 A supplement to a document dated the 8th November 1818 (Supply 5/231) listed persons who had been superannuated on account of their length of service in the departments. Among the recipients was "Thomas Cole, Warder" who received a pension of 12/-d per week, which commenced on the 1st April 1816. 13 List of Persons receiving Superannuation (Supply 5/232 dated the 17th November 1821) confirmed entry No. 11 above in respect of Thomas. 14 A document dated the 6th December 1821 (Supply 5/232) gave the estimated pay of persons between the 1st January and 31st December 1822 along with their superannuated allowance, as well as "the allowance to widows and orphans of those who have lost their lives at this place". It recorded that Thomas Cole, "lately a Warder" was in receipt of £31.4.0d superannuation per annum. A similar document, Supply 5/232 dated the 28th December 1821, confirmed that the same pension would be paid in 1822. This is also the case in 1826 according to Winters (p.96).Supply 5/221
197JamesCole00/00/1786List of Foreman Artificers and Labourers Employed1. James Cole was working in Corning House earning 2/2d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806) and had been employed with the Ordnance since the 8th September 1804 (Supply 5/232).. 2. Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807 confirmed he was still working in the Corning House earning the same amount as before, but in addition, Corning House Men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d each time. 3. An entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808 stated that Mr. Cole was a "Foreman of Reeling Houses" earning 2/10d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling and six pence", as was the case in 1810 and 1811. 4. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Cole was still a Reeling House Foreman, but that he then earned 3/10d per day, in addition to which, he was still watching in turn at 1/6d. per night. 5. According to the List of Employees dated the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) the information regarding Mr. Cole remained the same as in Note 4. 6. Lists of Officers & Others Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231 and WO54/524) state that James was working in the Corning House, that he was 32 and resided in Waltham Abbey, and that he was married with 4 children. He earned 2/11d per day and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night. 7. A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) gave the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818; Cole's name was included, with his pay reduced to 2/6d per day, and he was not allowed to watch. 8. James, according to the List of Employees dated the the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) was employed in the Corning House, was a married man aged 33 with 4 children, lived in Waltham Abbey, was paid 2/11d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. 9. List of employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) updated the above entry, the basic details on pay, etc. remaining unchanged, except that they were now allowed 1/6d per night to watch.. 10 List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that James was then 34; all other entries remained the same as in Note 9. 11 List of Employees at the Royal Powder Mills (Supply 5/232 dated 23rd January 1822) gave James's age as 36. He still worked in the Corning House and at that time had just over 17 years' service, with pay per day of 2/11d. 12 Return showing the pay, allowances and length of service and every description of the persons working at the Ordnance, Waltham Abbey, as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822) appeared to be a more detailed, and probably more accurate, Return than that dated the 23rd January 1822. It recorded that James Cole, Corning House Man, was appointed on the 8th September 1804, and that his position on the Establishment as a Corning House Man was confirmed by an Order of the Board dated the 4th September, 1818. He was allowed to watch in turn to guard the works, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night, which gave him a total for the year of £50.16.11d. He had just over 17 years' service, was aged 36, was a married man with 4 children and lived in Waltham Abbey. In addition, it recorded that he originally trained as a Pin Maker. 13 Supply 5/232 (List dated the 21st March, 1822 of persons to form an Establishment at Waltham Abbey to regenerate 2000 barrels of gunpowder, as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually) included James Cole, Corning House Man. 14 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 confirmed that Cole was still a Corning House Man, and that his pay for the year was £48.2.0d which included an allowance for watching in turn, for which he received 2/-d per week. His family and service details were confirmed. 15 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B), James had had his pay reduced by £2.12.0d per annum in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the 27th December 1822 and the 15th January 1823. WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1823 confirmed that he was still a Corning House Man and that his annual earnings were £48.2.0d, which included an allowance for watching the works in turn, for which, on average, he received 2/-d per week. His service and family details were confirmed. 16 Return showing pay and allowances, etc., dated the 1st October 1825 (Winters, pp.93-95) confirmed previous information given, and recorded that he had been in continuous service with the Board since the 8th September, 1804. His pay was given as £42.18.0d per annum. 17 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 recorded that James was still a Corning House Man, and gave his basic salary as £42.18.0d per annum. He was allowed to watch in turn which gave him, on average, 2/-d per week, making a total remuneration of £48.2.0d per annum. His previous family and service details were also confirmed . All of this information was repeated in WO54/550 dated the the 1st October 1825. 18 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825, and WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, confirmed the details given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826. 19 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded "no alteration since the last report dated the 1st October 1826." 20 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 gave the same information as in the notes above. At that date, however, James had nearly 23 years' service and he was then aged 43. 21 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) gave the same information as in the notes above, with the exception that he had served just over 23 years. 22 Return dated the 1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 23 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) also updated James' age and length of service, with family details and pay unaltered. 24 WO54/566 dated the 1st October 1829 stated that at that date James still earned the same as recorded in Note 17. His length of service was given as nearly 25 years and he was then aged 44. 25 Return WO54/ 570 dated the 1st April 1830 updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details remaining unchanged. 26 WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 recorded that James was 45 and that he had served for nearly 26 years. His pay was still the same as in Note 17. 27 According to Return WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831, James was 46 and had served just over 26 years. He was still earning a total of £48.2.0d per annum. 28 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return and all other details remained unchanged. 29 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 30 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 updated his age and period of service in the April, 1832 Return. 31 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 confirmed that James still earned a total of £48.2.0d per annum. His service was given as just over 28 years, and his age as 48. 32 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 recorded that James was 49 years of age and had served 29 years. He was still in receipt of annual pay of £48.2.0d, and his family details remained the same. 33 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 recorded that although James was still employed as a Corning House Man, his basic pay had been cut to £35.17.9d per annum, although he was still allowed to watch in turn, which increased his pay £41.1.9d per annum. He still had 4 children, and his age and service details had been updated. 34 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834 updated the previous Return for service and age, with conditions and pay remaining unchanged. 33 Return of employees dated the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623) confirmed that he was still employed as a Corning House Man with annual pay of £42.2.0d, which included an allowance to watch in turn. His other details remained unchanged. 34 James Cole's name did not appear in the 1841 Census for Waltham Abbey. 33 On the 13th April 1843, some 40 barrels of gunpowder exploded in the Corning House, together with another 20 in the Press House; 7 men were killed, and much damage was caused in the town. Among those killed was James Cole (Winters, p.106). 34 A graphic description of the explosion and damage caused, etc. was given in the London Illustrated News dated the Saturday, the 22nd April 1843 (WAAC). James left a widow and 4 children. 35. James was buried on Saturday, the 15th April 1843, in Waltham Abbey churchyard.Supply 5/224
198RobertColemanC.V of Clerks at Waltham Abbey1. Robert Coleman was appointed Extra Clerk at Purfleet on the 22nd July 1780, and Clerk at Waltham Abbey on the 1st April 1788 (Supply 5/216 dated the 23rd August 1792 - C.V's of Clerks at Waltham Abbey). 2. In 1794 he became a First-Lieutenant in the Militia formed at the Mills (Winters, p.51). 3. Report on Pay and Allowances for Artificers and Labourers (Supply 5/217 dated the 3rd July 1795) indicated that he was appointed Clerk of the Cheque, and gave his salary as £90 per annum, with £20 per annum for house rent. 4. A List of Artificers, Labourers and Members of the Volunteer Company dated September 1798 was prepared by Robert Coleman and signed by him as the "Storekeeper on duty", i.e., at the time, the Storekeeper was away from the Powder Mills (Supply 5/219). 5. Coleman kept a Minute Book between 1793 and 1796 which Winters used extensively in his Centenary Memorial, (pp 36-48), published in 1878. The Minute Book contained many small incidents relating to life and working conditions at the Mills, and his last entry on the 17th June 1796 read "Discontinued these Minutes, for it is impossible to keep them with accuracy in consequence of my frequency of going, after the Cylinder Works and Charcoal Wood." The cylinder works were at Fisher Street and Fernhurst in West Sussex, and he made frequent "scouting " trips in Essex for charcoal." He signed most of the letters in conjunction with the Storekeeper, James Wright, but a note on one dated the 17th May 1799, recorded "Clerk of the Cheque absent on duty in Sussex" (WO13/2202). 6. A letter from the Board dated the 19th August 1801 recorded that Henry Dugleby had been promoted to Clerk of the Cheque in place of Robert Coleman, who had been promoted (Supply 5/195). 7. Where Coleman was posted to is unknown.Supply 5/216
199GeorgeColemanList of Employees1. George Coleman, in a Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) ws shown as a Labourer who earned 1/6d per day. This Return also recorded that he was a married man with 1 child. 2. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (also Supply 5/221) stated that he was employed as a Labourer at the Cylinder Houses in Sussex. The same document said that since the cylinders had been out of repair, Coleman had been employed in stacking timber in the yards and levelling and preparing the ground where the cylinders were to be resited, but "…it is possible that they [he] will go to Faversham as has been done heretofore, or their [his] business will be terminated."Supply 5/221
200JamesCollopList of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers Employed1. James Collop was initially employed as a Labourer, drawing and setting stoves etc., earning 2/-d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806), and at that date he had 1 year's service 2. According to Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808 Mr. Collop was then employed as a Punt Man earning 2/-d per day, and allowed to watch in turn. 3. A Return dated the 1st September 1810 (Supply 5/228) indicated that he was employed as a Millman with pay of 2/3d per day, and he was also allowed 6d per night when working extra. 4. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Collop was still a Millman, but that he then earned 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was still allowed 6d per night when on duty.Supply 5/224
201JosephColver00/00/1768Return of Employees1. Joseph Colver was a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week, according to WO54/512 dated September 1812. 2. WO54/516 dated February 1816, confirmed that he was employed as a Casual Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department, and that he was first employed by the Board on the 12th November 1811. He was a 48-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey, with 8 unmarried children. 3. WO54/520 dated the 28th February 1817 recorded that his pay was then only 2/4d per day, and that one of his children had married. 4. WO54/524 dated the 11th April 1818, recorded that he was employed "Occasionally as required" and paid 2/4d per day. 5. WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819, confirmed that he was still earning 2/4d per day. On this Return his age was given as 51. 6. List of employees dated the 13th September 1820 (WO54/532) confirmed that Joseph was still employed as a Labourer. At that date he was 52, still lived in Waltham Abbey, and was married with 8 children. He still earned 2/4d per day, and worked only "Occasionally as the Service required." 7. WO54/536 dated the 2nd April 1821, recorded that he was 53 years' old with alll other details previously givenremaining unchanged.WO54/512
202JohnColverd00/00/1787Pay List1. John Colverd, according to Pay List dated the 21st July 1809 (Supply 5/228) was a Carpenter (1st class), and was paid £1.9.9d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809. 2. WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 (Personnel Employed in the Engineers' Department) recorded that John was paid 4/1d per day for 313 days as a Carpenter. This gave him an annual income of £63.18.1d. His service at that date was nearly 15 years, and he was then 38 years' old. He was married and had 10 children, and this document also recorded that he was appointed to the Establishment in 1810. 3. WO54/550 dated the 13th October 1825, was a repeat of the record dated the 1st April 1825. A note against 'Former Appointments' recorded that he was in the employment of a contractor on the 6th September 1804, who, it is assumed, worked for the Ordnance. 4. WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826, gives identical information as that in Notes 3 and 4, with the exception that he was then nearly 40 years' old, with service of nearly 16 years. 5. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, gave the same information as on the previous Return. 6. WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded the same information as in the notes above, but at that date, Mr. Colverd had nearly 17 years' service. 7. WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827, showed no basic alteration from the previous Return. 8. Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) updated the information given in the notes above. 9. Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. This Return confirmed he had trained as a Carpenter. 10 WO54/566 dated the 1st April 1829, confirmed that John at that date still earned the same as in Note 2. His length of service was given as nearly 17 years, and he was 42 years' old. 11 Return dated the 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details remaining unchanged. 12 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for John Colverd as in Note 2, except that his service was now nearly 20 years, and his age was 43. 13 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, confirmed that John was still a Carpenter, with family details and pay remaining unaltered, but length of service and age updated. 14 A Return of Persons Belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield, showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January, 1831, recorded that John Colverd was one of the 7 Carpenters to be employed at Waltham Abbey Powder Mills and the Enfield Small Arms Factory. He was to be paid 4/1d per day, and was required to undertake general services as a Carpenter in the Manufactory which required, " great care, attention and sobriety, etc."(WO54/575). 15 WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831 updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 16 WO54/575 dated October 1831, confirmed that John still earned 4/1d per day as in Note 14, giving him a total of £63.18.1d per annum. At that date he had served just over 21 years, and was aged 45. 17 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining the same. WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 confirmed that he still earned £63.18.1d per annum and had, by then, served just over 22 years. He was then 46 years of age. This Return stated that the "Date of Present Appointment" was 23rd June 1823. 18 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, confirmed the information given in Note 17. 19 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, recorded that he was in "Contractors' employ" at the Mills on the 6th September 1804 as a Carpenter, and that he had held his "present employ since the 23rd June 1823". His length of service was given as just over 23 years, which indicates that he first worked at the Mills in 1810. This is at variance with later entries. His pay remained at £63.18.1d, and this Return confirmed he had 10 children. 20 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 stated that John still earned a total of £63.18.1d per annum, that he was 47 years of age, and that his service was nearly 24 years. 21 In 1839 he was still paid 4/1d per day, with an estimated annual remuneration of £63.18.1d. He was a 53-year-old married man with 10 children, living in Waltham Abbey. (WO54/623 dated the 1st October 1839). 22 In the 1841 Census it was recorded that John, a Carpenter, and his wife Mary, lived in Romeland, together with their children Charles, aged 20, (also a Carpenter), James, aged 15 (a Shoemaker), and daughters Ann, aged 15, (who worked in the S.A.F. as a Percussion Cap Maker), Elizabeth, aged 13 and Rebecca, aged 7, who were both Pin Makers. John was not born in Essex, but the rest of his family were.Supply 5/228
203ThomasColverd00/00/1810Return of Employees1. Thomas Colverd joined the Engineers' Department as a Labourer on the 21st May 1829 (WO54/566 dated the 1st October 1829). He was a 19-year-old single man, who had trained as a Carpenter and was paid 2/2d per day, which gave him an annual income of £33.18.2d. He may possibly have been the eldest son of John Colverd, Carpenter. 2. According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for Thomas as in Note 1, except that his service was given as 1 year. 3. Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, confirmed that Thomas was still working as a Labourer, with his pay remaining unchanged. 4. A Return of Persons Belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield, showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January 1831, recorded that Thomas Colverd was one of the 15 Labourers to be employed at Waltham Abbey Powder Mills and the Enfield Small Arms Factory, and that he was to be paid 2/2d per day to undertake different services as a Labourer in the Manufactories, "where steadiness and sobriety are particuliary required" (WO54/575). 5. WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831, updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 6. WO54/575 dated October 1831, confirmed that Thomas Colverd still earned 2/2d per day, giving him a total of £33.18.2d per annum. He had then served just over 2years and was aged 21. 7. WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unaltered. 8. WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832, confirmed that Thomas still earned £33.18.2d per annum. His service was given as just over 3years, and at that date he was just over 21 years of age. 9. WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, gave the same information as in Note 8 above, except that Thomas was at that date 22 years' old and had served 4 years. 10 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, confirmed that Thomas's basic details were unchanged and confirmed that he was still single. 11 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834, recorded that Thomas still earned £33.18.2d per annum, that he had served 5 years, that his age was 23 and that he was still a single man. 12 Based on the 1841 Census and previous information regarding age and marital status, it is possible that he may have been the Thomas Colverd, a 30-year-old bachelor and Carpenter by trade, who was living in what appeared to be a lodging house in Mr Hicks' yard in Sewardstone Street.WO54/566
204JosephConyerdList of those Employed and their Pay1. Joseph Conyerd, according to the List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner who earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn. This remained the case on the the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/229
205Thomas (1)Cook00/00/1776Personnel Record for the Storekeeper's Department1. Thomas Cook was taken on as an Apprentice in the Mixing House in August 1789, and was paid 1/-d per day (Supply 5/213 dated the 22nd August 1789). He remained an Apprentice until some time in 1793, but as his name is not included on the List of Employees dated the 31st August 1793 (Supply 5/216) it must be assumed that by that date he had left the Mills.Supply 5/213
206Thomas (2)CookReturn of Employees1. In 1812, a Thomas Cook was employed as a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week (WO54/512 dated September 1812).WO54/512
207JohnCook (also Cooke)Record of Personnel working in the Storekeeper's Department1. John Cook started work as a Labourer in the Corning House on the 5th November 1789, receiving 1/6d per day (Supply 5/214 dated the 27th March 1790). In April 1791, he was "in the barges" (Supply 5/215 dated the 16th April 1791). This was also the case in January to March 1792, according to a footnote on Supply 5/215 dated the 31st January 1792. Supply 5/216 of the 31st July 1792, recorded that he was "in the country charring wood" and would be until September 1792, at which time he was paid 1/6d per day. By February 1793, John Cook was working as a Bargeman. Together with John Turnham and William Fuller he was taking materials to London by barge, and was clearly afraid of being "seized by the Press Gangs" because the Rex Officers at Waltham Abbey wrote to the Duke of Richmond to the effect that Cook, Fuller and Turnham were Gunpowder Makers and Bargemen, and were apprehensive of the Impress Office on the River Thames. They requested that "you will be pleased to grant them protection." (WASC 475). 2. John was desrcibed as a Bargeman in February to March 1793 (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February 1793) and August to September of that year (Supply 5/216). This remained the case in January to August 1794 (Supply 5/216), and in December 1794 (Supply 5/217). The same information is repeated in July 1795 (Supply 5/217) when his pay was shown as 9/-d per week. Additionally, John Cook and John Goodwin were Masters of the Bengal in 1797, according to Winters (p.55). 3. In a Return dated September 1798 (Supply 5/219) John was still listed as a Bargeman. 4. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay, showed that John was illiterate and was still working as a Bargeman. 5. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was working as a Labourer, was a married man, and had 2 children. Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 6. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) stated that although he was still employed as a Bargeman, when not in the barges he was employed with the other men cleaning and deepening the river, canals, ditches and performing any other work necessary.. 7. According to Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804, John was working as a Bargeman with pay of 3/3d per day. This Report also recorded that while transporting gunpowder to Pickets Field, Bargemen were allowed double pay. 8. A List of Officers and other Persons on the Establishment dated the 28th March 1805 (Supply 5/223) recorded that together with John Turnham, Cook was in charge of 19 men employed in shipping gunpowder, landing and drawing stores, transporting gunpowder and working in the willow plantation. They were earning 14/-d per week. 9. John is described as a Master Bargeman in January 1806 (Supply 5/224) with 15 years' service. 10 In a record dated 1807 Mr. Cook was still listed as a Master Bargeman, now earning 4/-d per day. This was also the case in 1808 (List of Officers and Artificers, etc. Employed dated the 23rd August 1808 - Supply 5/227) and again in 1811, according to Supply 5/229. 11 Cook was still employed as a Master Bargeman in August 1812, with his pay increased to 5/2d per day (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 12 List of Employees and their Pay (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814) confirmed that Mr. Cook was still a Master Bargeman at that date, and that he was earning the same 5/2d per day. 13 Report of Persons in Employment dated the 2nd March 1816 (Supply 5/230) confirmed that Mr. Cook was still a Master Bargeman with service of 26 years. It was recommended that he receive a daily superannuation of 5/2d. In the attached notes was the comment that Mr. Cook and others should be superannuated because "...of the hurts they have received in this dangerous Manufactory." It was also stated therein that Mr. Cook had, "previous to his entry into the Ordnance, served in the employment of the Merchants at these works from his childhood." In addition it was said that he had been "very much bruised and severely hurt in the Ordnance service at various periods, which has brought on complaints which render him unfit to continue his duty." However, in a letter dated the 6th March 1816 (Supply 5/200), Mr. Cook was finally awarded superannuation of only 3/6d per day for six days in the week, commencing on the 1st April 1816. 14 A supplement to Supply 5/231 dated the 18th November 1818, listed "persons who have been superannuated on account of their length of service in the departments." Among the recipients was John Cook, Master Bargeman, who received a pension of 21/-d per week, which commenced on the 1st April 1816. 15 A Statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December 1821 shewing the amounts received by the storekeeper" (Supply 5/232 dated the 4th April 1821), recorded that John Cook, by an Order of the Board dated the 4th May 1821, was living in a house owned by the Board at a rent of £8.9.0d per annum. This house, Tenement No. 28, has been identified as being on the north side of High Bridge Street, to the west of Powder Mill Lane at the western end (fourth from the end) of a group of tenements known as the Bank Cottages, and part of Plot No. 1432 on the 1842 Waltham Abbey Tithe Map or Plot No. 48 on the Town Map in Appendix 1. This same information is repeated in Supply 5/232 dated the 16th February 1822 for the year 1821. 16 List of Persons receiving Superannuation (Supply 5/232 dated the 17th November 1821) confirmed entry No. 14 above in respect of Mr. Cook. 17 A document dated the 6th December 1821 (Supply 5/232) gave the estimated pay of persons between the 1st January and 31st December 1822, along with their superannuated allowance and "the allowance to widows and orphans of those who have lost their lives at this place". It confirmed that John Cook, lately a Master Bargeman, was in receipt of £54.12.0d superannuation per annum. A similar document, Supply 5/232 dated the 28th December 1821, confirmed that the same pension would be paid in 1822, and again in 1826, according to Winters (p.96). 18 A Return of Properties dated the 20th december 1834, showed that John Cook had vacated his cottage, which was then occupied by Edward Essex (Supply 5/237) 19 John was still in receipt of a pension in 1837 according to Supply 5/237. 20 The 1841 Census recorded that John Cook was an Ordnance Pensioner, aged 75, that his wife, Jane, was aged 70, and that they lived in Paradise Row. Both were born in Essex.Supply 5/214
208JohnCoomsList of Pay of those Employed1. John Cooms, according to Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809, was employed as a Bricklayer. He was paid £1.9.9d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809. This is the only reference found relating to Mr. Cooms.Supply 5/228
209JohnCooper00/00/1790List of those Employed1. John Cooper, according to WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816, was employed as a casual Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department, and this Return recorded that he was first employed by the Board on the 3rd May 1815. At that date he was a 26-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey, with one child. 2. The information given above is confirmed by WO54/520 dated the 28th February 1817, but his pay was then given as 2/4d per day. 3. WO54/524 dated the 11th April 1818, recorded that he was still employed "Occasionally as required" and paid 2/4d per day. He then had 2 children, and WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819 confirmed this information. 4. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 ( WO54/532) confirmed that John was still employed as a Labourer. He was then aged 30, still lived in Waltham Abbey, and was married with 2 children. He still earned 2/4d per day, and worked "Occasionally as the Service required." 5. WO54/536 dated the 31st December 1821, was a repeat of the information detailed in a Return dated the 2nd April 1821. 6. WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 listing those employed in the Engineers' Department, stated that John was paid 2/2d per day as a Labourer for 313 days, giving him an income of £33.18.2d for the year. He had 8 years' service which had started on the 3rd May 1815. He was aged 32, married, living in Waltham Abbey, and had 2 children 7. WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825, recorded that John, as a Carpenter, was paid 4/1d per day for 313 days, and this gave him an annual income of £63.18.1d. His service was given as 10 years, and he was then nearly 35 years of age, was married, and had 2children. 8. WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825 confirms the previous entry. 9. WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826, gave identical information as in Notes 8 and 9, but he was then just over 35 years' old, with service of nearly 11 years. 10 WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 was a repeat of the previous Return. 11 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827, gave the same information as in the notes above except at that date, John had nearly 12 years' service, and was then nearly 37 years' old. 12 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827, contained no basic alterations from the previous Return. 13 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) updateed the same basic information as in the previous notes, but recorded that Cooper then had 3 children. 14 Return dated the 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details remaining unchanged. 15 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for John Cooper as in Note 8; his service, however, was then nearly 15 years, and he was nearly 40 years old. 16 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, confirmed that John was still a Carpenter; his family details and pay remained unchanged, but length of service and age were updated. 17 A Return of Persons belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield, showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January 1831, recorded that John Cooper was one of the 7 Carpenters to be employed at Waltham Abbey Powder Mills and the Enfield Small Arms Factory, and was paid 4/1d per day. He was required to undertake general services as a Carpenter in the Manufactory, "requiring great care, attention, sobriety, etc." (WO54/575). 18 WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831, updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 19 WO54/575 dated October 1831 confirmed that John Cooper still earned 4/1d per day as indicated in Note 18, giving him a total of £63.18.1d per annum. He had then served just over 16 years and was aged 41. 20 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832, updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining the same. 21 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 confirmed that he still earned £63.18.1d per annum. He had by then served just over 17 years, and was aged 42. 22 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, confirmed the information given in Note 22, except that he was now nearly 43 years' old and had served nearly 18 years. 23 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, contained the same basic details, but his age and length of service had been updated. 24 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834, confirmed that John still earned a total of £63.18.1d per annum, that he was now nearly 44 years of age, and that his service was nearly 19 years. 25 WO56/623 dated the 1st April 1839 stated that John Cooper was originally appointed as a Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the 3rd May 1815. According to this Return, he had trained as a Carpenter and was appointed as a Millwright on the Establishment on the 16th October 1834. He was paid 5/2d per day, with estimated annual earnings of £80.17.2d. He was then a 49-year-old married man with 5 children living in Waltham Abbey, and by then had 24 years' service. 26 The 1841 Census recorded that John, who was described as a Millwright, was living in Paradise Row, together with his wife, Mary, who was aged 50, and daughters Jemimah, aged 20, Susan and Mary, aged 15 and 12 respectively, and son, John, aged 10. All were born in Essex.WO54/516
210WilliamCoote00/00/1802List of Officers, etc. Employed.1. William Coote was employed as a Cooper earning 1/9d per day, and was not allowed to watch (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814). 2. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that William, aged 15, was still a Cooper and that he lived in Waltham Abbey and still earned 1/9d per day. 3. In a letter dated September 1818 (Supply 5/231) it was stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement", and the list included William Coote, Cooper.Supply 5/230
211HenryCoreham00/00/1766Record of Personnel in Storekeeper's Department1. Henry Coreham started work at the Mills on the 1st June 1793 as a Labourer in the Corning House, and was paid 1/6d per day, according to Supply 5/216 of the 31st August 1793. This information was confirmed the following year (Supply 5/216), and remained the case in July 1795 (Supply 5/215 dated the 3rd July 1795). 2. Henry was still in the Corning House in September 1798 according to Supply 5/219, and had enlisted as a Private in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794. 3. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay, showed that he was illiterate and was still working as a general Labourer, and a Return on the Marital Status of the Employees dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that Henry was a married man ,without issue. Robert Coleman recorded in his Minute Book on the 23rd October 1801 that 24 men were required to work at Faversham or be discharged. Coreham was one who agreed to go (Winters, p.60), but the Faversham Gunpowder Personnel Register 1573-1840 did not record his name, so it can only be assumed his services were terminated, and that he was subsequently re-engaged. 4. According to Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804, Henry was still working in the Corning House as a Labourer with pay of 2/1d per day. In addition, all Labourers received an extra allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn to watch - on average every 5th night. 5. In the List of Foreman Artificers and Labourers Employed dated the 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224) Henry was described as a Foreman of a Corning House earning 2/6d per day, and, according to this Return, he had been employed with the Ordnance for 14 years. 6. Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807, indicated that Henry was a Working Foreman of Corning Houses, with pay of 2/6d per day. He was allowed 1/6d as a Rounder to superintend the Watchmen on duty every 3rd night . 7. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Coreham was still a Foreman of Corning Houses, who then earned 3/-d. per day and every 3rd night was allowed 2/-d as Rounder to superintend the Watchmen on duty. This information was repeated in 1810 (Supply 5/228). 8. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Coreham was still a Foreman of Corning Houses, but that he then earned 4/-d per day, in addition to which, he was a Rounder earning 2/-d. every 3rd night. This was also the case according to the List of Employees dated the 13th February (Supply 5/230). 9. Lists of Officers & Others Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231 and WO54/524) stated that Mr. Coreham was then Foreman of the Reeling House. He was aged 53, resided in Waltham Abbey, and was married but had no children. He earned 3/4d per day according to WO54/524, in addition to which, he was a Rounder at 1/6d every 5th night. 10 A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) showed the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Coreham's name was on the List, with his pay remaining as before. 11 List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Coreham was still employed as the Reeling House Foreman, that he was a married man aged 54 with no children, that he lived in Waltham Abbey and was paid 3/4d per day. He was also still a a Rounder every 3rd night, for which he received 1/6d per night. 12 List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) updated the entry above, but his pay as a Rounder had been increased to 2/-d per night. 13 List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Mr. Coreham was 56, and that he was married without children. He still lived in Waltham Abbey, was still a Reeling House Foreman, and was earning the same amount as in Note 11, with 2/-d per night as a Rounder. 14 List of Employees in January 1822 (Supply 5/232 dated the 26th January 1822) confirmed that Henry was Foreman of the Reeling House. He was then aged 57, had 30 years' service and was paid 3/4d per day. 15 Return showing the pay, allowances and length of service and every description of the persons in the employment of the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232/WO54/536 dated the 6th February 1822) appeared to be a more detailed, and probably more accurate, Return than that dated the 23rd January 1822. It recorded that Henry Coreham, Foreman of the Reeling House, was appointed on the 1st June 1793 as a Corning House Man at Waltham Abbey, and appeared to have been appointed as the Reeling House Foreman by an order of the Board dated the 4th September 1818. His annual pay was given as £52.3.4d, and he was allowed to watch in turn to guard the works, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night. This gave him total annual pay of £57.7.4d. He had just over 28 years' service, was aged 57, was a married man with no children, and he lived in Waltham Abbey. 16 A List of Persons to form an Establishment at Waltham Abbey to regenerate 2000 barrels of gunpowder as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually, included Henry Coreham who was to be demoted as a Corning House Man (Supply 5/232 dated the 21st March 1822). 17 List of Employees dated the 1st October 1822 (Supply 5/233) recorded that Henry was employed as a Corning House Man with effect from the 22nd May 1822, and that his pay had been reduced accordingly. 18 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823, confirmed that Coreham was still a Corning House Man and that his pay for the year was only £48.2.0d, which included an allowance for watching in turn of 2/-d per week. His family and service details were confirmed. WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1823, recorded that he was still a Corning House Man with the same annual earnings of £48.2.0d, which included an allowance for watching the works in turn. His service and family details were confirmed. 19 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B) Coreham had had his pay reduced by £2.12.0d per annum, in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the 27th December 1822 and the 15th January 1823. 20 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825, gave his basic pay as £42.18.0d per annum; in addition, he was allowed to watch in turn which gave him, on average, 2/-d per week making an annual amount of £48.2.0d. This Return also confirmed his previous family and service details. 21 WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825 recorded that Coreham had been promoted to the Foreman of the Corning House on the 25th May 1825, in place of John Brown who was then the Foreman of the Stoves and Magazines. Coreham's pay was then £52.3.4d per annum and he was allowed to guard the works, for which he received on average 2/-d per week, giving him a total income of £57.7.4d for the year. 22 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825, and WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, confirmed the details given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826. 23 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827, recorded "no alteration since the last Report dated the 1st October 1826." 24 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827, gave the same information as in the notes above. At that date Henry Coreham had just over 33 years' service and he was then 61 years of age. 25 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) gave the same information as in the notes above. At that date he had served nearly 34 years. 26 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 27 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, family details and pay remaining unaltered. 28 WO54/566 dated the 1st October 1829, confirmed that at that date Henry still earned the same as quoted in Note 21. His length of service was given as just over 35 years and he was then aged 62. 22 Return WO54/ 570 dated the 1st April 1830 updated his age and length of service with family and pay details remaining unchanged. 23 WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 stated that Mr. Coreham was then 63 years of age and that he had served just over 36 years. His pay was still the same as given in Note 21, and all other information remained the same, except that he was then a Widower. 24 According to Return WO54/ 575 dated the 1st April 1831 Henry still earned a total of £57.7.4d annually. he had then served nearly 37 years and was 64 years of age. 25 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 26 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832, updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return. He was still the Corning House Foreman under an Order dated the 30th June 1830, and was a Rounder every 3rd night, for which he was paid 2/-d per night. This gave him pay of £64.6.0d per annum. 27 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832, confirmed that Mr. Coreham was still the Foreman of Corning Houses, earning the same £64.6.0d as before. He was then 66 years of age and had served just over 28 years. 28 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, recorded that Henry Coreham, Foreman of Corning House, then earned only £57.7.4d per annum. His service was given as nearly 29 years, and his age as 66. 29 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, stated that Henry was 67 years of age and had served 29 years. He was still in receipt of an annual wage of £57.7.4d, and his family details remained the same. 30 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834, updated the October 1833 Return for service and age. He was still a Foreman in the Corning Houses, with his conditions and pay unchanged. 31 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834, updated the previous Return for service and age, with conditions and pay remaining unchanged. 32 A List of Properties owned by the Board (Supply 5/237 dated the 20th December 1834) recorded that Henry had leased one of their cottages in Powder Mill Lane since the 29th September 1829 for an annual rent of £5.4.0d. Between April and October 1830, Henry's second wife died (WO54/570). 33 A List of people dated the 12th September 1837 who were either promoted or superanuated (Supply 5/237) noted that "Henry Coreham, aged 71, with an infirmed hand, is now a Foreman in the Corning Houses, but recognises his infirmity, proposed that he is superannuated." 34 A Return of Domesetic Properties owned by the Board and dated May 1840, recorded that Henry had died, and that his cottage in Powder Mill Lane was then occupied by J. Gibbs (2) (WO44/133).Supply 5/216
212JohnCornhillList of Foreman Artificers & Labourers with their Pay & Service1. John Cornhill was employed in the Corning House at 2/2d per day, and at the 30th January 1806, had been so employed for 1 year (Supply 5/224). 2. At the 18th June 1807, Cornhill was still working in the Corning House earning the same. In addition, Corning House men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d. (List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed - Supply 5/226) 3. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that John was still a Corning House Man, but that he then earned 3/3d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night. 4. John was still a Corning House Man on the 13th February 1813 (Supply 5/230) with the same rate of pay and allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night.Supply 5/224
213WilliamCornhillList of Officers and their Employment1. William Cornhill was employed as a Corning House Man earning 2/6d. per day, according to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, and, "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 2. Pay List (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810) confirmws he was still a Corning House Man at 2/6d day and allowed to watch in turn, for which he then received 1/6d per night.Supply 5/227
214DanielCornish00/00/1750Personnel Record for the Corning House1. Letter from W. Congreve, Major of Artillery, Waltham Abbey, 21st September 1787, to Mr. Daniel Cornish:- "I am directed by his grace the Duke of Richmond to desire you will immediately hire the best of the Millmen and Labourers who lately worked at Mr Walton's Powder Mills. They will be paid nine shillings a week for a month certain, and for every week they may be continued in these Powder Mills if they (the mills) should be purchased by the Government; and they (the above named men) will be allowed every advantage that was hitherto given to the Millmen and Labourers who work in the Royal Powder Mills at Faversham. Mr Cornish, you will be paid fifteen shillings a week from the date hereof for one month certain." 2. Daniel Cornish, according to Supply 5/188 dated the 16th February 1789, in addition to his wage was entitled to train an Apprentice, for which he received 7/-d per week. 3. Supply 5/212 dated the 21st March 1789 stated that he earned 2/6d per day. 4. Supply 5/213 dated the 18th April 1789, recorded that he was "fitting up racks to the Store & preparing stuff to the Charcoal Mill etc", and later described as fitting sieve lines, etc. He continued with general repairs to buildings and equipment through 1790,1791,1792 and 1793. 5. Daniel had been a Carpenter with the Walton family since the year 1780, and joined the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey on the 1st November 1787 (Supply 5/217). He also joined the Volunteer Company as a Private on the 7th May 1794 (Supply 5/219 dated September 1798). 6. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a petition on pay, showed that he was literate and was still working as a Carpenter. 7. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed he was working as a Carpenter for 3/-d per day, and was a married man with 4 children. 8. Daniel was shown as a Carpenter in the "Engineers Department Established" and paid 4/1d per day, with an additional allowance of 6/-d per week for an Apprentice. (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804). 9. In a letter dated 16th July, 1806 (Supply 5/197) it was stated that Mr. Cornish, Master Carpenter, should retire upon 10/6d per week, which would be borne upon the Charity List . In addition, "William White be appointed as Master Carpenter in the room of Daniel Cornish." However, in a further letter dated 19th November 1806, (also Supply 5/197) it appeared that Cornish had said that he was unable to support his family on the superannuation granted to him, and "requested the indulgence of being allowed to make ...Articles for the Powder Works at the prices stated against each." The letter went on to say that the writer desired that the Storekeeper paid Cornish "...periodically for such work as he may perform, quoting the date of this Order and the Storekeeper's authority for such payments." 10 In a letter from the Office of Ordnance dated 10th November 1817 (Supply 5/201) it was stated that the Board had ordered the superannuation allowance of 2/-d per day granted to Mr. Cornish - formerly Foreman of Carpenters in the Engineering Department, - to be paid by the Storekeeper, from the 1st January 1818. 11 A supplement to a document dated the 8th November 1818 (Supply 5/231) listed persons who had been superannuated on account of their length of service in the departments. Among those listed was Daniel Cornish, Foreman Carpenter, who received a pension of 12/-d per week which commenced on the 1st April 1816. 12 This pension was subsequently increased to 14/-d per week with effect from the 1st January, 1818. (Supply 5/231 dated the 8th November 1819) 13 A Statement of "Monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December, 1821, shewing the amounts received by the storekeeper" dated the 4th April 1821, (Supply 5/232) indicated that Daniel Cornish, Pensioner, had been living in a Board of Ordnance house, Tenement No. 18, leased to him on 13th June 1808 for £6.10.0 per annum. Sometime after May 1821, Cornish moved to a tenement purchased by the Board of Ordnance that year. The house has been identified as being on the north side of High Bridge Street to the west of Powder Mill Lane at the eastern end of a group of tenements known as Bank Cottages (Part of Plot Number 1432 on the 1842 Waltham Abbey Tithe Map). This house was originally let to James and Eliza Allsup, who ran a Post Office. It was subsequently split into two dwellings and Daniel Cornish lived in the western half, while the Allsup family continued to occupy the portion nearest to Powder Mill Lane. Information on the rental for 1821 was repeated in Supply 5/232 dated the 16th February 1822. 14 List of Persons receiving Superannuation (Supply 5/232 dated 17th November, 1821) confirmed the information given in Note 10. 15 A document dated the 6th December 1821 (Supply 5/232) gave the estimated pay of persons between the 1st January and 31st December 1822, along with their superannuated allowance, as well as "the allowance to widows and orphans of those who have lost their lives at this place". It was confirmed that Daniel Cornish, lately a Foreman Carpenter, was in receipt of £36.8.0d superannuation per annum. A similar document, Supply 5/232 dated the 28th December 1821, confirmed that the same pension would be paid in 1822. According to Winters (p.96), a later Superannuation List confirmed that Daniel Cornish died in 1825. Winters further recorded on page 152 that Daniel had received a pension of £38.8.0d per annum. 16 A Return of Domestic Properties prepared by the Royal Engineers' Office in May, 1840 (WO44/133) confirmed the location of Daniel's property, which was then occupied by Benjamin Cornish, his son.Supply 5/188
215JamesCornish00/00/1776Personnel Record for the Storekeeper's Department1. James Cornish was born circa 1776 and started as a Carpenter's Apprentice at the age of 13 on the 16th February 1789, earning 1/-d per day (Supply 5/213 dated the 22nd August 1789). 2. In August 1790 he worked within the Manufactory, with his wages submitted by William Spry, Colonel commanding the Royal Engineers, and paid by the Storekeeper, James Wright. He signed for his pay with a cross (WASC 1382). 3. James joined the Volunteer Company as a Drummer Boy on the 7th May 1794 (Supply 5/219) and was sent to Woolwich in July 1795 "to be perfected in the drums". 4. James was still an Apprentice in December 1794, but his wage had been increased to 1/10d per day (Supply 5/217). This was also the case in July 1795 (also Supply 5/217) with his pay at that date amounting to 2/-d per day. 5. On the 1st March 1796, he had completed his 7-year Apprenticeship, and was taken on the Establishment. 6. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800, relating to a Petition on Pay, showed that he was literate, and was still working as a Carpenter. 7. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed he was still working as a Carpenter, but was then a married man with 2 children.. 8. List of Officers and Others Employed (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804) confirmed that he was still a Carpenter in the "Engineers Department Established", and that his pay had increased to 2/6d per day.Supply 5/213
216JohnCornishList of Artificers, etc. and Volunteer Corps Members1. John Cornish started work as an Apprentice Carpenter on the 3rd March 1796 earning 1/-d per day. He also served as a Private in the Volunteer Company (Supply 5/219 dated September 1798). 2. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed he was still working as an Apprentice Carpenter, and that he was married, with one child.Supply 5/219
217BenjaminCornish00/00/1796Lisit of Officers and Foremen Employed1. Benjamin Cornish was employed as a Cooper in September 1810 with pay of 2/6d per day, and, according to Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, he was not allowed to watch. 2. He was still employed as a Cooper in August 1812 with his pay increased to 3/2d per day (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 3. Benjamin was still in the same job on the 13th February 1814, but was now paid 4/-d per day (Supply 5/230). 4 List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded that Benjamin Cornish, Cooper, was a single man, aged 21, who lived in Waltham Abbey and earned 4/-d per day. 5. A List of Empoyees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people the Storekeeper proposed to retain between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Benjamin Cornish's name was included with his pay given as 3/-d. 6. List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Cornish was still a Cooper, that he was then 22, lived in Waltham Abbey and was paid 3/6d per day. However, his name does not appear in a similar Return dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) and he appeared to have left the Mills. 7. Return showing Pay and Allowances, etc. dated the 1st October 1825 (Winters, p. 94) recorded that he was re-engaged on the 20th December 1824 to make cement casks for Harwich. 8. WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825 confirmed that he was employed for threequarters of a year as a Cooper making cement casks for Harwich, with pay of £54.12.0d per annum. He had been trained as a Cooper, and at the time was a 25-year-old married man with 2 children. 9. WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826, recorded that Cornish was re-employed as a general Labourer from the 10th February 1826, with basic pay of £33.16.0d per annum, and allowed to watch in turn, for which he received an extra 2/-d per week, giving him an annual income of £39.0.0d. At that date he had 3 children, and his age was recorded as 30 years. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 confirmed the information given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826. 10 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded "no alteration since the last report dated the 1st October 1826." 11 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 gave the same information as in the previous notes.. At that date Benjamin had nearly 2 years' service as a general Labourer. 12 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) gave the same information as in the previous notes above, except that he had then served for just over 2 years. 13 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 14 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) (WO54/566) updated the previous document. 15 A List of Employees at the 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) confirmed that Benjamin still earned in total £39.0.0d per annum, that his service was nearly 4 years, that he was 31, was married and had 3 children. 16 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for Benjamin as in Note 15, except that his service was just over 4 years, and he was aged 32. 17 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, confirmed the information given in Note 15, except that his service was then nearly 5 years. 18 WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831, recorded that Benjamin then had 4 children, that he was still employed as a General Labourer within the Manufactory and that his pay and allowances to watch remained as before. 19 WO54/575 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 20 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832, updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 return, all other details remaining unchanged. 21 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832, updated his age and period of service in the April 1832 Return, with all other details remaining unaltered. 22 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, confirmed that Benjamin was still a Labourer earning £39.0.0d annually. His period of service is given as 7 years, and his age as 35. 23 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, recorded that all details were the same as the previous Return, except that Benjamin had now served over 7 years and was 36 years' old. 24 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834, recorded that Benjamin "had been removed to the Saltpetre Refinery" replacing William Turnham, deceased. Although he was allowed to watch in turn, his annual pay had been reduced to £33.9.6d. 25 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834, confirmed the information given in the note above; he was then 37, and had served just over 8 years. 26 A Return of Properties dated the 20th December 1834, prepared by the Royal Engineers' Office and listing the houses and cottages owned by the Board, recorded that Benjamin Cornish had been renting one of their cottages in High Bridge Street since the 6th April 1829 at £5.4.0d per annum (Supply 5/237). This was possibly when the rent was reduced because previously, the same cottage was occupied by Daniel Cornish at a rent of £8.9.0d per annum. 27 A Petition from Benjamin Cornish dated October 1838 (Supply 5/237) stated that he had been brought up as a Cooper and had 14 years' service as a Labourer (compelled to take a Labourer's place), that he had a large family of 6 children and that he was only paid 10/10d per week. In this Petition he requested that he should replace Thomas Sadd, a Cooper, who had been promoted to Master Mixer. 28 Return of Employees dated the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623) confirmed that he had previously been employed as a Cooper on the 10th February 1826. His pay in 1839 was £39 per annum. He was then a 39-year-old married man, but this Return mentioned that he only had 5 children. 29 In a letter to the Board dated the 23rd March 1840 (Supply 5/238) it was stated that Bejamin Cornish's services were more valuable than that of a common Labourer, for which he was now paid 2/4d daily. He was employed as a Cooper occasionally, and often worked in the Proof House mending machinery. The Storekeeper recommended, therefore, that his pay be increased to 3/-d per day. 30 The 1841 Census showed that Benjamin and his wife Sarah, a Stay Maker, together with their 6 children, were living in High Bridge Street North.Supply 5/228
218James (2)Cornish1. According to WASC 1382 dated 10th August 1790, James Cornish was a Labourer in the Engineers' Department, and he was to be paid 9d for half a day's work within the Manufactory. (Document submitted by W. Spry, Colonel Commanding the Royal Engineers, to J. Wright, Esq., Storekeeper).WASC1382
219WilliamCottageList of Employees1. William Cottage, according to a List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) was employed as a Puntman, paid 2/8d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn.Supply 5/229
220JohnCrabbList of Officers etc. Employed.1. John Crabb was employed as a Labourer setting and drawing stoves, and in the Willow plantations, earning 2/8d per day and allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814).Supply 5/230
221WilliamCreamerList of Foreman Artificers & Labourers Employed1. William Creamer was employed as a Mixing House Man earning 2/-d per day, and had 6 months' service according to a List of Foreman Artificers, etc. dated the 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224). 2. William was still in the Mixing House in June 1807, and a note in Supply 5/226 said that "in addition to his pay he is allowed to Watch in turn for which he receives 1/-d." 3. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Creamer was still employed as a Mixing House Man then earning 2/3d. per day, and in addition to his pay, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d.Supply 5/224
222WalterCreekWinters (p. 33)1. Walter Creek was a Cooper who was paid 2/6d per day in November 1789, according to Winters, p.33.
223JamesCreemer (Creamer)Return of Employees1. James Creemer (Creamer) was employed as a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the 18th July 1815, earning 2/8d per day (WO54/516 dated February 1816). He was a 37-year-old married man with no children, living in Waltham Abbey.WO54/516
224ThomasCrossLetter1. Thomas Cross had been employed in cutting the weeds in the streams, according to a letter from his widow (Supply 5/198 dated the 23rd January 1807). Contained in this letter was a Petition from Elizabeth Cross that her husband, having been principally employed for 4 years in this capacity, had caught such a "violent cold as to be the cause of bringing on a Consumption of which he died', and she, therefore, requested fianancial assistance. In a letter dated the 16th February 1807 (also Supply 5/198), it was stated that she should be allowed the sum of "Two Guineas as some relief in her present necessity." Thomas Cross would have been a General Labourer; he died on or about the 23rd October 1806.Supply 5/198
225JohnCuttleWinters' Centenary Memorial, p.1191. John Cuttle was appointed Overseer of the Works (Clerk of the Works) in the Engineers' Department on the 17th July 1789, according to Winters (p.119). 2. He was paid £18.8.0d by James Wright, Storekeeper, for work carried out in the Manufactory between the 1st July and the 30th September 1790 (WASC 1382).
226WilliamCuttleList of those Employed and their Pay1. William Cuttle, according to the List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner who earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn. 2. Cuttle was employed as a Millman on the the 13th February 1814 earning 3/-d per day, with an additional 6d per night when on duty (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/229
227EdwardDabnam00/00/1763Return of Employees1. Edward Dabnam was first employed as a Blacksmith on the 22nd March 1813, earning 4/7d per day in the Engineers' Department, according to WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816. He was a 52-year-old widower living in Waltham Abbey, with 1 married, and 11 unmarried, children. 2. These details were updated by WO54/520 dated the 28th February 1817.WO54/516
228SamuelDabnam00/00/1797Return of Employees1. Samuel Dabnam was employed as a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the 2nd September 1815, earning 2/8d per day. According to WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816, he was an 18-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey.WO54/516
229ThomasDaneCentenial Memorial1. Thomas Dane was listed as the Master of The Whearsheaf in 1799 (Winters (p.55) and the Faversham Gunpowder People gives a description of his family on p.25.Winters, p.55
230JohnDanielReturn of Employees1. John Daniel was a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department earning 2/8d per day for a 6-day week (WO54/512 dated September 1812).WO54/512
231ClarkDavieRecord of Personnel in Storekeeper's Department1. Clarke Davie was employed as a Labourer in the Refining House earning 1/6d per day (Supply 5/216 dated the 31st July 1792 ). 2. From July to September of that year he was refining Saltpetre (also Supply 5/216) as well as in February to September 1793, when it would appear that he left the employment of the Royal Powder Mills, and was replaced by John Godwin (Supply 5/216). 3. Robert Coleman, Clerk of the Cheque, recorded that on the 29th July 1793, "C Davie" and others were chequered [fined] one day's pay for "having gone across the Hoppit contrary to repeated orders." (Winters, p. 39) 4. Robert Coleman reported that Davie, together with Ben Wall Junior and William Dunn, Labourers, were discharged on the 4th November 1793, being suspected of stealing iron from a farmer's gate (Winters, p. 40).Supply 5/216
232WilliamDavis00/00/1750Record of Personnel in Storekeeper's Department1. William Davis was first employed mixing composition at the Mills on the 11th February 1793, at 1/6d per day. This was still the case on the 31st August 1794 (Supply 5/216) the 31st December 1794 (Supply 5/217) and the 3rd July 1795 (Supply 5/217). 2. According to Supply 5/219 dated September 1798 he was still a Mixing House Man, and the Return in question confirmed that he had enlisted in the Volunteer Company as a Private on the 7th May 1794. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 indicated that he was working as a Labourer, that he was a married man with no children and that he was still paid 1/6d per day (Supply 5/221). 3. Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804 suggested William was then working as a Saltpetre Refiner and in other parts of the Manufactory, with his pay increased 2/-d per day. All Refiners received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn to watch - on average every 5th night. 4. According to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, William was still a Refiner in the Saltpetre House with 13 years service and pay of 2/-d per day. This was still the case on the 23rd August 1808 (Supply 5/227) and on the 1st September 1810 (Supply 5/228), both of which stated that when he was not working he was allowed to watch in turn. 5. Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812, recorded that he had been promoted as one of the 2 Foremen in charge of Saltpetre Refining and at that date, was paid 5/2d per day. He was also a Rounder every 3rd night. This was also the case on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/5/230). 6. Supply 5/231 dated the 25th June 1818, confirmed he was still a Foreman in the Saltpetre Refining House, but in common with the rest of the Manufactory, his wages had been reduced to 4/2d per day, although still a Rounder at 1/6d per night. He was then 48, married without children and lived in Waltham Abbey. This Return also recorded that he had been trained as a Butcher. 7. The Establishment was drastically reduced in 1818, but Davis was retained, although suffering another cut in his pay which was reduced to 3/8d per day (Supply5/231 dated the 3rd September 1818). According to Supply 5/231of the 19th May 1819, Supply 5/232 dated the 13th September 1820 and Supply 5/232 of the 9th April 1821, the basic facts remained unaltered. 8. Supply 5/232 dated the 4th April 1821, stated that Mr. Davis was living in a house belonging to the Board, and paid rent of £5.4.0d per annum. His cottage was in Powder Mill Lane, being part of Plot No.63 on the Town Map in Appendix 1. 9. In a letter dated the 15th September 1821, Davis, amongst others, applied for his superanuation. The Board in their letter of reply dated the 16 November 1821 (Supply 5/236) agreed, and his pension of £15.15.7d commenced from that date. A similar document, (Supply 5/232 dated the 28th December, 1821) confirmed that the same pension would be paid in 1822, and, according to Winters (p.95), this was also the case in 1826. 10 Supply 5/205 dated the 14th March 1827, indicated that William Davis, Pensioner, had informed the Board that he intended to quit his cottage on the 25th March 1827, recommending that Henry Brown, Labourer, should occupy the property, and, to this, the Board agreed.Supply 5/216
233JosephDavy00/00/1798List of Persons employed by the Engineers' Department1. Joseph Davy, a single man, aged 27, had been employed as a Labourer on a temporary basis for 4 months from June 1825, at 2/2d per day. However, according to the List of Persons Employed by the Engineers' Department (WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825) he was to be discharged at the end of October 1825.WO54/550
234JDavyReturn of Domestic Properties1. A Return of Domestic Properties made by the Royal Engineers' Office in May 1840, recorded that a cottage - previously let to Patrick Hayes - was then occupied by J. Davy, a Labourer in the Royal Engineers' Department.WO44/133
235J.DawsonList of Foreman Artificers and Labourers Employed1. J. Dawson had worked in the Corning House for a year from early 1805 at 2/2d per day, according to List of those Employed dated 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224).Supply 5/224
236HenryDews00/00/1744Report on Personnel working in the Storekeeper's Department1. Henry Dews was employed as a Labourer in the Refining House and paid 1/6d per day according to a Report dated the 18th April 1789 (Supply 5/213 and Winters, p.33). 2. Supply 5/214 dated September 1789, recorded that he was 45, and employed as a Labourer refining Saltpetre. 3. A further Report of Personnel dated the 27th March1790 (also Supply 5/214) recorded that he was refining Saltpetre under John Baker. 4. Mr. Dews was still in the Refining House in January 1792 (Supply 5/215). 5. Supply 5/216 dated the 2nd May 1792, was a Report to the Board by Messrs.Wright and Clowdesly, regarding the accident and subsequent death of Henry Dews on the 30th April 1792. It states that he was was standing in the Refining House between two coppers, with the intention of removing a pump from one of them with a block and tackle, but that he apparently forgot to hook the tackle to the pump, and that " he took hold of the fall, and not making any resistance, fell backwards into a copper of boiling Salt Petre." Although he was pulled out by other Labourers, he only lived for another 24 hours, and died on the 30th April. He had resided with John Baker, the Foreman Refiner, and had no relatives living. Before he died, he requested that his effects be left to Baker. Wright and Clowdesly, therefore, requested that the Board pay Henry's April earnings of £2.18.6d. to Baker, and permission by the Board was given to that effect.Supply 5/213
237FrancisDimmockList of Foreman Artificers and Labourers Employed1. Francis Dimmock was working in the Corning House as a Labourer earning 2/2d per day, according to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, and at that date, had 1 year's service. In addition, Corning House men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d. (List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed - Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807) 2. Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809, stated that Dimmock was a common Labourer, who was paid 17/-d for work carried out by the Engineers' Deptment in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809. 3. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Mr. Dimmock was a Saltpetre Refiner who earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn. This remained the case on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/224
238JeremiahDimseyList of Foreman Artificers & Labourers Employed1. Jeremiah Dimsey was a Labourer working in Corning House earning 2/2d per day, and, according to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, had been employed with the Ordnance for 1 year.Supply 5/224
239GrayDixonRecord of Personnel in the Storekeeper's Dept.1. Gray Dixon was initially employed as a Labourer in the Corning House on the 1st April 1792, and paid 1/6d per day (Supply 5/216 dated the 31st July 1792). 2. He was transferred to refining and melting Saltpetre by February 1793 (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February 1793) and was still in that position in September 1793 (Supply 5/216), December, 1794 (also Supply 5/216), and July 1795 according to Supply 5/217. 3. Robert Coleman, Clerk of the Cheque, recorded in his Minute Book on the 23rd April 1793, that Dixon had deserted his watch for half an hour. He was chequered (fined) 1 day's pay, and ordered off the watch "for present." 4. Dixon had enlisted as a Private in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794 (Supply 5/219). 5. According to Winters (p.45), Coleman reported on the 24th January 1795, that Dixon, watchman, "had seen two men on the Corning House platform at 4 o'clock in the morning" but that "he could not get over, the water being low and the punt froze, he called them and they, he supposed, went away, as he saw no more of them."Supply 5/216
240WilliamDraysonReturn of Employees1. William Drayson was first employed by the Board on the 19th September 1804 at Faversham as an Overseer of Works, and appointed Clerk of the Works at Waltham Abbey on the 17th March 1806. In September 1812, (WO54/512) he was on the Establishment, paid 7/-d per day and provided with a house which was in Powder Mill Lane. In addition, he also received an annual allowance of £12.10.0d for coal and candles. 2. WO54/516 dated February 1816, indicated that Mr. Drayson was aged 39, and was a married man with 8 unmarried children. He was still employed as Clerk of Works, was now paid 10/-d per day, was still provided with an apartment and had the same allowances. 3. WO54/520 dated the 28th February 1817, stated that Mr. Drayson was Clerk of Works, was 40 years old, was married and now had 9 unmarried children. He was still earning 10/-d per day, with the same allowance of £12.10.0d, and was provided with an apartment. 4. WO54/524 dated 1818, confirmed the above basic information, but recorded that he then had 10 unmarried children. According to WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819, the children had increased to 11. 5. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232/WO54/532) confirmed that Drayson was still employed as Clerk of Works, with the same pay and conditions as mentioned in Note 3. WO54/536 dated the 2nd April 1821 recorded that he was aged 45 with 12 children, and that his terms of employment, etc. remained unchanged. 6. A statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December, 1821, shewing the amounts received by the Storekeeper" dated the 4th April 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 4th April 1821) indicated that William Drayson, Clerk of the Works, was living rent free in a Board of Ordnance house from the 29th September 1809. This house, Tenement No. 7, was within the Engineers' yard on the west side of Powder Mill Lane and was Plot No. 700 on the 1825 Waltham Abbey Town Map, or Plot No. 73 on the Town Map in Appendix 1. The same information was repeated in Supply 5/232 dated the 16th February 1822 for 1821. 7. WO54/536 dated the 31st December 1821 is a repeat of the Return dated the 2nd April 1821 except he now had 13 children. 8. WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 - Personnel Employed in the Engineers' Department - confirmed that Drayson was still paid 10/-d per day for 365 days as the Clerk of Works, that a coal and candle allowance of £12.10.0d per annum was given, and that he was entitled to a house. This gave him an annual income of £195.0.0d. His service details were as before. He then had only 12 children, so ossibly one had died. 9. WO54/550 dated the1st April 1825, confirmed that Drayson was still paid 10/-d per day for 365 days as the Clerk of Works, that he had a coal and candle allowance of £12.10.0d per annum and that he was entitled to a house. This gave him an annual income of £195.0.0d. His service was then just over 20 years, and he was aged 49. 10 WO54/550 dated the 13th October, 1825, was a repeat of the record dated the 1st April 1825. 11 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 gave identical information as in Notes 9 and 10, with the exception that he was then 50, with over 21 years' service. 12 WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 was as the previous Return, but he then had 13 children. 13 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 gave the same information as Notes 9 to 12. However, at that date Mr. Drayson had over 22 years' service, and was 51 years of age. 14 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 recorded no basic alterations from the previous Return. 15 A further Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) updated his pay to 13/6d per day for 366 days, which gave him a total take-home annual pay of £247.1.0d. 16 Return dated the 1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay unchanged. 17 WO54/566 dated the 1st April 1829 confirmed the information given in Note 15, except that his length of service was over 24 years and he was aged 52. 18 Return dated the 1st October 1829 (WO54/566)) updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details remaining unchanged. 19 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for Mr. Drayson as in Note 15, except that his pay had risen to a total of £246.7.6d per annum. At that date his service was over 25 years, and he was then aged 53. 20 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, confirmed the information given in Note 19, except that his service was then 26 years. 21 A Return of Persons belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield - showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January, 1831 - recorded that Drayson was the Clerk of the Works at the Waltham and Enfield Manufactories, and was occasionally required at Faversham. He was paid £246.7.6d per annum and provided with a house. His duties were to carry out the orders of the Commanding Officer of the Royal Engineers, maintain accounts, official papers, stores and fixtures, as well as having to be acquainted with the machinery associated with the manufacture of gunpowder and small arms. This was in addition to the ordinary qualifications (duties) of a Clerk of Works, and he was required to perform the same duties at Faversham, by correspondence and occasional visits (WO54/575). 22 WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831 updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return, with all other details remaining the same. 23 WO54/575 dated the 1st October 1831 confirmed his salary at £246.7.6d per annum, that he had served 27 years and was aged 55. His family details remained the same, i.e., he was married and had 13 children. 24 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, all other details remaining unchanged. 25 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832, confirmed that he still earned £246.7.6d per annum. He had by then served 28 years and was 56. 26 According to the Return dated the 1st April 1833 (WO54/587) William was 56, and his service at that date was nearly 29 years. 27 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, confirmed Drayson's basic details but updated his age and length of service. 28 WO54/593 dated the 1st January 1834, recorded that Mr. Drayson still earned a total of £246.7.6d per annum, that he was still entitled to a house, that he was now nearly 57, and that he had served for nearly 30 years. 29 Drayson's name did not appear in the Return for the 1st October 1834, and recorded that Henry Wright had been appointed as Clerk of Works (WO54/593) instead. 30 For further reading on the Drayson family, see The Faversham Gunpowder Register (1573-1840) by Godfrey & Arthur, and Waltham Abbey Gunpowder People by P. J. Huggins.WO54/512
241FrederickDrayson1. Frederick Drayson, the son of William and Ann Maria Drayson, was born at Waltham Abbey on the 14th July 1810, and wrote a Treatise on Gunpowder when he was only 20 years of age. (For further reading see Waltham Abbey Gunpowder People by P. J. Huggins) 2. Frederick's name does not appear further in the records relating to the Powder Mills at Waltham Abbey, but from his Treatise on Gunpowder, it could be supposed he possibly served as a 'superior apprentice' at some Manufactory or Establishment run by the Ordnance. It is suggested that, perhaps, he followed in the footsteps of his contemporary, Henry Wright. They were both born at Waltham Abbey and their fathers worked at the Mills. Henry Wright, at the age of 16, trained under his uncle, Joseph, at the Tower of London in 1828 and was "time served" in 1834. If Frederick Drayson followed the same training he may, possibly, have joined Wright at the Tower in 1826, some 4 years' prior to publishing his Treatise. In addition, enough time would have elapsed for him to have become a skilled draughsman, in order to have produced the drawings in his Treatise, and to have learnt the basics of building construction, both in theory and the practical side.
242WilliamDudleyList of Foreman Artificers & Labourers Employed1. William Dudley was working in the Corning House at 2/2d per day according to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, and at that date he had been employed by the Ordnance for 9 months. 2. According to Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, William was a Brimstone and Saltpetre Millman, with pay of 2/-d per day, and allowed to watch in turn. 3. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Dudley was still a Brimstone and Saltpetre Millman who then earned 3/-d per day, and in addition, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d per night. 4. Dudley was still employed as a Brimstone and Saltpetre Millman on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230), but with a his pay reduced to 2/8d per day. However, he was still allowed to watch in turn for 1/6d per night. 5. In 1816, the Board formed three tenements out of the dwellings in the Tanyard on the south side of High Bridge Street. William was allocated one of Plots Nos. 54 and 55 on the Waltham Abbey Town Map, with a rental of 2/-d per week (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.83).Supply 5/224
243JohnDudley00/00/1813Return of Employees1. John Dudley, according to WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, started work as a General Labourer on the 3rd June that year, and at the time was a 20 year-old, single man. His rate of pay was given as £33.16.0d annually, and he was allowed to watch in turn, which increased his annual pay to £39. 2. WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834, recorded that John's basic pay had been cut to £28.5.6d per annum. He was still allowed to watch in turn, which increased his annual pay to £33.9.6d. 3. WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834, confirmed the previous information given; however, he was then aged 21, and had served 15 months. 4. Dudley replaced James Horam as a Corning House man in the late summer of 1837 (Supply 5/237). 5. Return of Employees on the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623) confirmed that he was employed on the 22nd September 1837 as a Corning House Man with pay of £42.2.0d, which included an allowance to watch in turn. His other details remained unchanged. At that date he had nearly 7 years' service, and was 25 years of age. 6. His name does not appear in the 1841 Census for Waltham Abbey, so, presumably, he lived out of town. 7. On the 13th April 1843, some 40 barrels of gunpowder exploded in the Corning House together with another 20 in the Press House; 7 men were killed, and much damage was caused in the town. Among those killed was John Dudley. According to Winters (p.106), a note dated the 2nd June 1843 stated, "Mary Dudley to receive a donation of £2 in her confinement, consequent of the explosion." 8. A graphic description of the explosion and damage caused, etc., was given in the Illustrated London News dated the Saturday, the 22nd April 1843 (WAAC). John left a widow and child.WO54/587
244WilliamDugard00/00/1753Personnel Record for the Storekeeper's Department1. William Dugard was a Labourer earning 1/6d per day "cutting and planting willow trees, cutting of canal at the new Corning House, removing earth to the Store, unloading barge of coals and charring wood." (Supply 5/213 dated the 18th April 1789). 2. Supply 5/213 dated the 28th August 1789, recorded that he was setting and drawing stoves, for which he was paid 1/6d per day, 3 Supply 5/214 dated September 1789, recorded that he was 36 years of age, and confirmed he was employed drawing and setting the stoves, and sundry other jobs in different parts of the Manufactory 4. William was working as a Millman earning 2/-d per day in March 1790 (Supply 5/214 dated the 27th March 1790). 5. Still working as a Millman in 1791 through to August, 1793 (Supply 5/216 of the 28th February 1793 and Supply 5/216 dated the 31st August 1793). 6. Report on the Establishment stated "W Dugard, Millman, joined the Establishment on the 1st May, 1789" (Supply 5/217 dated the 24th June 1795). 7. Mr. Dugard was still a Millman in July 1795 earning 2/-d per day, with an extra 3d per night when on duty (Supply 5/217 dated the 3rd July 1795). 8. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800, relating to a Petition on Pay and Conditions, showed that he was literate and was still a Millman. 9. Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was still a Millman, and was a married man with 1 child. 10 A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that William was still a Millman, but that at the time he was engaged on "cleansing & deepening the river, canals & ditches and other necessary work." 11 Mr. Dugard was still a Millman who was paid 2/3d per day, with an additional 3d per night when "duty working was called for." (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804). 12 In the List of Foreman Artificers and Labourers Employed dated the 30th January 1806, (Supply 5/224) he was described as a Millman earning 2/3d per day, who had been employed with the Ordnance for 17 years. 13 By the 18th June 1807, Dugard had been transferred to the Dusting House, earning 2/-d per day and allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/226). 14 According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Dugard was employed as a Dusting House Man earning 2/3d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 15 Employee List (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810) confirmed he was a Dusting House Man who was paid 2/3d day, and allowed to watch in turn for 1/6d night. 16 List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) stated that William was still a Dusting House Man who now earned 3/-d per day, and in addition, was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d per night. 17 Return dated the 13th February 1813 (Supply 5/230), confirmed the information given in Note 16. 18 List of Persons in Employment dated the 2nd March 1816 (Supply 5/230) recorded that Mr.William Dugard was now a Warder with service of 28 years, and his age was given as 65. It was recommended that he receive a daily superannuation of 2/8d. In the attached notes was the comment that Mr. Dugard and others should be superannuated because "of the hurts they have received in this dangerous Manufactory". It was also stated therein that Mr. Dugard "has become very feeble and incapable of any hard work, and any violent noise or exertion appears to affect his senses." However, in a letter dated 6th March 1816 (Supply 5/200) Mr. Dugard was finally awarded superannuation of only 2/-d per day for 6 days in the week, commencing on the 1st April, 1816. 19 A Supplement to a document dated the 8th November 1818 (Supply 5/231) lists persons who had been superannuated on account of their length of service in the departments. Among the recipients was William Dugard, Warder, who received a pension of 12/-d per week, which commenced on the 1st April 1816 20 List of Persons receiving superannuation (Supply 5/232 dated 17th November, 1821) confirmed the information in Note 18. 21 A document dated 6th December 1821 (Supply 5/232) gave the estimated pay of persons between the 1st January and 31st December 1822, along with their superannuated allowance, as well as "the allowance to widows and orphans of those who have lost their lives at this place", and it was confirmed that William Dugard, lately a Warder, was in receipt of £31.4.0d superannuation per annum. A similar document, Supply 5/232 dated the 28th December 1821, confirmed that the same pension would be paid in 1822. This was also the case in 1826 according to Winters (p.96).Supply 5/213
245ThomasDugardPetition on Pay1. Thomas Dugard, was illiterate and was working as a General Labourer, earning 1/6d per day (Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay). 2. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) indicated that he was working as a Labourer, was a married man, and had 2 children. Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 3. Robert Coleman recorded in his Minute Book on the 23rd October 1801 that 24 men were required to work at Faversham or be discharged. Duggard was one of those who agreed to go according to Winters (p.60). However, the Faversham Gunpowder Personnel Register 1573- 1840 does not record his name, so it can only be assumed that his services were terminated, and and that he was subsequently re-engaged. 4. According to Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804, Thomas was working in the Corning House as a Labourer at 2/1d per day. All Labourers received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn to watch - on average every 5th night. 5. Working in the Dusting House earning 2/1d per day, he then had 5 years' service (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). 5. Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807 confirmed that Dugard was still working in the Dusting House earning 2/1d per day. In addition, Dusting House men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d. 6. According to the entry in Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Dugard was still employed as a Dusting House Man. His pay had been increased to 2/3d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 7. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September1810, confirmed he was a Dusting House Man who was paid 2/3d day, and allowed to watch in turn, then at 1/6d per night. 8. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Thomas was still a Dusting House Man. His pay had increased to 3/-d per day, and in addition, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night. 9. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1813, confirmed Dugard was earning 3/-d per day and that he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night.Supply 5/220
246HenryDuglebyC.V of Clerks Working at Waltham Abbey1. Henry Dugleby, according to the C.V. of Clerks working at Waltham Abbey (Supply 5/216 dated the 23rd August 1792) started work at Woolwich on the 1st January 1781, became Clerk at Woolwich on the 2nd February 1783, and was appointed Clerk at Waltham Abbey on the 1st April 1788. 2. He became a First Lt. in the Militia formed at the Mills in 1794, according to Winters (p.51). 3. Report on Pay and Allowances for Artificers and Labourers (Supply 5/217 dated the 3rd July 1795) recorded that his salary was £70 per annum, with £15 per annum for house rent. 4. According to Supply 5/220 dated the 2nd February 1800, Henry had become the First Clerk. 5. In a document dated the 19th August 1801 (Supply 5/195), Dugleby was promoted to Clerk of Cheque, replacing Robert Coleman. 6. According to Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804, Henry's salary at that time was £150 per annum, with a lodging allowance of £26 per annum, and coal/candle allowance of £12.10.0d. 7. Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804 recorded that Mr. Dugleby was, additionally, an Overseer in the "Engineers' Department Established", and was paid 1/6d per day by the Storekeeper. 8. Henry Dugleby was replaced by William Breeze as the Clerk of the Cheque on the 6th February 1805 (Supply 5/223).Supply 5/216
247WilliamDunnPersonnel in the Storekeeper's Department1. William Dunn was engaged as a Labourer and paid 1/6d per day, but according a a footnote on Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February 1793, was to be replaced by William Cottage in March 1793. 2. He was working in the Dusting House in August 1793 (Supply 5/216 dated the 31st August 1793) and was actually replaced by R. Wright when Dunn was discharged in November 1793 (see Note 3 below). 3. Robert Coleman reported that Dunn, together with Ben Wall, Jnr. and Clark Davie, Labourers, were discharged on the 4th November 1793, having been suspected of stealing iron from a farmer's gate (Winters, p.40). 4. A William Dunn was employed as a Puntman at 2/8d per day in 1812 and allowed to watch in turn, according to Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812. 5. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814 recorded that Mr. William Dunn was an additional Bargeman at that date, and earned 3/10 per day. 6. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) indicated that William was a Master Bargeman; he was a married man aged 24 with one child, who lived in Waltham Abbey and earned 4/2d per day. 7. A List of Empoyees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) showed the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Dunn's name was on the List, but he was then described as a Bargeman, with his pay reduced to 3/-d per day. 8. In a letter dated September, 1818 (Supply 5/231) it was stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement." The list included William Dunn, Master Bargeman.Supply 5/216
248JamesDunn00/00/1762List of Foremen, etc. in the Manufactory.1. James Dunn was working as a Brimstone Refiner in 1806, and received 2/-d per day in this capacity. At that date, he had 9 months' service. 2. Still employed as a Brimstone Refiner, his pay had increased to 2/3d per day, and in addition, Brimstone Refiners were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d ( Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807). 3. According to the entry in Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Dunn was still employed as a Brimstone Refiner earning 2/3d. per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 4. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed that James was a Brimstone Refiner who was paid 2/3d day, and allowed to watch in turn for 1/6d night. 5. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that James was a Brimstone Refiner who now earned 3/-d per day, and in addition, was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night. This was also the case according to the Return dated 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230). 6. Lists of Officers & Others Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231 and WO54/524) recorded that James was a Mixing House man, that he lived in Waltham Abbey, was 55, single, and earned 2/8d per day. He was allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night. 7. A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231), showed the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Dunn's name was on the List, but his pay had been reduced to 2/-d per day. 8. List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Dunn was still employed as a Brimstone Refiner and a single man aged 56, still living in Waltham Abbey. At that date he was paid 2/4d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn for 1/-d per night. 9. Supply 5/232 dated the 13th September 1820, updated the previous entry, with the basic details on pay, etc. remaining unchanged. However, he was now allowed 1/6d per night to watch. 10 A statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December 1821 showing the amounts received by the storekeeper" dated the 4th April 1821, (Supply 5/232) recorded that James Dunn was living in a house purchased by the Board of Ordnance (Tenement No. 34) with a rent of £5.4.0d per annum. The property, together with its small garden, was identified as being on the north side of High Bridge Street to the west of its junction with Powder Mill Lane (part of Property 714 on the 1825 Waltham Abbey Town Map or Plot 1434 on the 1842 Tithe Map). This same information is repeated in Supply 5/232 dated 16th February 1822 for the year 1821. 11 List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Mr. James Dunn was now 57; all other entries remained the same as in Note 9. 12 Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822, gave the age of Mr. James Dunn, Brimstone Refiner, as 63, with nearly 17 years' service and pay per day of 2/4d. 13 Return showing the pay, allowances and length of service and every description of the persons in the employment of the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822) appeared to be a more detailed, and probably more accurate, Return than that dated the 23rd January 1822. It stated that James Dunn, Brimstone Refiner, was appointed 13th August 1805 as a Labourer. His position on the Establishment as a Brimstone Refiner was confirmed by Orders of the Board dated the 4th September 1818 and the 4th October 1819. He was allowed to watch in turn to guard the works for which he received an additional 2/-d per night, which gave him a total for the year of £41.14.4d. He had nearly 17 years'service, was aged 63 years, and was a single man living in Waltham Abbey. 14 In the spring of 1822, the Ordnance Board decided to reduce the production and regeneration of gunpowder, and the Establishment at Waltham was to be reduced. Accordingly, Empson Middleton and James Wright drew up a list of people to be dismissed (Supply 5/232 dated the 21st March, 1822). The men, including James Dunn, were subsequently dismissed on the 1st June of that year. Several Petitions were submitted by the men asking for financial assistance; many were long-service employees in their middle age, and they pointed out that they had little hope of finding employment after the hay and corn harvest had been gathered. The Storekeeper at Waltham was sympathetic and forwarded their Petitions to the Board for their consideration. James Dunn was one of 4 men who signed a second Petition on the 12th July, saying that he had been away unsuccessfully looking for work. He was awarded 2 weeks' pay to ease his financial burden.Supply 5/224
249JohnDyeList of Employees1. John Dye was originally employed as a Puntman. He was paid 2/8d per day and allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 2. John became a Corning House Man on the 13th February 1814 earning 3/3d per day, and allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/229
250JamesDye00/00/1796Return of Employees1. James Dye was first employed as a casual Labourer by the Board on the 8th November 1815. He earned 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department, and was a 19-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/516 dated February 1816).WO54/516
251WilliamDyer00/00/1764Personnel Record1. William Dyer, according to records dated the 27th November 1788 and 27th January 1789 (both Supply 5/212) was promised to be continued, since he had previously worked for Mr. Walton. 2. Personnel Return (Supply 5/212 dated 21st March 1789) recorded that he was earning 1/6d per day for work in the Corning House. 3. In Supply 5/213 dated the 18th April 1789, he is described as "cutting and planting willow trees, cutting of canal at the new Corning House, removing earth to the Store, unloading barge of coals & charring wood." 4. Supply 5/214 dated September 1789 recorded his age as 25 years, and in this Return he is described as "Corning Gunpowder". Supply 5/214 dated the 27th March 1790, confirmed that he was working in the Corning House, as was the case until January1794, according to Supply 5/216 dated the 31st January 1794. 5. Robert Coleman, Clerk of the Cheque, stated that on the 13th and 14th May 1793, William Dyer had gone away from his watch without leave, and was ordered off his watch. (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.39). 6. Coleman also reported on the 31st May 1794 that Dyer was discharged for improper conduct at the "Club" which was being used by the Waltham Volunteers' Militia. However, it would appear that he was re-engaged, since on the 15th January 1795, Robert Coleman recorded "Dyer and Mold sent with two loaded waggons to Purfleet." (There was a severe frost in January 1795 which prevented barge transport, and, therefore, work stopped at the Mills).Supply 5/212
252JohnEason (Eaton)00/00/1790Return of Employees1. John Eason was appointed a Labourer on the 17th June 1829 in place of Thomas Freeman, Snr., who had died. Mr. Eason's wages were given as £33.16.0d per annum, but as he was allowed to watch in turn, this brought his earnings up to £39.0.0d per annum. At that date he had served three months, was aged 38 and was a widower with 5 children. He had previously been a Mariner (WO54/566 dated October 1829). 2. According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for John Eason as in Note 1, except that his service was 9 months, and that he was aged 39. This Return recorded that he was married; it can only be assumed that he had remarried - a common occurrence for a widower with a young family. 3. Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, confirmed the information given in Note 1, except that his service was then just over one year. This Return confirmed that he was a married man of 39 with 5 children. WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1831 updated the October 1830 Return. 4. WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 5. WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with family and pay details remaining the same. 6. WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 updated his age and period of service in the April 1832 Return. 7. WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 confirmed that at that date John Eason was still earning £39.0.0d annually. His period of service was given as almost 4 years, and his age as 42. 8. WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 recorded the same details as the previous Return, except that John had then served just over 4 years and he was 43. 9. WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834, recorded that although John was still employed as a General Labourer, his basic pay had been cut to £28.5.6d per annum. He was still allowed to watch in turn, which increased his pay to £33.9.6d annually. He had served nearly 5 years by then and still had 5 children. 10 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834 confirmed the information given in Note 9, except that he was now 44, and had served just over 5 years. 11 On the 16th April 1836, 2 Mills exploded. According to Winters (p.103), John Eaton (Eason?) watchman, was called before Lt.Col. Moody as a witness.WO54/566
253JamesEaston00/00/1726Personnel Record1. James Easton was a Labourer by trade, set to work by Daniel Cornish in October 1787 at 9/-d per week, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase by the Government from Mr Walton (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.28). James was promised to be continued since he had previously been employed by Mr Walton (Supply 5/212 dated the 27th November 1788. 2. On the 29th January 1789 (also Supply 5/212) he was described as a Charcoal and Sulphur Millman at the Corning House, earning 1/6d per day. In Supply 5/213 dated the 18th April 1789, his job is described as "cutting and planting willow trees, cutting of canal at the new Corning House, removing earth to the Store, unloading barge of coals & charring wood." 3. Supply 5/214 dated September 1789, recorded that he was aged 63 and employed attending the stoves. 4. Supply 5/214 dated the 27th March1790 and Supply 5/215 dated the 11th December 1790 both confirmed that James was still attending the stoves, and that he was paid 1/6d per day. His name does not appear after this last entry.Supply 5/212
254NathanielEaston00/00/1762List of Employees1. Nathaniel Easton was employed as a Casual Bricklayer earning 4/3d per day for a six-day week according to WO54/512 dated September 1812. 2. WO54/516 dated February 1816, confirmed that although he was still employed as a Casual Bricklayer, at that date he earned 4/7d per day in the Engineers' Department. He was first employed by the Board as a Bricklayer on the 7th May 1808, and was a 53-year-old widower living in Cheshunt.WO54/512
255WilliamEatonList of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed.1. William Eaton was employed as a Millman at 2/3d per day and allowed 3d per night when on duty, according to Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807. 2. Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, confirmed Mr. Eaton was still a Millman earning 2/3d per day, but at that date he was "allowed 6d per night when on duty."Supply 5/226
256BenjaminEatonList of Officers & Artificers, etc. in Employment1. Benjamin Eaton was employed as a Labourer, "setting and drawing stoves, and in Willow Plantations, etc." earning 2/-d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn (List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed dated the 23rd August 1808 - Supply 5/227). 2. He became a Millman in September 1810, at which time, his pay had increased to 2/3d per day. He was also allowed 6d per night when on duty Supply 5/228). 3. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Eaton was still a Millman, but that he now earned 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d per night when on duty. 4. Benjamin was still a Millman on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) with the same rate of pay and an additional 6d per night when on duty.Supply 5/227
257ChrisEdwardsAccounts for September 17901. Chris Edwards was employed as a Labourer in the Engineers' Department and paid 1/6d per day. Between August and September 1790, he worked within the Manufactory with his wages submitted by William Spry, Colonel commanding the Royal Engineers, and paid by the Storekeeper, James Wright. He signed for his pay with a cross (WASC 1382). 2. Christopher Edwards' name appears as a footnote to Supply 5/215 dated the 11th December 1790, indicating that he was "Working in stores". Elsewhere, he is recorded as starting at the Mills on the 21st September 1790. 3. From April to June 1791, he was "setting & drawing stoves and in the punts." 4. By January 1792, he was employed as a Millman and was paid 2/-d per day, with an extra 3d per night when on duty (Supply 5/215 dated the 31st January 1792). 5. He continued working as a Millman for the rest of 1792, as well as in February 1793 (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February 1793), and August to September 1793 (Supply 5/216). This was also the case in January 1794 (Supply 5/216), and in August 1794 (also Supply 5/216), and December 1794 (Supply 5/217). 6. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay, recorded that he was illiterate and was still working as a Millman. 7. Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still working as a Millman, and that he was a married man with 3 children. 8. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) showed that, although still employed as a Millman, he was cleaning and deepening the river and canals, and was performing other sundry necessary work. 9. Mr. Edwards was still employed as a Millman in 1804, when his wage was 2/3d per day. At that date he also had an allowance of 3d per night when on duty "working at the mill" i.e., the night-shift rate was 2/6d. This was also the case in January 1806, when he had been employed with the Ordnance for 15 years (Supply 5/226). After January 1806, there are no further entries found in the records for Mr. Edwards.WASC 1382
258IsaacEdwardsWinters' Centenary Memorial Book (p. 29)1. Isaac Edwards was a Labourer by trade, set to work by Daniel Cornish in October 1787 at 9/- per week, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase by the government from Mr Walton. (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.29). Since there are no entries in the records for Mr. Edwards, he does not appear to have been retainedWinters (p.29)
259SamuelEdwardsList of those Employed and their Pay1. Samuel Edwards was a common Labourer who was paid 4/6d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory, between the 15th and 21st July 1809 (Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809).Supply 5/228.
260MaryEdwards1. See under WILLIAM WEST, Mary Edwards' son.
261CharlesEdwards00/00/1784Return of those Employed1. Charles Edwards, according to WO54/516 dated February 1816, was first employed by the Board on the 20th September 1815, as a casual Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department. He was a 31-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey, who had 4 children. His previous employment was as a Grocer.WO54/516
262JohnEgleton00/00/1793Return of those Employed1. John Egleton was first employed as a casual Labourer by the Board on the 19th August 1815, earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department. He was a 22-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/516 dated February 1816).WO54/516
263SamuelEllenthorpePersonnel Record for Storekeeper's Department1. Samuel Ellenthorpe was employed as a Labourer in the Corning House with pay of 1/6d per day, according to Supply 5/215 dated the 14th August 1790. 2. In a Return dated the 11th December 1790 (Supply 5/215) Samuel, along with Clark Rook, was sick but "they receives their pay." In a footnote to this document it was recorded that both men had returned to work by the 18th December. 3. Samuel was "Dusting and glazing powder" according to Supply 5/215 dated 16th April 1791, but a footnote on this document recorded that he was to be discharged on the 21st May 1791.Supply 5/215
264GeorgeElliott00/00/1779List of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers Employed1. George Elliott was employed as a Stoveman on the Gloom Stoves for drying gunpowder, earning 2/-d per day; at that date he had 1 year's service (Supply 5/224 dated 30th January 1806). 2. In June 1807 (Supply 5/226) he was described as "Rex Officers Labourer", still at 2/-d per day. 3. According to a Report dated the 23rd August 1808 (Supply 5/227), Mr. Elliott was then employed as a Cylinder Man, earning 2/-d per day at Fisher Street in West Sussex. 4. A Staff List (Supply 5/228) dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed he was still employed as a Cylinder Man at 2/-d per day. 5. List of Employees (Supply 5/229, dated the 29th August 1812) described him still as a Cylinder Man, then earning 2/8d. per day. 6. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814 recorded that George was still a Cylinder Man, and confirmed that he still earned 2/8d per day. 8. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded that George, a Cylinder Man, was married, was aged 38, and had 1 child. He lived in Fernhurst in Sussex, and at that date earned 2/4d per day. 9. In a letter dated September 1818 (Supply 5/231) it was stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement." i.e., a reduction of the Establishment due to a downturn in work. The list included George Elliott.Supply 5/224
265HenryElliott00/00/1757Return of Employees1. Henry Elliott was employed by the Board on the 17th January 1796, as a casual Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department . He was a 37-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey with 5 children (WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816). 2. His details were updated by WO54/520 dated the 20th February 1817, his pay then being only 2/4d per day. 3. WO54/524 dated the 11th April 1818, confirmed that he was still employed as a Labourer "Occasionally as required" at the same rate of pay as before. His age was shown as 39. 4. WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819, confirmed that his pay was still 2/4d per day, but that he was then 40 years if age. His family details remained unchanged. 5. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 ( WO54/532), recorded that Henry was aged 42, still lived in Waltham Abbey, and was married with 5 children. He earned the same as in Note 4, and still worked "Occasionally as the Service required." 6. WO54/536 dated the 2nd April 1821, recorded that he was then 43, but that he had 6 children. His terms of employment remained the same. 7. WO54/536 dated the 31st December 1821, confirmed the information given in the Return dated the 2nd April 1821. 8. WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 recorded that he then only earned 2/2d per day as a Labourer for 313 days, giving him an income of £33.18.2d for the year. He had 27 years' service starting on the 17th January 1796, was aged 45, and was a married man living in Waltham Abbey with 6 children.WO54/516
266JosephElliott00/00/1807Return of Employees and Rates of Pay1. Joseph Elliott was appointed as a Labourer on the 27th August 1829 at the rate of 2/2d per day for 313 days, giving him annual pay of £33.18.2d. He was a single man of 22 who was not brought up to any trade (WO54/570 dated the1st April 1830). 2. Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 confirmed that Joseph was still working as a Labourer; his family details and pay remained unchanged, but his length of service and age were updated. 3. A Return of Persons belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield - showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January 1831 - recorded that Joseph was one of the 15 Labourers to be employed at Waltham Abbey Powder Mills and the Enfield Small Arms Factory. He was paid 2/2d per day and undertook different services as a Labourer in the Manufactories, where steadiness and sobriety were particuliary required (WO54/575). 4. WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831, updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 5. WO54/575 dated October 1831, confirmed that Joseph still earned 2/2d per day as indicated previously, giving him a total of £33.18.2d per annum. He had then served 2 years, and was nearly 24 years' old. 6. WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, gave the same basic details as before but updated his age and length of service. He was married without children. 7. WO54/593 dated 1st April 1834 confirmed that Joseph still earned £33.18.2d per annum, that he had served nearly 5 years, and that his age was 26.WO54/570
267BenjaminEllis00/00/1764Record of personnel in Storekeeper's Department1. Benjamin Ellis was employed as a Labourer in the Refining House on the 1st April 1792 at 1/6d per day. He was still at the Refining House in February 1793 (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February, 1793), and in August to September 1793 (Supply 5/216). This was also the case in January 1794 (Supply 5/216) and August 1794 (Supply 5/216) and again in December 1794 (Supply 5/217), 2. According to Supply 5/219 dated September 1798, Benjamin enlisted as a Private in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794. 3. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay, recorded that he was literate, and was still working as a Refining House Labourer. 4. Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was working as a Labourer, and that he was a married man with 2 children. Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 5. Working as a Refiner, his pay was then 2/-d per day, and all Refiners received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn to watch - on average every 5th night. (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804). 6. Benjamin was a Refiner in the Saltpetre House, still with pay of 2/-d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806) and at that date, he had just over 15 years' service. Supply 5/226 of the 18th June 1807 confirmed that his basic details remained the same, but his service was updated. 7. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr Ellis was still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/-d. per day, and "when not working extra, they are allowed to watch in turn." 8. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed he was Saltpetre Refiner who was paid 2/-d per day, and allowed to watch in turn when not on duty. 9. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Benjamin was still a Saltpetre Refiner who then earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn. 10 According to the entry on Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814, Benjamin Ellis's details all remained the same as stated in Note No. 9. 11 Lists of Officers & Others Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231 and WO54/524) record that Benjamin was still a Saltpetre Refiner, that he was then aged 53, was married with 2 children and resided in Cheshunt. His pay was then only 2/4d per day and he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. 12 According to the List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) Ellis was to be retained on reduced pay of 2/-d per day. 13 Return of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) stated that Mr. Ellis was 54, married with 2 children, still living in Cheshunt, and his pay had then been restored to 2/4d per day; in addition, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. 14 According to the Return dated the 13th September 1819 (Supply 5/231) Mr. Ellis's pay and conditions remained unchanged. 15 Return of Employees and their Pay dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Mr. Ellis was then living in Waltham Cross, that he was still classified as a Saltpetre Refiner and paid 2/4d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/6d per night. 16 According to the Return dated the 23rd January 1822 (Supply 5/232) Mr. Ellis was 58, had served nearly 32 years, and his pay was still 2/4d per day. 17 Return dated 6th February 1822 (Supply 5/232) recorded length of service and other full details of those persons employed by the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821. This appeared to be a more detailed and accurate Return than that of the 23rd January 1822. Benjamin Ellis had been appointed as a Labourer at Waltham Abbey on the 17th November 1791, and by Orders of the Board dated the 4th September 1818 and the 4th October 1819, as a Saltpetre Refiner. He was allowed to watch in turn to guard the works, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night, giving him annual pay of £41.14.4d. According to this Return, at 31st December, 1821, he had 30 years' service, was 58, was married with 2 children and lived in Cheshunt. 18 In the spring of 1822, the Ordnance Board decided to cut back the production and regeneration of gunpowder, and the Establishment at Waltham was to be reduced. Accordingly, Empson Middleton and James Wright drew up a list of people to be dismissed (Supply 5/232 dated the 21st March, 1822) and their list included Benjamin Ellis. The men were subsequently dismissed on the 1st June, and several Petitions were submitted by the men asking for financial assistance. Many were long-service employees in their middle age, who pointed out that they had little hope of finding employment after the hay and corn harvest had been gathered. The Storekeeper at Waltham was sympathetic, and forwarded their Petitions to the Board for their consideration. Benjamin Ellis was one of the Petitioners and he was awarded 2 weeks' pay to ease his financial burden.Supply 5/216
268JEllisList of Artificers, etc., their Marital Status and Number of Children.1. J. Ellis was working as a Labourer earning 1/6d per day in the Engineers' Department, according to a Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221). He was a single man.Supply 5/221
269WilliamEllisList of Officers and Others Employed1. William Ellis was an extra Bargeman employed on three barges transporting gunpowder to Picket's Field and the Magazines. For this, he earned £2.2.0d. per week, according to Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804.Supply 5/222
270JohnEllisList of Foremen and Artificers etc., with rates of pay and Service.1. John Ellis was employed as a Millman in 1805 at 2/3d per day, and allowed 3d per night when on duty (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). This was also the case in the 16th June 1807 (Supply 5/226) 2. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Ellis was still a Millman earning 2/3d per day, and "allowed 2/6d per night when on duty." i.e., an extra 3d when working at night. 3. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, recorded that he was a Mixing House Man who was paid 2/3d per day, and allowed to watch in turn for 6d per night, making 2/9d when working the night shift. 4. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that John Ellis was still a Mixing House Man, but that he then earned 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed to watch the works in turn, for which he received 1/6d each time.. 5. According to Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814, John was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner and paid 2/8d per day. When not working extra he was allowed to watch in turn at 1/6d per night.Supply 5/224
271RichardEllisList of Foremen and Artificers, etc., with their Rates of Pay1. Richard Ellis was employed as a Millman in 1805, earning 2/3d per day. (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806).Supply 5/224
272StephenEllisList of Officers, Artificers and Labourers Employed1. Stephen Ellis was employed in 1808 as a Puntman earning 2/-d per day, and allowed to watch in turn. 2. Employed in setting and drawing stoves and in the willow plantations etc., by September 1810, he was paid 2/-d per day and allowed to watch in turn. (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810). 3. Employed as a Labourer in August 1812 "drawing and setting stoves and in the willow plantation", he was then paid 2/8d per day and allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). This was also the case in 1814 according to Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814.Supply 5/227
273ThomasEllisList of those Employed and their Pay1. Thomas Ellis was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn. (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 2. This remained the case on the the 13th February 1814, according to Supply 5/230.Supply 5/229
274WilliamEllison00/00/1807Return of those Employed1. William Ellison was appointed as a general Labourer at Faversham on the 11th January 1830, and transferred to Waltham Abbey on the 5th October 1832 (WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833). At that date he was earning £39.0.0d annually, and his period of service was given as 3 years and his age as 25. He was a single man. 2. WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 confirmed that his details were the same as in the previous Return, except that William had then served just over 3 years and he was 26 years old. 3. WO54/593 dated 1st April 1834 recorded that although William was still employed as a General Labourer, his basic pay had been cut to £28.5.6d per annum. He was allowed to watch in turn, which increased his annual pay to £33.9.6d. He was still 26 and single, but by then had served just over 4 years. 4. WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834 confirmed the information given in the previous note,except that he was now 27 and had served nearly 5 years. 5. Return of Employees on the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623), confirmed he was appointed as a Labourer at Faversham on the 11th January 1830. In 1839 his pay was £39 per annum, which included an allowance to watch in turn. He was a married man with no children, and his length of service was given as nearly 10 years. 6. A Return of Properties owned by the Board dated the 28th May 1840 (WO$$?!££) recorded that William Ellison, Stoveman, had been living in a cottage identified as Plot No. 61 on the Town Map in Appendix 1, and noted that he had "given it up". 7. The 1841 Census recorded that William was born in Scotland, and that his rounded-down age was 30; his wife Betsy, aged 30, together with their children William (aged 2) and Barbara (aged 6 months) lived on the south side of High Bridge Street, and all were born in Essex.WO54/587
275ThomasEmeryAccounts for 17901. Thomas Emery was employed as a Labourer in the Engineers' Department at 1/6d per day. Between August and September 1790 he worked within the Manufactory, with his wages submitted by William Spry, Colonel commanding the Royal Engineers, and paid by the Storekeeper, James Wright. He signed for his pay with a cross (WASC 1382).WASC 1382
276WilliamEnticknapList of Foremen, Artificers & Labourers Employed1. According to the List of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806) Mr. Enticknap was employed as a Cylinder Man earning 2/-d. per day, and at that date, he had 10 years' service. 2. A further List (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807) confirmed that Mr. Enticknap was still employed as a Cylinder Man earning 2/-d per day, and this was also the case in August 1808 (Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808). 3. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed he was still employed as a Cylinder Man at 2/-d per day. 4. Although according to Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812 he still worked as a Cylinder Man, William's pay had risen to 2/8d. per day 5. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814, confirmed the information given in Note 4.Supply 5/224
277JamesEnticknapList of Artificers & Others Employed1. James Enticknap, according to Supply 5/226 of the 18th June 1807, was employed as a Cylinder Man earning 2/-d per day. 2. Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, confirmed that James was still employed as a Cylinder Man earning the same 2/-d per day. 3. The above information was confirmed in Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, as well as in Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812. 4. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814, recorded that although James was still a Cylinder Man, his earnings by then had increased to 2/8d per day.Supply 5/226
278JohnEssex00/00/1745Personnel Record1. John Essex was promised to be started at the Mills as a Labourer in the Corning House and on the glazing engine, on the 9th February 1789, according to Supply 5/212 dated the 27th January 1789. 2. Supply 5/212 dated the 21st March 1789, recorded that John was employed as a Labourer with pay of 1/6d per day. 3. He is described as "cutting and planting willow trees, cutting of canal at the new Corning House, removing earth to the Store, unloading barge of coals & charring wood." in Supply 5/213 dated the 18th April 1789. 4. In Supply 5/215 dated September 1789, he is described as "Corning gunpowder". The document in question also recorded that he was then a 44-year-old. 5. John was promoted to Millman in the early part of 1790 with a rate of pay of 2/-d per day (Supply 5/214 dated the 27th March1790). He was still working as a Millman in January 1792 (Supply 5/215) as well as in February 1793 (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February 1793) and August to September 1793 (Supply 5/216). 6. In January 1794, he was working in the Dusting House "dusting & glazing powder", but returned to work as a Millman in August to December 1794 according to Supply 5/216. Robert Coleman reported on the 7th March 1794 that John Essex, Millman, had been chequered (fined) for coming to work drunk at 6 p.m (Winters, p.41). Together with Benjamin Guinn, he was also chequered 2 days' pay for coming to work drunk on Christmas Day 1794 (Winters, p.41). 7. He was still a Millman in July, 1795, and Millmen were paid an extra 3d per night when on duty (Supply 5/217 dated the 3rd July 1795). 8. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay, indicated that he was illiterate and still working as a Millman. 9. Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still working as a Millman at 2/-d per day, and recorded that he was a married man with 2 children. 10 A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) showed that, although still employed as a Millman, he was cleaning and deepening the river, canals, and performing sundry necessary work. 11 Although still employed as a Millman in 1804, his wages had risen to 2/3d per day. In addition, he also had an allowance of 3d per night when on duty "working at the mill", i.e., the night-shift rate was 2/6d. 12 On the 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224), John Essex is shown as a Warder earning 2/-d. per day, with 18 years' service, which is broadly in line with the first entry above. 13 Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807 stated that John was working in the Dusting House earning 2/1d per day. In addition, Dusting House men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d. 14 According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Essex was still employed as a Dusting House Man but was then earning 2/3d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 15 Employee List Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed the information given in Note 14. 16.List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that John Essex was still a Dusting House Man but that he then earned 3/-d per day, and in addition, was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night.Supply 5/212
279EdwardEssex00/00/1776Record of Personnel working in the Storekeeper's Department1. Edward Essex was employed dusting and glazing powder at 1/6d per day (Supply 5/216 dated the 31st August 1794). 2. Supply 5/217 dated the 24th June 1795, recorded that he was employed in the Corning House and had commenced work at the Mills on the 14th August 1793. 2a. He joined the Military Volunteer Company as a Private on the 7th May 1794 (Winters, p.42) 3. He was still a Corning House Man earning 1/6d per day, according to Supply 5/217 dated the 3rd July 1795 4. Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800, a signed document relating to a Petition on Pay, recorded that he was illiterate and was working as a Millman. The Return on the Marital Status of the Employees dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was a married man with 2 children. 5. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that, although still employed as a Millman, he was "cleaning and deepening the river, canals, & performing sundry necessary work." 6. Edward was still employed as a Millman on the 8th May 1804 according to Supply 5/222, but he then earned 2/3d per day. In addition, he also had an allowance of 3d per night when on duty "working at the mill", i.e., the night-shift rate was 2/6d. This was also the case on the 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224), and this record also stated that he had 13 years' service at that date, 7. Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1797, recorded that he was employed as a Corning House Man earning only 2/2d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn. Although still working in the Corning House on the 28th August 1808 (Supply 5/227) he was then paid 2/6d per day, with 1/-d when allowed to watch. 8. Still a Corning House Man earning 2/6d per day, with watch allowance increased to 1/6d (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810). 9. Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812, confirmed he was still employed as a Corning House Man but that he then eaned 3/3d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d. 10 According to the Return dated the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) Edward remained a Corning House Man earning the same each day and with the same watch allowance, as indicated in Note 9. 11 Supply 5/231 and WO54/524 dated the 25th June 1818, both stated that Edward Essex was then employed as a Saltpetre Refiner, paid 2/4d per day and allowed to watch in turn, for which he was given 1/-d per night. He was a married man, aged 43, with 4 children, and he lived in Waltham Abbey. 12 With peace in Europe, it was proposed to reduce the Establishment in 1818. Edward was one of those to be retained but with his pay reduced to 2/-d per day, according to Supply 5/231 dated 28th August 1818. 13 Nevertheless, the reduction in pay did not appear to have been implemented because Edward was still employed on the 19th May 1819 at the rate of 2/4d per day, and he was allowed to watch as before (Supply 5/231). 14 By September 1820 he was working in the Corning House, and his pay had increased to 2/11d per day, in addition to watching in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night (Supply 5/232 dated the 13th September 1820). 15 WO54/536 dated the 19th April 1821, confirmed that Edward was still a Corning House Man earning 2/11d per day, and allowed to watch as before. He was a 44-year-old married man with 4 children living in Waltham Abbey . 16 Supply 5/233 of the 1st October 1822, confirmed he was still employed as a Corning House Man. At that date his total wages per annum, including his watch allowance, were estimated at £50.16.11d, and this document recorded that he started work for the Board as a Labourer on the 14th August 1793. 17 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 confirmed that Essex was still a Corning House Man, and that his earnings for the year were £48.2.0d which included an allowance for watching in turn, for which he received 2/-d per week. His family and service details were confirmed, and he had previously been trained as a Baker. 18 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B) Edward Essex had his pay reduced by £2.12.0d per annum, in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the7th December 1822 and 15th January 1823. WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1823, recorded that he was still a Corning House Man and that his annual pay was £48.2.0d, which included an allowance for watching the works in turn for which, on average, he received 2/-d per week. His family details were confirmed, and it was recorded that he started work as a Labourer at the Mills on the 14th August 1793. 19 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825, confirmed that Edward was still a Corning House Man, confirming his basic wage as £42.18.0d per annum, in addition to which, he was allowed to watch in turn which gave him, on average, 2/-d per week, making a total income of £48.2.0d. His previous family and service details were confirmed, and this information was repeated in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. 20 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826, confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 confirmed the information given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826. 21 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recordsed "no alteration since the last Report dated the 1st October 1826." 22 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 gave the same information as in the previous Notes. At that date Edward Essex had 34 years' service and he was then 52.. 23 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) confirmed the information given in the Notes above, with the exception that he had then served over 34 years. 24 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 25 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, family details and pay remaining unchanged. 26 WO54/566 dated the 1st October 1829 stated that at that date Edward still earned the same as recorded in Note 19. His length of service was given as 36 years and he was then aged 53. 27 Return WO54/ 570 dated the 1st April 1830, updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details remaining unaltered. 28 WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, recorded that Edward was 54 years of age and that he had served for nearly 37 years. His pay was still the same as in Note 19, and all other details remained the same. 29 According to the Return WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831, Edward was 55 and had served just over 37 years. He was still earning a total of £48.2.0d as indicated in Note 19. 30. WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 31 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832, updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 32 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832, updated Edward's age and period of service in the April 1832 Return. 33 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, confirmed that Edward still earned a total of £48.2.0d per annum. His service was given as just over 39 years, and his age as 57. 34 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, recorded that Mr. Essex was 58, and had served 40 years. He was still in receipt of an annual wage of £48.2.0d, and his family details remained the same. 35 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 recorded that although Edward was still employed as a Corning House Man, his basic wage had been cut to £35.17.9d per annum,. He was still allowed to watch in turn, which increased his annual earnings to £41.1.9d. His family details remained the same, but his age and service details were updated. 36 WO54/59 dated the 1st October 1834, updated the previous Return for service and age, with conditions and pay unchanged. A Return of Properties dated the 20th December 1834, recorded that he was then occupying a cottage in High Bridge Street, owned by the Board and vacated by John Cook. The cottage was one of five known as Bank Cottages and the rental was £8.9.0d per annum (Supply 5/237) or part of Plot 48 on the Town Map in Appendix 1. 37 Edward was still employed as a Corning House man in October 1839, with total pay for the year of £48.2.0d, according to WO54/623 dated the 1st October 1839. 38 The 1841 Census recorded that Edward, aged 60 and born in Essex, together with his wife Ester, aged 60, but not of the County, lived on the north side of High Bridge Street. At the time of the Census James Essex, aged 8, and Mary Bennett, aged 1, possibly their grandchildren, were living with them. 39 On the 13th April, 1843, some 40 barrels of gunpowder exploded in the Corning House, together with another 20 in the Press House; 7 men were killed, and much damage was caused in the town. Among those killed was Edward Essex (Winters, p.106). 40 A graphic description of the explosion and damage caused, etc. was given in the London Illustrated London News dated Saturday, the 22nd April 1843 (WAAC). Edward left a widow and two grown up children.Supply 5/216
280WilliamEssexList of Employees1. William Essex was employed as a Cooper with a rate of pay of 1/9d per day, but he was not allowed to watch (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812) 2. He was still a Cooper on the 13th February 1813, but his pay was then 2/4d per day, but he was still not allowed to watch (Supply 5/230),Supply 5/229
281WilliamEtheringtonList of Artificers and Others Employed1. William Etherington, according to Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807, was employed as a Cylinderman earning 2/-d per day.Supply 5/226
282NathanielEthridgeWinters' Centenary Memorial1. Nathaniel Ethridge was a Labourer by trade, set to work by Daniel Cornish at 9/-d per week in October 1787, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase from Mr Walton by the Government. He does not, however, appear to have been retained (Winters p.29). 2. He was descibed as one of the first Labourers employed at the Mills, and that he was away on militia duty in May 1792 in Winters' book (p.69).Winters (p.29)
283CharlesFenton00/00/1770Lkist of Employees in the Engineers' Dept.1. Charles Fenton was employed as a casual Labourer earning 2/4d per day in the Engineers' Department according to WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816, and appointed by the Board on the 10th November 1815. In 1816, he was a 45-year-old married man with 3 children, living in Enfield.WO54/516
284JamesFergusonRecord of Personnel working in the Storekeeper's Department1. James Ferguson was in the Artillery from the 7th August 1778 to the 30th June 1789, and started at the Mills as a Labourer in the Corning House on the 26th January 1790, earning 1/6d per day (Supply 5/214 dated the 27th March 1790). 2. He was still in the Corning House in August and September of 1790 (Supply 5/215) and from December 1790 to June 1791 (Supply 5/215). 3. James was promoted to being a Millman earning 2/-d per day by the 31st January 1792 (Supply 5/215) and remained a Millman from July 1792 to December 1794 (Various Returns, all referenced Supply 5/216). 4. Millmen were paid an extra 3d per night when on duty, according to Supply 5/217 dated the 3rd July 1795. 5. James was made a Corporal in the Volunteer Company by 1798 (Supply 5/219 dated September 1798). 6. A Petition on Pay (Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800) recorded that he was literate and still working as a Millman. 7. Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still working as a Millman and that he was a married man with 6 children. 8. On the the 31st December 1801, his wife Mary was paid 4d per pair for washing sheets - these would have been used in the Watch Houses (Winters, p.61). 9. A letter dated the 4th October, 1809 (Supply 5/228) from his wife, Mary, refers to the death of her husband James, a Millman, of a cold in the autumn of 1801, while employed in cleaning gravel from the river. In this letter, she requested financial help. 10 Supply 5/199 dated the 6th October 1809, recorded that Mary was awarded a pension of 7/- per week by the Board. 11 A document dated the 8th November 1818 (Supply 5/231) listed persons to whom pensions or charitable allowances were granted by the Honourable Board. Among the recipients was Mary, and it confirmed she received a pension of 7/-d per week, which had commenced on the 1st October 1809. 12 Mary was still in receipt of her pension in 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated 17th November 1821). 13 A document dated the 6th December 1821 (also Supply 5/232) gave the estimated pay of persons between the 1st January and 31st December 1822 along with their superannuated allowance, as well as "the allowance to widows and orphans of those who have lost their lives at this place", in which it was confirmed that Mary's superanuation should continue at £18.4.0d per annum. A similar document, Supply 5/232 dated the 28th December 1821, confirmsedthat the same pension would be paid in 1822. This was also the case in 1826 (Winters, op.cit. p.96).Supply 5/214
285JohnFergusonList of officers, foremen, artificers etc.1. John Ferguson was described as "Rex Officers Labourer" in June 1807, receiving pay of 2/-d per day. 2. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Ferguson was employed as a Dusting House Man earning 2/3d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 3. John was employed as a Labourer "setting and drawing stoves and in the willow plantations, etc." by September 1810, and was paid 2/-d per day, as well as being allowed to "watch in turn" (Supply 5/228). 4. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that John Ferguson was then employed as a Saltpetre Refiner who earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn. This remained the case on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/226
286JamesFerrisList of Officers & Others Employed1. James Ferris, according to a List of Officers and Others Employed (Supply 5/222) dated 8th May 1804) was working as a Labourer in the "Engineers' Dept. Established". He earned 1/6d per day with "one day extra allowed per week agreeable to the Board's Order dated the 12th March 1801."Supply 5/222
287WilliamFevershamList of Officers and Artificers, etc. in Employment1. William Feversham was employed as a Labourer, "setting and drawing stoves, and in Willow Plantations, etc." earning 2/-d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn. (List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed dated the 23rd August 1808 - Supply 5/227).Supply 5/227
288JohnFewell00/00/1785Return of Employees1. John Fewell was first employed as a casual Labourer on the 13th September 1815, earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department. He was a 30-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/516 dated February 1816)WO54/516
289WilliamFieldPay List1. William Field was a Carpenter-2nd class, who was paid £1.3.4d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809. (Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809)Supply 5/228
290JohnFinlayWinters' Centenerary Memorial1. John Finlay, a Lieutenant in the Royal Engineers, was appointed Inspector of Gunpowder at the Royal Gunpowder Mills at Faversham and Waltham Abbey on the 31st January 1789, and was paid a salary of £200 per annum (Winters' Centenerary Memorial, p.115). 2. Finlay wrote to the Royal Mills at Waltham Abbey enquiring as to whether any staff would wish to learn the use of arms; they assembled and agreed On the 1st May 1794, 56 men enrolled for the Waltham Abbey Volunteer Company (Winters, op.cit. p.41). Further information on Finlay is given in the Faversham Gunpowder Personnel Records (p.32)p.115
291HenryFish00/00/1765Return of Employees1. Henry Fish started work on the 1st July 1796 as a Cylinder man in Sussex earning 1/6d per day (Supply 5/219 dated the 1st July 1798). 2. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was working as a Labourer, and that he was married with 4 children. Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 3. A Return of Artificers & Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (also Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still a Labourer at the Cylinder Houses in Sussex. The same document said that since the cylinders had been out of repair, Fish had been employed in stacking timber in the yards, and levelling and preparing the ground where the cylinders were to be resited. 4. According to the List of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806), Mr. Fish, as a Cylinder Man, earned 2/-d. per day, and at that date he had served 10 years. 5. According to a further List (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807) Mr. Fish was still employed as a Cylinder Man at 2/-d per day, and this was again the case according to Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808. 6. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810 contained similar information to the previous notes, i.e., his wages and occupation remained the same. 7. According to the List of Employees ( Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812, Mr. Fish was then earning 2/8d per day doing the same job as previously, and this was also the case according to the List of Employees and their Salaries (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814). 8. A Return of Employees dated the 2nd March 1816 (Supply 5/230) confirmed that Mr. Fish was still a Cylinder House Man, with 20 years' service. His age was given as 50, and it was recommended that he receive a daily superannuation of 2/8d. In the attached notes was the comment that Mr. Fish and others should be superannuated "because of the hurts they have received in this dangerous manufactory." It was also stated therein that the health of Mr. Fish "who is now extremely ill, has been so much impaired by the nature of his employment, as to make it improbable that he can ever be again advantageously employed in the service". However, in a letter dated the 6th March 1816 (Supply 5/200) Mr. Fish was finally awarded superannuation of only 2/-d per day for six days in the week, to start on the 1st April 1816. 9. A supplement to a document dated the 8th November 1818 (Supply 5/231), listed persons who had been superannuated on account of their length of service in the departments. Among the recipients was Henry Fish, Cylinderman, who received a pension of 12/-d per week, and it confirmed that the pension had commenced on the 1st April 1816. He was subsequently paid his pension at the cylinder works.Supply 5/219
292RichardFish00/00/1767Return of Employees1. Richard Fish started work as a Cylinder Man in Sussex on the 1st July 1796, earning 1/6d per day (Supply 5/219 dated the 1st July 1789). 2. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was working as a Labourer, and was married with 4 children. Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 3. A Return of Artificers & Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still employed as a Labourer at the Cylinder Houses in Sussex. The same document said that since the cylinders had been out of repair, Richard Fish had been employed in stacking timber in the yards and levelling and preparing the ground where the cylinders where to be resited. 4. According to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, Mr. Fish was employed as a Cylinder Man, earning 2/-d. per day. He then had 10 years' service. 5. Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807, confirmed that Richard was still employed as a Cylinder Man earning 2/-d per day, as was the case in August 1808 (Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808) and again in October 1808 (also Supply 5/227). 6. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810 gave the same information as in the notes above, and he was working in the same capacity in August 1812, but by then he was earning 2/8d per day (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 7. List of Employees and their Salaries (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February1814) confirmed that Richard was still a Cylinder Man on the same wage as in Note 6. 8. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) gave the same information as previously, with an additional note stating that he was a married man, aged 50, then with 7 children; he lived in Fisher Street in Sussex, and at that date earned 2/4d per day. 9. In a letter dated September 1818 (Supply 5/231) it was stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement", i.e. a reduction in the Establishment due to a downturn in work, and the list included Richard Fish.Supply 5/219
293JohnFleming00/00/1801Return of Employees1. John Fleming was appointed a Labourer "in the room of Henry Brown" on the 12th May 1830, according to a Return of Employees (WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830). At that date he had served 4 months, was aged 29, was single, and was brought up in the Bakery Trade. He earned £33.16.0d per year but was allowed to watch in turn, which gave him a total amount annually of £39.0.0d. 2. WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1831 updated the October 1830 Return, with no basic changes. 3. WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. The same information applied to WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832, whilst updating his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return. 4. Supply 5/207 dated the 8th August 1832, recorded that John and 3 others had been cautioned for being absent from their work for a whole day without leave, and warned that a repeat would result in their dismissal. 5. WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 updated his age and period of service in the April 1832 Return, and all other details remained unchanged. 6. WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, confirmed that at that date John was still earning £39.0.0d annually. His period of service was given as nearly 3 years, and his age as 32. He was still unmarried at that date. 7. WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 confirmed that Fleming's details were the same as in the previous Return, except that he had then served just over 3 years, and was 33 years' old. 8. WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834, recorded that although John was still employed as a General Labourer, his basic pay had been cut to £28.5.6d per annum. He was still allowed to watch in turn, which took his annual earnings up to £33.9.6d. He was 33 and single, but by then had served nearly 4 years. 9. WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834, confirmed the information given in the note above, but he was then 34 and had served just over 4 years. 10 Return of Employees dated the 10th October 1839 (WO56/623) recorded that he was employed as a Storehouse Man, with pay of £57.7.4d per annum which included an allowance to watch in turn. It confirmed that he had been appointed as a Labourer at the Mills on the 12th May 1830, and transferred to the stores on the 12th July 1837. He was a 38-year-old bachelor. 11 According to Winters (p.105) John was appointed Master Mixer on the 13th December 1839. 12 A transcript of he 1841 Census records that John was only 35 years old, and that he was not born in Essex. He was then married, and he and his wife, Elizabeth, aged 30, lived in Romeland with their son, William, who was 4 months' old at the date of the Census. Both mother and son were born in Essex.WO54/570
294JohnFordhamList of Foremen, Artificers & Labourers Employed1. John Fordham was working as a Punt Man according to Supply 5/224 of the 30th January 1806. He earned 2/-d per day and at that date had 3 months' service. In June 1807, the description of his work was "Setting & drawing stoves, loading and unloading barges etc." (Supply 5/226). 2. According to the entry for John on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, he had now become a Millman earning 2/3d per day, and was "allowed 6d per night when on duty." 3. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, recorded that he was working in the Glazing Mill at the same rate of pay as in the previous note, but was now allowed to watch in turn for 1/6d night. 4. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that John Fordham was still a Glazing Millman, but that he then earned 3/-d per day, and in addition, was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night. 5. List of Employees dated the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) stated that Mr. Fordham was still a Glazing Millman, but that he then earned 3/10d per day in addition to being allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d per night.Supply 5/224
295ThomasForemanRecord of personnel working in Storekeepers Dept..1. Thomas Foreman commenced work at the Mills as a general Labourer earning 1/6d per day, on the 5th November 1789, Supply 5/214 dated the 27th March 1790 stated that he was "Grinding salt petre, charcoal etc.", as was the case on the 14th August 1790 (Supply 5/215), December 1790 (Supply 5/215 dated the 11th December, 1790), April to June 1791 (Supply 5/215 dated the 16th April 1791, the 31st January 1792 (Supply 5/215), July to September 1792 (Supply 5/216), January to September 1793 ( also Supply 5/216), January to August 1794 (Supply 5/216) and December 1794 (Supply 5/217). 2. A Report dated 24th June 1795, recorded that Foreman was a "salt petre Millman," and that his pay remained at 1/6d per day, as was the case in September 1798 (Supply 5/219). 3. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800, relating to a Petition on Pay showed that he was literate and was then working as a Labourer. However, it would appear from subsequent entries that he retained the status of a Saltpetre Millman, and was to do labouring work when not required as a Millman. 4. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed he was working as a Labourer, and was a widower with 1 child. Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer, was described as a Labourer. 5. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (also Supply 5/221) recorded that he was employed as a Saltpetre Millman, but at the time, was engaged in cleaning and deepening the river, canals, ditches and other work necessary to be performed. 6. Thomas was now working as a Warder with pay of 2/-d per day. All Warders received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every 5th night. (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May1804). 7. Thomas is shown on the List of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers Employed dated the 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224) as a Warder, still at 2/-d. per day. This was also the case in June 1807, and again in 1808, according to the List of Officers, Foremen, Artificers, etc. Employed dated the 23rd August 1808 (Supply 5/227). 8. Return of Employees dated October, 1810, confirmed that Thomas was still employed as a warden at 2/-d per day, and was allowed to round every third night for which he was paid 2/-d (Supply 5/228). 9. A letter to the Board (Supply 5/199 dated the 28th January 1811) requested approval for the retirement of Thomas, due to age and infirmity. The request was granted, and he was to be paid 2/-d per day by the Storekeeper.Supply 5/214
296JohnFoxen00/00/1782Return of Employees1. John Foxen was employed as the Storekeeper's Labourer, according to a Report of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231). He was a married man, aged 35, with 4 children, and lived in Waltham Abbey. He earned 2/4d per day and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night. 2. A List of Empoyees dated the 28th August 1818 (also Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Foxen's name was on the list with his pay at 2/-d per day, but he was no longer paid to watch. 3. List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Foxen was still the Storekeeper's Labourer, and also that he was a married man, aged 36, with 4 children. He was paid 2/4d per day and, according to this Report, was again allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night.Supply 5/231
297WilliamFranklin00/00/1800List of Employees1. William Franklin had been employed for 4 months from June 1825, according to the List of Persons Employed by the Engineers' Department (WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825). It also recorded that he was a single man, aged 24, and that he had been engaged as a Labourer on a temporary basis and was to be discharged at the end of October 1825. His pay during the 4 months amounted to 2/2d per day.WO54/550
298JamesFreeList of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers1. James Free had been employed in the Corning House earning 2/2d per day for 3 months according to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806. 2. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Mr. Free was a Corning House Man who then earned 3/3d per day, and in addition, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d per night. 3. James was still a Corning House Man on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) with the same rate of pay and watch fee. 4. The 1841 Census recorded that James was an Agricultural Labourer, who, together with his wife, Elizabeth, was lodging with Ann Hudson, an Ordnance Board Pensioner.Supply 5/224
299Thomas (1)Freeman00/00/1779List of Foreman, Artificers & Labourers Employed1. Thomas Freeman (1) started work as a Labourer "setting & drawing stoves and clearing willow plantation" on the 1st September 1798, earning 1/6d per day. He was also a Private in the Volunteer Company (Supply 5/219). 2. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay, showed that he was illiterate and was still working as a Labourer. 3. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed he was a Labourer, that he was married and had 1 child. Note: in this document, anyone not an artificer, was described as a Labourer. 4. A List of Officers and Others Employed (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804) recorded that Thomas was working as a Labourer in the "Engineers' Dept. Established", earning 1/6d per day with "one day extra allowed per week agreeable to the Board's Order dated 12th March 1801." 5. Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, described Thomas as a "Salt Petre Millman" who earned 2/-d per day; at that date he had 6 years' service with the Ordnance Board. 6. He was still a "Salt Petre Millman" in June 1807 (Supply 5/226), and a note said that in addition to his pay he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d. 7. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Freeman was then employed as a Charcoal Millman earning 2/3d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 8. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, recorded that Thomas was a Mixing House man who was paid 2/3d per day, and allowed to watch in turn for 1/6d per night. 9. Supply 5/229 - WO54/512) confirmed that Thomas (1) was still a Mixing House man, but that he then earned 3/-d per day, in addition to which he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night. 10 List of Officers & Others Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (WO54/524) stated that Thomas was a 37-year-old married man with 5 children living in Cheshunt, earning 2/8d per day and allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night. 11 A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) gave the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Freeman's name was on the List with his pay reduced to 2/-d per day, and he was not paid watch money. 12 In a letter dated September 1818 (Supply 5/231) it is stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement." Thomas Freeman's name was included. 13 List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) indicated that Freeman was still employed as a Mixing House Man, was married and was aged 37, with 5 children. At that time he lived in Waltham Abbey and was paid 2/4d per day, as well as again being allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night. 14 List of Officers on Employment dated 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Thomas (1) was 38 with 5 children, and then lived in Cheshunt. His pay was still 2/4d per day, but he was now in receipt of 1/6d per night when allowed to watch. 15 A Return dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) indicated that Thomas was now 40, and that all other details remained the same as in Note 14. 16 List of Employees (Supply 5/232 dated 23rd January 1822) recorded that Thomas's service was nearly 25 years, and that he was still paid 2/4d per day. 17 Return dated 6th February 1822 (Supply 5/232) recorded the length of service and other full details of those persons employed by the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821. This appeared to be a more detailed and accurate Return than that of the 23rd January 1822, and confirmed that Thomas (1) was appointed a Labourer at Waltham Abbey on the 1st September 1798, and later became a Mixing House Man. He had an annual income of £36.10.4d, and according to this Return at the 31st December 1821, he had just over 23 years' service, was 42 years old, was married with 5 children, and lived in Cheshunt. 18 List of Employees dated the 21st March 1822 (Supply 5/232) of persons to form an Establishment to regenerate 2000 barrels of gunpowder as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually, indicated that Thomas Freeman, "Mixing House Man", was to be retained. 19 Return dated the 1st October 1825 (Winters, pp.93-95) confirmed the previous information given, Thomas was a Mixing House Man and had been in continuous service with the Board since the 1st September 1798. His basic pay - with no allowance for watching - was £33.16.0d per annum. 20 Return dated the 1st April 1823 confirmed that Freeman was still a Mixing House Man, and that his pay for the year was £39.0.0d, which included an allowance for watching in turn, for which he received 2/-d per week. His family and service details were the same as recorded as previously. 21 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B) Thomas (1) had his pay reduced by £2.12.0d per annum, in accordance with the Board's Orders dated 27th December 1822 and 15th January 1823. 22 WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1823, confirmed that he was still a Mixing House Man and that his annual remuneration was £39.0.0d, which included an allowance for watching the works in turn, for which, on average, he received 2/-d per week. He then had 6 children. 23 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825, gave his basic pay as £33.16.0d per annum. He was still allowed to watch in turn which gave him, on average, 2/-d per week, making his total annual earnings £39.0.0d. This Return also confirmed his previous family and service details, and the information was repeated in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. 24 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. 25 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded "no alteration since the last report dated the 1st October 1826." 26 Supply 5/205 dated the 28th May 1827, recorded that Thomas Freeman requested that he be allowed the tenancy of a cottage at a rental of 2/-d per week, being the same rent paid by the woman who "has quitted the premises." This was the cottage in Powder Mill Lane occupied by John Simpson and then granted to his widow for a period of 12 months. 27 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 recorded the same information as in the notes above. At that date Thomas had nearly 29 years' service and was then aged 44. 28 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) confirms the information given in the notes above, with the exception that he had then served for just over 29 years. 29 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 30 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, again with his family details and pay remaining unaltered.. 31 According to the Return dated the 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) Thomas Freeman (1) had died sometime between April and October of 1829.Supply 5/219
300Thomas (2)FreemanList of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers Employed1. Thomas Freeman (2) was Drawing and Setting Stoves (Gloom stoves for drying gunpowder) earning 2/-d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). At that date he had 1 year's service. 2. Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807, recorded that he was then working as a Warder, still earning 2/-d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn. This was also the case in 1808, according to a Return dated the 23rd August of that year (Supply 5/227). 3. Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812, confirmed that he was still employed as a Warder, with the same rate of pay per day as in the previous notes.Supply 5/224
301WilliamFreemantleList of Officers, Foremen, Artificers, etc. Employed.1. William Freemantle was employed as a Millman at 2/3d per day, and allowed 3d per night when on duty (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807). 2. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Freemantle was still a Millman earning 2/3d per day, and "allowed 6d per night when on duty."Supply 5/226
302JohnFullar00/00/1770Return of Employees1. John Fullar was a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week (WO54/512 dated September 1812). 2. WO54/516 dated February 1816 recorded that he was first employed as a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the 18th May 1811. He was paid 2/8d per day and was a 45-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey. His previous employment had been as a Butcher.WO54/512
303PhillipFullarReturn of Employees1. Phillip Fullar was a Labourer in the Engineers' Department earning 2/8d per day for a six-day-week, according to WO54/512 dated September 1812.WO54/512
304RichardFullar00/00/1793Return of Employees1. Richard Fullar was employed as a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the 10th July 1815, earning 2/8d per day. He was an 18-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey.WO54/516
305WilliamFullarReturn of EmployeesWilliam Fullar was employed as a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the 10th July 1815, earning 2/8d per day. He was a 31-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/516 dated February 1816).WO54/516
306WilliamFullerWinters' Centenary Memorial (p. 28)1. William Fuller, a Labourer, was set to work by Daniel Cornish in October 1787 at 9/-d per week, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase by the Government from Mr Walton (Winters, p.28). 2. He was was working as an occasional Labourer in November 1788 (Supply 5/212). 3. Record dated the 27th January 1789 (Supply 5/212) stated "Warder, but has no promise to be continued." 4. A William Fuller was employed as a Labourer in the Engineers' Department at 1/6d per day. In August 1790, he worked within the Manufactory with his wages submitted by William Spry, Colonel commanding the Royal Engineers, and paid by the Storekeeper, James Wright. He signed for his pay with a cross (WASC 1382). 5. By February 1793, Willam Fuller was working as a Bargeman. Together with John Turnham and John Cook, he was taking materials to London by barge and was clearly afraid of being "seized by the Press Gangs." Accordingly, the Rex Officers at Waltham Abbey wrote to the Duke of Richmond stating that Cook, Fuller and Turnham were Gunpowder Makers and Bargemen who were apprehensive of the Impress Office on the River Thames. They requested that "you will be pleased to grant them protection" (WASC 475).
307ThomasFullerReturn of Employees1. Thomas Fuller was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner, paid 2/-d per day, and allowed to watch in turn when not on duty, according to a Return dated the 1st September 1810 (Supply 5/228). 2. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) stated that Thomas was still a Saltpetre Refiner who then earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, was allowed to watch in turn. The same pay and conditions applied on the 13th February 1814, according to Supply 5/230.Supply 5/228
308WilliamFullhamPersonnel Record1. William Fulham was described in January to March 1792 as "in the punts and likewise drawing & setting stoves, landing and shipping gunpowder & stores etc.", and earned 1/6d per day (Supply 5/215 dated the 31st January 1792) This was also the case in July to September 1792 (Supply 5/216), February to March 1793 (Supply 5/216) as well as in August to September 1793 (Supply 5/216). 2. In January 1794 he was "drawing & setting stoves and in the punts" (Supply 5/216) as well as in August 1794 (Supply 5/216) and December 1794 (Supply 5/217). 3. William enlisted as a Private in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794 (Supply 5/219). 4. In Supply 5/217 dated the 3rd July 1795, he is listed as a Millman with pay of 2/- d per day, and an additional 3d when on night duty. 5. Robert Coleman recorded that a second charge was made in August 1795 against John Ashwood, the Master Mixer, by Fulham and Mason, but "Order to discharge Fullham and John Mason, not having made good their charge against Ashwood." was recorded, and he was, therefore, discharged on the 18th September 1795.Supply 5/212
309JamesFurlougerList of Officers, etc. Employed.1. James Furlouger was employed as a Punt Man earning 2/8d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814).Supply 5/230
310CharlesGale00/00/1783Pay List1. Charles Gale was a Carpenter (1st Class) who was paid £1.9.9d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809, according to Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809. WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, recorded that on the 27th July 1796, he was in "Contractors Employ". 2. Gale rejoined the Board on the 8th March 1822, as a Carpenter in the Engineers' Department, and this may be the date he was appointed on the Establishment - see below for pensionable service. 3. WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823, stateed that Charles was paid 4/1d per day as a Carpenter for 313 days, giving him an income of £63.18.1d for the year. He was aged 39, living in Waltham Abbey and had 6 children. He appeared to have been taken on the Establishment with other Carpenters on the 8th March 1822, but it is odd that his name does not appear in the records between 1809 and 1822, since this Return shows that he had just over 27 years' service, starting on the 27th July 1796. 4. WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825, confirmed that Charles was still paid 4/1d per day for 313 days as a Carpenter, and this gave him an annual income of £63.18.1d. His service was just over 29 years, he was aged 41, was married and had 6 children. 5. WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825, confirmed the previous entry. It also recorded that Charles had been employed by a contractor who had worked at the Mills on the 17th May 1796. 6. WO54/554 dated 1st April 1826, recorded identical information as in Notes 4 and 5, with the exception that he was then a 42-year-old with service of just over 30years. In addition, he then had 7 children. 7. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 confirmed the previous Return. 8. WO54/558 dated 1st April 1827 confirmed the information given in the notes above, although at that date Mr. Gale had just over 31 years' service and was then 43. In addition, he then had 8 children. 9. WO54/558 dated 1st October 1827 recorded no basic alterations from the previous Return. 10 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) updated the basic information as in the notes above, except that Charles then had 9 children. 11 Return dated the 1st October1828 (no reference given) updated his age and length of service, family details and pay remaining unchanged. This Return also recorded that he had trained as a Carpenter. 12 WO54/566 dated 1st April 1829 confirmed that Charles at that date still earned the same as in Note 4. His length of service was given as just over 33 years, and he was then 45 years of age. 13 Return dated 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, family and pay details remaining unaltered. 14 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for Charles as in Note 4, except that his service was 34 years and he was aged 46. 15 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 confirmed that Charles was still a Carpenter with family details and salary unchanged, but length of service and age were updated. 16 A Return of Persons belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January 1831, recorded that Charles Gale was one of the 7 Carpenters to be employed at Waltham Abbey Powder Mills and the Enfield Small Arms Factory, and that he was to be paid 4/1d per day. He was required to undertake general services as a Carpenter in the Manufactory "requiring great care, attention, sobriety etc." 17 WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831, updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 18 WO54/575 dated October 1831, confirmed that Charles Gale still earned 4/1d per day as indicated in Note 16, giving him a total of £63.18.1d per annum. He had then served nearly 36 years and was aged 48. 19 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, all other details remaining unaltered. 20 WO54/581 dated 1st October 1832, confirmed that Mr. Gale still earned £63.18.1d per annum. His service was given as nearly 37 years, and at that date he was aged 49 years, was married and had 9 children. 21 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, confirmed the information given in Note 20. 22 WO54/587 dated 1st October 1833, recorded that his basic details remained unchanged, but his age and length of service were updated. 23 WO54/593 dated 1st April 1834 confirmed that Charles still earned a total of £63.18.1d per annum, that he was nearly 51, and that his service was just over 38 years. 24 In 1839 he was still paid 4/1d per day, with an estimated annual income of £63.18.1d. He was a 56-year-old married man with then only 8 children, living in Waltham Abbey. He had 17 years' service (WO54/623 dated the 1st October 1839). See also notes on John Cooper. 25 The 1841 Census recorded that Charles Gale, Carpenter, and his wife, Ann, were living on the south side of High Bridge Street, together with their son Edward (aged 20) who was a Brushmaker, son William (aged 15) and daughter Tabitha (aged 11).Supply 5/228
311CharlesGale00/00/1806List of Employees in Engineers' Department1. Charles Gale was employed in the Engineers' Department as a Labourer on the 11th October 1823, and was paid 2/2d per day for 313 days. This gave him an annual income of £33.18.2d. His service was given as 18 months, and he was a single man aged 19 (WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825). 2. WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825, confirmed the previous entry. 3. Information given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826, was identical to that given in the October 1825 Return, and confirmed that his date of appointment was the 11th October 1823. 4. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, recorded the same information as in the previous Return, as did WO54/558 dated 1st April 1827, but at that date, Charles had nearly 4 years' service, and was 21 years of age. He was still a single man.WO54/550
312ThomasGalleonReport on Established Artificers and Labourers.1.Thomas Galleon was appointed as a Labourer working in the Corning House on the 21st May 1795, at 1/6d per day (Supply 5/217 dated 24th June 1795). He was still in the Corning House in July 1795 (Supply 5/217 dated the 31st July 1795). 2. In September 1798 he was described as a Puntman (Supply 5/219). 3. According to Supply 5/219 dated September 1792, he was a Private in the Volunteer Company 4. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay, recorded that he was literate and was working as a general Labourer. 5. Supply 5/221 dated the 8th May 1801, recorded that Thomas was working as a Labourer, was a married man, and had 2 children. Note:- anyone not an Artificer was described in this document as a Labourer. Robert Coleman recorded in his Minute Book on the 23rd October 1801, that 24 men were required to work at Faversham or be discharged and Galleon was one who agreed to go (Winters, p.60). However, the Faversham Gunpowder Personnel Register 1573-1840 does not record his name, so it can only be assumed his services were terminated and that he was subsequently re-engaged. 6. According to Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804, Thomas was working as a Refiner with pay of 2/-d per day, and all Refiners received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every 5th night. 7. Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, recorded that he was working as a Stoveman and earned 2/-d per day. According to this Return, he had 10 years' service at that date. 8. Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, recorded that Mr. Galleon was "an Assistant to Steam Stoveman", then earning 2/6d per day. 9. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September1810, stated that Galleon was then employed as an Assistant Coppersmith with pay of 2/6d per day. 10 List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Mr. Galleon was an "Assistant to Copper Smith, etc." earning 3/3d per day.Supply 5/217
313ThomasGapesList of Officers & Artificers, etc. in Employment1. Thomas Gapes was employed as a Labourer, "setting and drawing stoves, and in Willow Plantations, etc." earning 2/-d per day, and allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808).Supply 5/227
314GeorgeGarnettList of Foremen, Artificers & Labourers Employed1. George Garnett was taken on as a Labourer in the summer of 1805, "drawing and setting stoves etc", earning 2/-d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). 2. According to a Return dated the 23rd August 1808 (Supply 5/227) Mr. Garnett was still employed as a Labourer, "setting and drawing stoves, and in Willow Plantations, etc." earning 2/-d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn. 3. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, recorded that George was then employed as a Collar Maker with pay of 2/6d per day. Winters (pp.69-70) confirmed he was appointed to this position in 1808.Supply 5/224
315HenryGatensburyReturn of Employees1. Henry Gatensbury was a married man with 3 children who worked as a Labourer, according to Supply 5/221 dated the 8th May 1801. Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 2. In a letter to the Board dated the 29 July 1801 (also Supply 5/221) it was stated that the men who were burnt at the Corning House on the 16th June had requested that they were reimbursed for their loss of clothing. Mr. Gatensbury's claim amounted to 12/-d for a hat. 3. Robert Coleman recorded in his Minute Book on the 23rd October 1801, that 24 men were required to work at Faversham or be discharged. Gatensbury apparently refused to go and was, therefore, discharged, according to Winters (p.60).Supply 5/221
316JohnGayler00/00/1779Return of Employees1. John Gayler was first employed as a Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the 9th September 1815, earning 2/8d per day (WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816). This document also stated that he was a 36-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey, with no children.WO54/516
317JohnGelleounList of Employees1. John Gelleoun was employed as a Cooper at 1/9d per day, but was not allowed to watch (Supply 5/229 dated 29th August 1812). 2. He was still a Cooper on the 13th February 1814, but his pay was then 2/4d per day, and he was still not allowed to watch (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/229
318RobertGeorge00/00/1789Return of Employees1. Robert George was first employed as a Labourer on the 30th November 1815 at 2/8d per day. He was a 27-year-old widower living in Enfield, with no children (WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816).WO54/516
319JosephGibbsReport on Explosion in the new Corning House1. Joseph Gibbs, along with 8 other men and 4 horses, was killed on the 18th April 1801, in a tremendous explosion when the new Corning House blew up (Letter to the Board - Supply 5/220 dated the 19th April 1801). 2. Supply 5/194 - a Petition dated the 24th April 1801 - recorded that Joseph's mother, Elizabeth, along with another mother and the widows, requested "relief in their distress." 3. Supply 5/220 dated the 29th April 1801 was a Report on the ages of children and circumstances of widows concerned. It said that Joseph's mother, Elizabeth Gibbs, who was 47 and Joseph's next of kin, was infirm and had been supported by her son. 4. Elizabeth was awarded a weekly pension of 2/-d (Winters, p.58).Supply 5/220
320PaulGibbsWinter's Centenary Memorial (page 32)1. Paul Gibbs was employed as a Millwright at 3/-d per day, in November 1789 (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.32)
321GeorgeGibbs00/00/1795Return of Employees1. George Gibbs was first employed as a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department at 2/8d per day on the 27th May 1815. He was a 20-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/516 dated February 1816).WO54/516
322JamesGibbs00/00/1793Return of Employees1. James Gibbs started work as a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the 15th August 1815, earning 2/8d per day. He was a 22-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey, and his previous trade was that of a Butcher (WO54/516 dated February 1816).WO54/516
323JohnGibbs (Junior)00/00/1822Petition1. John Gibbs (2) was Apprenticed to the Master Sulphur Refiner on the 1st October 1834, according to a Petition to the Board dated the 7th March 1838 (Supply 5/237) from Sarah Gibbs, widow, who stated that her son was appointed as an Apprentice Sulphur Refiner upon the death of her husband, who had been a Millwright for many years. She continued that her son was then doing a man's job, and requested a pay increase for him. It was agreed by the Board to increase his money from 6/-d to 9/-d per week (Supply 5/237 dated the 1st April, 1838). 2. Return of Employees (WO54/623 dated the 1st October 1839) confirmed that John Gibbs (2) started work at the Mills on the 1st October 1834, as an Apprentice Brimstone Refiner. He was a 17-year-old bachelor with 5 years' service, and his rate of pay was £23.8.0d per annum. 3. A letter from the Storekeeper to the Board related that John, although only an Apprentice, was doing the work of a man. He recommended that the 6d being paid to James O'Brien, The Master Sulphur Refiner, be withdrawn and that Gibbs should be paid 2/4d daily (Supply 5/238 of the 20th March 1840). 4. According to a list prepared by the Royal Engineers' Office in May 1840 of property owned by the Board (WO44/133) J. Gibbs, sulphur refinery, was then living in a cottage previously occupied by Henry Coram (Coreham). This would have been in Powder Mill Lane, part of Plot 62 on the Town Map in Appendix 1. 5. The 1841 Census confirmed that a 20-year-old man by the name of John Gibbs lived in Powder Mill Lane and worked at the Gunpowder Mills as a Brimstone Refiner. In the same property were Ann Gibbs aged 20, a dressmaker, together with Caroline Gibbs aged 15, who was described as a female servant, and Kate Gibbs, aged 7 years. All were born in Essex.Supply 5/237
324JohnGibbs (Senior)00/00/1783Pay List1. John Gibbs was a Millwright who was paid £1.9.9d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809 (Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809). WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, recorded that he first worked for the Board on the 29th March 1806, and this agreed with the length of service recorded in later Returns. 2. WO54/512 dated September 1812, confirmed that he was employed as a Millwright earning 5/2d per day. 3. WO54/516 dated February 1816, recorded that John was employed as a casual Millwright by the Engineers' Department and had first worked for the Board in that capacity on the 29th March 1806. He was a 32-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey with 4 children, and was then paid 5/8d per day. 4. According to WO54/520 dated 28th February 1817, Mr. Gibbs was still a Millwright aged 33, who was married, but now had 5 children. He was paid 5/2d per day, and was employed "occasionally as the Service required." This was also the case in 1818 (WO54/524). 5. WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819, recorded that although he then had 6 children, all his other details remained the same. 6. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 ( WO54/532) confirmed that John Gibbs was still employed as a Millwright. He was then 37, lived in Waltham Abbey, and this Return statesdthat he was married with 7 children. He still earned 5/2d per day, and was still employed "occasionally as the Service required." These details remained the same according to WO54/536 dated 2 April 1821 and WO54/536 dated 31st December 1821. 7. WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 recorded that John, as a Millwright, was paid 5/2d per day for 313 days, which gave him an annual income of £80.17.2d. It confirmed that he had 7 children, and his service details remained the same. 8. WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 confirmed that John Gibbs was still paid 5/2d per day for 313 days as a Millwright, which gave him an annual income of £80.17.2d. His service was given as 19 years, and he was then aged 42 with 8 children. 9. WO54/550 dated 13th October 1825 repeated the information given in the Return dated 1st April 1825. 10 WO54/554 dated 1st April 1826, recorded identical information as given in Notes 8 and 9, with the exception that he was now 43 and had served 20 years. In addition, he then had 9 children. 11 WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 confirmed the information given in the previous notes, as did WO54/558 dated 1st April 1827. However, at that date John Gibbs had 21 years' service and was 44 years of age. 13 WO54/558 dated 1st October 1827 recorded no basic difference from the previous Return. 14 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) updated the same basic information already given. 15 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated John's age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 16 WO54/566 dated 1st April 1829, confirmed that John still earned £80.17.2d annually. His length of service was given as 23 years and he was then 46 years of age.. 17 Return dated 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, family and pay details remaining unchanged. 18 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for John Gibbs as in Note 16, except that his service was then 24 years and he was 47 years of age. 19 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, confirmed that John was still a Millwright, with family details and pay remaining the same, but his service and age were updated. 20 A Return of Persons belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January 1831, recorded that John Gibbs was one of the 3 Millwrights employed at Waltham Abbey. He was paid 5/2d per day and his duties were given as general service as a Millwright within the Manufactories, which required great attention, skill and sobriety, etc.(WO54/570). 21 WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831, updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 22 WO54/575 dated October 1831, confirmed that John Gibbs still earned 5/2d per day, giving him a total of £80.17.2d per annum. At that date he had served over 25 years and was 49 years of age. 23 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832, updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 24 WO54/581 dated 1st October 1832, recorded that he still earned £80.17.2d per annum and that by that date he had served for over 26 years. His age was given as 50. 25 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, confirmed the information given in Note 24, except that he had served 27 years. 26 WO54/587 dated 1st October 1833, gave the same basic details as in Note 25, but his age and length of service had been updated. 27 WO54/593 dated 1st April 1834 confirmed that John still earned a total of £80.17.2d per annum, that he was just over 51 years of age, and that he had served 28 years. 28 In a Petition to the Board dated the 7th March 1838, Sarah, John Gibbs' widow, stated that her son had been Apprenticed to the Master Sulphur Refiner on the 1st ctober 1834, following the death of his father. She continued that her son was now doing a man's job, and requested a pay increase for him. It was agreed by the Board to increase his money from 6/-d to 9/-d per week (Supply 5/237). It can be assumed, therefore, that John Gibbs died between April and October 1834.Supply 5/228
325RobertGiffinList of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers Employed1. Robert Giffin started work as a Labourer drawing and setting stoves in the Autumn of 1805, earning 2/-d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806).Supply 5/224
326WilliamGilhamWinters' Centenary Memorial (page 29)1. William Gilham was a Labourer by trade who was set to work by Daniel Cornish in October 1787 at 9/-d per week, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase by the Government from Mr Walton. However, he does not appear to have been retained (Winters, p.29).
327JGillhamRecord of Personnel in the Storekeepers Department1. J. Gillham was working on the barges and punts, earning 1/6d per day, according to the Return of Personnel dated the 18th April 1789 (Supply 5/213). 2. Supply 5/214 dated September 1789, confirmed he was working in the barges. 3. Supply 5/214 dated the 27th March 1790, recorded that he was working on the barges, but at the time of the Return was away sick, and that his place had been taken by Edward Heddy.Supply 5/213
328ThomasGilliamList of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc.1. Thomas Gilliam was employed as a Stoveman (drying gunpowder by means of a Gloom stove) with pay of 2/-d per day. In addition to his pay, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d each time (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807).Supply 5/226
329ThomasGinn00/00/1777Pay List1. Thomas Ginn was a Bricklayer who was paid £1.9.9d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department between the 15th and 21st July 1809 (Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809). 2. WO54/516 dated February 1816, recorded that Thomas was employed in the Engineers' Department as a casual Bricklayer earning 4/7d per day, and confirmed that he was first employed as a Bricklayer by the Board on the 23rd July 1806. He was a 38-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey, with 3 unmarried children.Supply 5/228
330JohnGinn00/00/1797Return of Employees1. John Ginn was employed as a casual Bricklayer's Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the 14th November 1815, earning 2/8d per day. He was an 18-year-old-batchelor living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/516 dated February 1816).WO54/516
331RichardGladwinPay List1. Richard Gladwin had been employed as a Carpenter (2nd Class) and was paid £1.8.4d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department between the 15th and 21st July 1809 (Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809).Supply 5/228
332DanielGoatsList of Foremen & Labourers Employed in the Manufactory1. Daniel Goats started work in the summer of 1805 as a Puntman, and according to Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, he remained in this capacity for 3 years, earning 2/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed to watch in turn 2. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, recorded that Daniel was then a Corning House Man who was paid 2/6d day, and was allowed to watch in turn for 1/6d per night. 3. At 11.15 a.m. on the 27th November 1811, there was a huge explosion at No. 4 Press House. The ensuing fire engulfed the Corning and Reel Houses, which also exploded. There was much damage to the town with many windows shattered, and reports in the press record that the explosion at the Press House was heard as far away as Hackney, Blackwall and Marylebone (Winters, p.72). Among those killed was Daniel, who was single, and as far as was known, had no encumbrance (Letter - Supply 5/229 dated the 3rd December 1811). 4. Daniel's widowed mother, Ann, lived in Bishops Stortford, but came to Waltham to ask for a small allowance or donation as the Board "judged to be proper" (Supply 5/229 dated the 24th November 1811), and according to Winters (p.73), the Board granted Ann 20 guineas. 5. On page 153 of his book, Winters recorded that although Daniel was killed in the explosion in the Corning House on Lower Island and a coffin "supposed to contain his remains was buried with the bodies of the rest of the unfortunate men", his body was not actually discovered until some time afterwards. John Smith, who found the body, was given a reward of £1, and John Rowland, a Carpenter employed by the Engineers' Department, was paid £2.8.1d for funeral expenses.Supply 5/224
333WilliamGoatsWinters' Centenary Memorial (p. 40)1. William Goats started work at the Mills on the 12th August 1793, and Coleman recorded that day that he was engaged to fill one of 7 vacancies then available at the Mills (Winters, p.40).
334JohnGoats00/00/1771List of Employees1. John Goats started work on the punts and "setting & drawing stoves" on the 19th December 1792, with pay of 1/6d per day. (Supply 5/216 dated the 31st August 1793). 2. In January and August 1794, he was in the Corning House (Supply 5/216). This was also the case in December 1794 as well as July 1795 (Supply 5/217) 3 John enlisted as a Private in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794 (Supply 5/217). 4. In September 1798 (Supply 5/219) he was recorded as working as a Bargeman and a Private in the Voluntary Company 5. A signed document relating to a Petition on Pay (Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800) indicated that he was literate and was still working as a Bargeman. 6. Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was working as a Labourer and that he was a married man with no children. Note: in this document, anyone who was not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 7. Robert Coleman recorded in his Minute Book on the 23rd October 1801, that 24 men were required to work at Faversham or be discharged, and John was one who agreed to go (Winters, p.60). However, his name does not appear in the Faversham records, so it is possible that he may have been retained at the Mills or re-engaged at a later date. 8. Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, recorded that John was working as a Refiner in the Saltpetre House with pay of 2/-d per day, and at that date he had 13 years' service. 9. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Goats was still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/-d. per day, and "when not working extra, they are allowed to watch in turn." 10 List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Mr. Goats was now a Foreman of Saltpetre Refiners, earning 4/7d per day; this was also the case in 1814, according to Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814. 11 List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that John Goats was a Saltpetre Refiner, that he was a married man of 47 with no children, and that he lived in Waltham Abbey. He was earning 2/4d per day and allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night. 12 A Report of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) listed the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. John Goats' name was included with his pay unchanged, but he was no longer allowed to watch. 13 List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) recorded that John was then employed as a Brimstone Refiner; he was a married man, aged 48, with no children, who lived in Waltham Abbey. He was still paid 2/4d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. 14 A Record of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) recorded that John Goats was now 49, still lived in Waltham Abbey and still earned 2/4d per day, but then worked as a Saltpetre Refiner. When watching, he was paid 1/6d per night. 15 List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) indicated that John was now 50 and confirmed that he was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner; all other entries remained the same as in Note 14. 16 List of Employees (Supply 5/232 dated 23rd January 1822) gave the age of John, Saltpetre Refiner, as 51, with just over 29 years' service and pay per day of 2/4d. 17 Return dated 6th February 1822 (Supply 5/232) appeared to be a more detailed and accurate Return than that of the 23rd January 1822, and confirmed that John was appointed a Labourer at Waltham Abbey on the 19th August 1793; by Orders of the Board dated the 4th September 1818 and the 4th October 1819, he was appointed as a Saltpetre Refiner. He was allowed to watch in turn to guard the works, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night, giving him total annual pay of £41.14.4d. According to this Return, at 31st December 1821, he had 29 years' service, was 51 years' old, was married with no children and lived in Waltham Abbey. 18 List dated the 21st March 1822 (Supply 5/232) of Persons to Form an Establishment at Waltham Abbey to regenerate 2000 barrels of gunpowder as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually, confirmed that John Goats, Saltpetre Refiner, was to be retained. 19 List of Employees dated the 1st October 1822 (Supply 5/233) recorded that John Goats was living in a cottage belonging to the Board. All other details remained unaltered. 20 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823, confirmed that Goats was still a Saltpetre Refiner, that his pay for the year was £39.0.0d, and that this included an allowance for watching in turn, for which he received 2/-d per week. His family and service details were confirmed, and he was still living in a cottage owned or rented by the Board "so that his wife could look after the water." It was noted that he then lived in Cheshunt, which would indicate that this was Aqueduct Lock in that parish, and this fact was confirmed in a later Return dated 1st April 1834 (WO54/593). 21 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B) John Goats had his pay reduced by £2.12.0d per annum, in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the 27th December 1822 and the 15th January 1823. 22 WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1823, recorded that he was still a Saltpetre Refiner and that his annual pay was £39.0.0d, which included an allowance for watching the works in turn, for which, on average, he received 2/-d per week. There is no mention in this document that he lived in property belonging to the board. His service and family details were confirmed. 23 Return showing Pay and Allowances, etc., dated October 1st 1825 (Winters, pp.93-95) confirmed previous information given, and recorded that Mr. Goats had been in continuous service with the Board since the 19th August 1793. He earned £33.16.0d. per annum. 24 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 confirmed that John was still a Saltpetre Refiner and that his basic pay was £33.16.0d per annum. He was still allowed to watch in turn which gave him, on average, 2/-d per week, making his total pay £39.0.0d per annum. His family and service details were as before, and the same information was repeated in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. 25 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826, confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825, and WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, confirmed the details given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826. 26 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827, recorded "no alteration since the last Report dated the 1st October 1826." 27 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 recorded the same information as in the notes above. However, at that date John had 34 years' service and was 54 years of age. He still lived in the Board's cottage so that his family could look after the water. 28 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) records the same information as in the notes above. 29 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay unchanged. He still lived in a cottage belonging to the Board. 30 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay again remaining unchanged. 31 WO54/566 dated the 1st October 1829, confirmed that at that date John Goats still earned £39.0.0d. His length of service was given as 36 years and he was then aged 55. 32 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for John except that he was then aged 56 years, and Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, recorded that Mr. Goats had by then served 37 years. 33 According to Return WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831, John was 57 years of age, and had served over 37 years. He was still earning a total of £39.0.0d. 34 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831, updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 35 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, again with all other details remaining unaltered, as did WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832. 36 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, confirmed that at that date John was still earning £39.0.0d annually. His period of service was given as nearly 40 years, and his age as 59. 37 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, indicated that all details were the same as the previous Return, except that John had then served 40 years and that he was 60 years of age. 38 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 recorded that although John was still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner, his basic pay had been cut to £28.5.6d per annum; he was still allowed to watch in turn, which increased his annual income to £33.9.6d. His age and service details were updated, and he still retained a cottage so that his family could look after the waters. 39 WO54/593 dated 1st October 1834 confirmed the information given in the note above; he was then 61, and had served 41 years. 40 A List of Domestic Properties prepared by the Royal Engineers dated the 20th December 1834, clearly indicated that John Goats (as well as John Brown) was living on Aqueduct Island, and that his rent for the cottage was £5.4.0d per annum (Supply 5/237). 41 A Return of Employees dated the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623) confirmed that John was still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner with income of £39.0.0d per annum, which included an allowance to watch in turn. He was then shown as a widower. 42 The 1841 Census recorded that John was then lodging with Elizabeth Pallett, the widow of James Pallett, in Powder Mill Lane, and that he was not born in the County.Supply 5/228
335Edward (1)Godwin00/00/1765Personnel Record for the Corning House1. Edward Godwin (1) was employed as a Storehouse Man earning 2/-d per day, according to Supply 5/213 dated August 1789. 2. The following month he was described in a Return of Employees as "looking after the Storehouse and delivering out of the stores etc." and indicated that he was 29 years of age (Supply 5/214). 3. Edward continued to work as the Storehouse Man on the same daily pay until he was replaced by Henry Camps, according to a Return dated the 31st July 1792 (Supply 5/216).Supply 5/213
336John (Senior)GodwinPersonnel Record for the Storekeeper's Department1. John Godwin, Snr. had joined the Royal Navy in his youth, and served for several years. He then worked at Waltham Abbey as a Gunpowder Maker and a Bargeman (Supply 5/222 dated the 2nd May 1804). 2. List of Artificers Employed dated the 22nd August 1789, recorded that John Godwin was "Setting and drawing stoves" (Supply 5/213). A further List of Employees dated the 14th August, 1790 (Supply 5/215) recorded that he was working in the Corning House for 1/6d per day. He was still there on the 16th April 1791 (Supply 5/215) and on the 31st January 1792 (Supply 5/215) and continued there until (circa) the 31st August 1793, when he replaced Clark Davie in the Refining House with the same rate of pay. 3. Supply 5/216 dated 31st August 1793, recorded that he was refining Saltpetre; however, by the 31st December 1794, he was setting and drawing stoves, for which he was paid 1/6d per day (also Supply 5/216). 4. Robert Coleman, Clerk of the Cheque, recorded on the 29th July 1793, that a Job Godwin (and others) was chequered (fined) one day's pay for "having gone across the Hoppit contrary to repeated orders." (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.39). 5. John enlisted as a Private in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794, and is recorded as having joined the Ordnance Board on the 1st April 1789 (Supply 5/219). 6. On the 24th June 1795, he is described as a "Bargeman" in Supply 5/217, and paid 1/6d per day exclusive of extras when in the barge at night. This was also the case in 1798 (Supply 5/219 dated September 1798). 7. Winters (p.55) stated that John Godwin and John Cook were Masters of the Bengal in 1795. 8. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay, showed that he was literate and still working as a Bargeman. 9. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was working as a Labourer, was a married man and had 3 children. Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 10 In a letter dated 23rd June 1801 (Supply 5/195) it was stated that the writer had "the Board's command to transmit to you on the other side hereof a list of the men who have been burnt and otherwise hurt by the fire which lately (16th June, 1801) destroyed the Corning House at Waltham Abbey; and I am to desire the storekeeper will pay the men all of their pay until they are recovered." 11 The List, (also Supply 5/195) included John Godwin, and therein stated "we beg to represent the situation of the poor men who were burnt when the Corning House took fire 16th instant while under repair." It further stated "These men are burnt in a dreadful manner, their pain is very great ..." and "Our surgeon has represented the necessity of the men most burnt having immediate assistance in wine, as a considerable Suppuration is come on their constitutions. They cannot support it without wine, and we have directed wine to be immediately provided to them, and request your permission for our continuing to supply these poor men with such wine or other proper Support as their surgeon may think their respective situations require." 12 Winters, in his Centenary Memorial book, made it clear that the men were employed in repairing the Corning House which blew up on the 18th April 1801, and that the fire was caused "from the blow of a copper hammer on pit wheel." 13 In a letter to the Board dated the 29 July 1801 (Supply 5/221) it was stated that the men who were burnt at the Corning House on the 16th June had requested that they were reimbursed for the loss of clothing. The attached list included Mr. Godwin, whose claim amounted to £2.14.0d in all - for a hat (5/-d), handkerchiefs (2/6d) stockings (2/6d), shirt (5/-d) waistcoat (8/-d), breeches (8/-d), another shirt (6/-d) and sheets (17/0d). The same letter went on to say that Mr. Godwin, amongst others, suffered so much that he wished for death to release him from his torture, and that it was a matter of surprise that he was recovering. The constant attention the men needed meant that their wives could not undertake seasonal work (haymaking), at which they could earn sufficient to pay the rent. It was requested that financial allowances be made. 14 A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) stated that Mr. Godwin and others had been so severely burnt in the old Corning House that it would be dangerous to expose him with the other men in repairing the river banks at that time, but that instead, he could perform trifling jobs as they occurred. 15 Letters dated 24th April and 2nd May 1804 (Supply 5/222) record that John Godwin, Bargeman, had died, and that it was believed that his death was caused by the injury he had received when the old Corning House was burnt on the 16th June 1801. He left a wife, Hannah, aged 32, and children, John (8) - see John Godwin, jnr. - William (6), Hester (3) and Elizabeth aged 16 months. James Wright wrote to the Ordnance Board requesting financial assistance for Hannah, and the Board agreed to pay her a pension of 16/-d per week, being her husband's salary. 16 A document dated the 8th November 1818, (Supply 5/231) lists persons to whom pensions or charitable allowances were granted by the Board as widows, orphans or relations of those who had lost their lives in the Manufactory, or who had been superannuated on account of trusts received, or for length of service in the departments. Among the recipients was Hannah Godwin, who received a pension of 16/-d per week commencing the 17th April 1804. 17 Hannah was still in receipt of her pension in 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 17th November 1821). 18 A document dated the 6th December 1821 (Supply 5/232) gave the estimated pay of persons between the 1st January and 31st December 1822, along with their superannuated allowance, as well as "the allowance to widows and orphans of those who have lost their lives at this place". It was confirmed that Hannah's superannuation should continue at £41.12.0d per annum, and a similar document, Supply 5/232 dated the 28th December 1821, confirmed that the same pension would be paid in 1822. This was also the case in 1826 (Winters, p.96). 19 Hannah was still in receipt of a pension of 10/-d per week in 1837 (Supply 5/237) and this document confirmed that she had been in receipt of this amount since 1804. 20 The 1841 Census recorded that Hannah, aged 65 and described as an Ordnance Pensioner, together with her daughter Ester (not Hester) aged 30, were living in Silver Street. Both were born in Essex.Supply 5/213
337John (Junior)Godwin00/00/1796List of Officers and Others on the Establishment1. John Godwin, jnr., son of the John Godwin who died as a result of his injuries in the Corning House in 1801, was a youngster of 8 years when he became Apprenticed to the Master Worker, William Newton, on the 4th October 1804, earning 1/2d per day (Supply 5/223). However, under a Board Order dated the 12th March 1801, the Apprentices were allowed one day extra each week, which gave John weekly pay of 8/2d (Supply 5/222). 2. He was still an Apprentice in January 1806 with 2 years' service, as was the case in 1807, according to a List of Officers and Others Employed dated the 18th June 1807, when he then earned 1/4d per day. According to Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, his pay was 6/2d per week. The apparent reduction in the Apprentice's wages appears to be in accordance with an Order of the Board dated the 5th August 1808 (Supply 5/227). 3. A document dated 30th September 1808, showed that he was literate and still Apprenticed to the Master Worker, William Newton, with pay of 6/2d /week (Supply 5/227 dated the 30th September 1808). 4. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed that John was still Apprenticed to the Master Worker, but that he was now paid 6/8d per week. His Master was given 8/-d per week in respect of John Junior's Apprenticeship. 5. WO54/512 dated the 29th August 1812, recorded that John had finished his Apprenticeship and was then employed as a Cooper with pay of 1/9d per day, but that he was not allowed to watch.Supply 5/223
338WilliamGodwin00/00/1797Return of Employees1. William Godwin was Apprenticed to the Master Bricklayer and paid 6/-d per week, according to Return WO54/512 dated September 1812. 2. WO54/516 dated February 1816, recorded that William was an 18-year-old Waltham Abbey lad who started as an Apprentice to the Master Bricklayer on the 19th August 1811. He was paid 6/-d per week, as he was in 1817 and early 1818, but June 1818, his pay was increased to 6/4d per week (WO54/524 of the 25th June 1818). 3. With his Apprenticeship completed, William was then employed as a Bricklayer "occasionally as the service requires" and paid 4/1d per day. His age was given as 21 (WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819). 4. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 ( WO54/532) confirmed that William was still employed as a Bricklayer. He was then 22, still lived in Waltham Abbey and was single. He still earned 4/1d per day and was employed only "occasionally as the Service requires." 5. WO54/536 dated the 2nd April 1821, recorded that he was then 23 years of age and still single. His terms of employment, etc. remained unchanged.WO54/512
339Edward (2)Godwin00/00/1765Return of Employees1. Edward Godwin (2) worked in the Corning House and was paid 1/6d per day (Supply 5/213 dated the 22nd August 1789). Supply 5/214 dated September 1789 cofirmed his position and pay, and his age was given as 24 years. These details were repeated in Supply 5/214 dated the 27th March 1790. 2. Supply 5/215 dated 11th December 1790, recorded that Edward Godwin was no longer in the Corning House, his name being replaced by John Godwin, who was later severely burnt when the Corning Mill blew up in June 1801.Supply 5/213
340JohnGolding (Also Golden)00/00/1721Personnel Record1. John Golding (also Golden) was a Labourer by trade, set to work by Daniel Cornish in October 1787 at 9/-d per week, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase from Mr Walton by the Government (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.28). 2. Supply 5/212 dated 24th January 1789, recorded that Golden was to "be tried as a Millman". He was appointed to that position in the Corning House in 1789 "having lately been employed by Mr Walton." 3. John's pay on the 21st March 1789, taken from the Storekeeper's Personnel Return (Supply 5/212) was 1/6d per day, and on the same date he is described as "setting & drawing stoves etc". (In this document, his name is given as Golding) 4. He was described as "cutting and planting willow trees, cutting of canal at the new Corning House, removing earth to the Store, unloading barge of coals & charring wood." in Supply 5/213 dated the 18th April 1789, and was still paid 1/6d per day. 5 .During August 1789 he was described as "setting & drawing stoves". (Supply 5/213). 6. In September 1789, John, aged 58, appeared to be working as a Labourer "attending at the Proof House to keep the fires [and] prove powder etc. " (Supply 5/213). 7. An undated memo (No. 191) signed by William Congreve (Supply 5/189) stated "old Golding is to have one month's notice and then be discharged." 8. Golding's name does not appear in the List of Employees dated the 27th March 1790.Supply 5/212
341JohnGoochReturn of Employees1. John Gooch was working as a Labourer earning 1/6d per day, according to Supply 5/221 dated the 8th May 1801. This Report recorded that he was married and had 1 child. Note: in this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 2. Robert Coleman recorded in his Minute Book on the 23rd October 1801, that 24 men were required to work at Faversham or be discharged. Gooch refused to go, and was discharged. (Winters, p.60)Supply 5/221
342JohnGoodfellow00/00/1745Personnel Record for the Corning House1. John Goodfellow was one of 3 men sent from Faversham to Waltham Abbey on the orders of the Duke of Richmond in October 1787 in order to set up the Mills there, which were about to be purchased by the Government (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.29). Major Congreve was of the opinion that the Mills at Waltham "were not settled", and the men should continue to be on the list at Faversham. Consequently, Goodfellow was entitled to receive double pay, i.e., 18/-d per week. John was appointed to the Establishment at the Mill as the first Master Mixer on Sunday, the 1st February 1789, and in addition to his wage, he was entitled to train an Apprentice, for which he received 7/-d per week (Supply 5/188 dated the 16th February 1789). See also the Faversham Gunpowder Personnel Register for further information on John Goodfellow. 2. Pay of 3/-d per day was recorded in Supply 5/212 dated the 21st March 1789, and Supply 5/214 dated September 1789, recorded that John Goodfellow was 44 years of age and was mixing Composition. 3. Report on the activities "in the Storekeepers department" dated the 18th April 1789 (Supply 5/213) recorded that Goodfellow was "superintending the men planting willow, cutting canal etc." 4. John was described as "mixing composition" in Supply 5/215 dated the11th December 1790. 5. Supply 5/190 dated January 1791, was an unsigned Report - possibly a draft - to "His Majesties Honourable Board of Ordnance" and recorded that "men whose work was very dangerous were frequently found in public houses neglecting his Majesties duty and whose names ought to be reported." On the 7th February 1792, a note was written on Supply 5/190 stating that the matter should be referred to Major Congreve and that he [was] to "cause an enquiry to be made and report the result to the Board." Heading the list of 3 was John Goodfellow, Master Mixer, who on the 12th January 1791, was "incapacitated and incapable of his business all day and slept in the works all night." Goodfellow appears to have survived the complaint as he was still the Master Mixer in April 1791 (see also Winters' Centenary Book, pp.34/35, where he recorded that the complaints were without foundation). 6. According to a Report dated 31 January 1792 (Supply 5/215) Goodfellow was still mixing Composition and was still earning 3/-d per day. This was also the case in July 1792 (Supply 5/215) and on the 28th February 1793 (Supply 5/216). 7. On the 27th February 1793, Robert Coleman, the Clerk of the Cheque, discovered gravel adhering to the bottom of shoes belonging to a Labourer working at the New Corning House; this was a danger, so Goodfellow was ordered to examine people's footwear at frequent intervals (Winters, op.cit. p.37). This incident was only one of several of its type which were recorded in Coleman's Minute Book. 8. By the 18 June 1793, John Goodfellow had been replaced by John Ashwood (Supply 5/217).Supply 5/212
343WilliamGoodhewRecord of Personnel in Storekeeper's Department1. William Goodhew was a Labourer grinding Saltpetre and Charcoal at 1/6d per day until March 1792. At that time he was to be replaced by John Speller, according to a footnote to Supply 5/216 of the 31st July 1792.Supply 5/216
344AlexanderGordonRecord of Personnel in the Storekeeper's Department1. Alexander Gordon was "Employed at Sundry Places, Royal Gunpowder Mills, Aug 1798" (Supply 5/114) - taken from the FGPR ( p.36). A letter dated the 29th December 1789 to Waltham Abbey from the Royal Powder Mills at Faversham, records that John Montague and Alexander Gordon, "labourers at this place" were to be transferred to Waltham Abbey the next day, and that they had been paid to the end of the month. Gordon had "frock and slippers", while Montague had been furnished with neither (WASC 475). 2. Alexander Gordon was employed as a Millman earning 2/-d per day (Supply 5/214 dated the 27th March1790) as he was in April 1791 and January 1792 (both Supply 5/215). 3. From July to September 1792 he worked as a Labourer in the Corning House, with his pay reduced to 1/6d per day (Supply 5/216 dated September 1792). 4. Alexander was still working as a Millman in February 1793, with his pay restored to 2/-d per day (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February 1793). This was also the case in August to September 1793 and January 1794 (both Supply 5/216). 5. Robert Coleman reported on the 15th January 1794, that Gordon was chequered (fined) one days pay for fighting in the Watch House (Winters, p.40). 6. Alexander was in trouble again shortly afterwards, because Robert Coleman recorded on the 12th February 1794, that he was chequered three days' pay for "not coming on duty till past midnight, and having been refused entry tried to gain admittance by getting over the ditch." It was agreed "for his next offence he would be discharged" (Winters, p.41). 7. Gordon's name does not appear in the List of Employees dated the 31st August 1794 (Supply 5/216).Supply 5/214
345H.GoughList of Foreman Artificers and Labourers Employed1. H. Gough was employed in the Dusting House at 2/1d per day, and at the 30th January 1806 had served for a year (Supply 5/224) 2. Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807 recorded that he still worked in the Dusting House earning 2/1d per day. In addition, Dusting House Men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d.Supply 5/224
346StephenGoughOfficers on Employments1. Stephen Gough was employed as a Millman earning 2/3d per day, and "allowed 6d per night when on duty" (Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808). 2. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed he was still a Millman who was paid the same 2/3d per day.Supply 5/227
347RobertGranger00/00/1807Persons Employed by the Engineers' Department1. Robert Granger had been employed as a Labourer for 4 months since June 1825, on a temporary basis at 2/2d per day, and was a single man, aged 18. However, he was to be discharged at the end of October 1825 (WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825).WO54/550
348John (1)GrapesList of Foremen and Labourers Employed1. John Grapes (1) was working as a Punt Man earning 2/-d per day, according to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, and at that date he had one year's service. 2. According to Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807, John was working in the Corning House earning 2/2d per day. In addition, Corning House men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d. 3. An entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, recorded that Mr. Grapes was still employed as a Corning House Man, who now earned 2/6d. per day, and, "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 4. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed he was still a Corning House Man at 2/6d per day, and allowed to watch in turn for 1/6d night. 5. At 11.15 a.m. on the 27th November 1811, there was a huge explosion at No. 4 Press House and the ensuing fire engulfed the Corning House and the Reel House, which also exploded. There was much damage to the town, with many windows shattered, and reports in the press recorded that the explosion was heard as far away as Hackney, Blackwall and Marylebone (Winters, p.72) Among those killed was John Grapes, who left a widow, Sarah, but no children (letter - Supply 5/229 dated the 3rd December 1811). Sarah received a pension of 17/6d per week with effect from the 17th May 1818, according to Winters (p.87), although he has quoted the date of inception incorrectly. A letter dated 3rd December 1811 (Supply 5/229) recorded that John Grapes "Died in a great explosion on 27 November 1811, working in the Corning house, paid 2/6 day, left a widow, has no children." 6. A document dated the 8th November 1818 (Supply 5/231) listed "persons to whom pensions or charitable allowances granted by the Hon. Board as widows, orphans or relations of those who have lost their lives in this manufactory, or who have been superannuated on accounts of trusts received, or for length of service in the departments." Among the recipients was Sarah Grapes, whose husband had worked in the Corning House, and who received a pension of 17/6d per week, commencing the 28th November 1811. 7. Sarah was still in receipt of her pension in 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated 17th November 1821). 8. A document dated the 6th December 1821 (Supply 5/232) gave the estimated pay of persons between the 1st January and 31st December 1822, along with their superannuated allowance, as well as "the allowance to widows and orphans of those who have lost their lives at this place." It was confirmed that Sarah's superannuation should continue at £45.10.0d per annum, and a similar document, Supply 5/232 dated the 28th December 1821, confirmsed that the same pension would be paid in 1822. Winters, (p.96) recorded that this would also be the case in 1823.Supply 5/224
349John (2)Grapes00/00/1765Return of Employees1. John Grapes (2) was first employed as a casual Labourer on the 16th January 1813. He earned 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department, and was a 50-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey, with 5 children - four of whom were married (WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816).WO54/516
350SamuelGrapes00/00/1795Report of Employees1. Samuel Grapes was first employed as a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the 16th January 1813. He earned 2/8d per day, and was a 20-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/516 dated February 1816).WO54/516
351SamuelGravesList of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers Employed1. Samuel Graves had been engaged as a Punt Man in the early months of 1804, earning 2/-d per day. At the 30th January 1805, he had one year's service (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1805) and this was still the case in June 1807 (Supply 5/226). 2. Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, recorded that Mr. Graves was then a Millman earning 2/3d. per day, and "allowed 6d per night when on duty." 3. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed he was still a Millman who was paid 2/3d per day, and allowed 6d when on night duty. 4. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 recorded that Mr. Graves was still a Millman, but that he now earned 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d. per night when on duty (Supply 5/229). 5. Graves was still a Millman on the 13th February 1814, with the same rate of pay and an additional 6d per night when on duty (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/224
352JamesGrayList of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. employed in Storekeeper's Department1. James Gray was employed as a Puntman; he was paid 2/-d per day and allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810). 2. Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812 recorded that James was still employed as a Puntman, but that he was now paid 2/8d per day and allowed to watch in turn. This was also the case on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/228
353GeorgeGrayList of Officers Employed.1. George Gray was engaged as a Millman on the 13th February 1814, with pay of 3/-d per day and an additional 6d per night when on duty (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/230
354ThomasGrayling (Graylin)00/00/1762Personnel Record1. Thomas Grayling (Graylin) was a Labourer by trade who was set to work by Daniel Cornish in October 1787 at 9/-d per week, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase by the Government from Mr Walton (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.28). However, according to Supply 5/212 dated the 27th November 1788, he actually started work on the 1st November 1787. 2. Supply 5/212 dated the 24th January 1789, recorded that Graylin was to "be tried as a Millman" and was appointed Millman in the Corning House, "having lately been employed by Mr Walton." 3. Thomas's pay at the 21st March 1789 was 2/-d per day (Supply 5/212), as was the case in March, 1790, which also confirmed he was working at his trade (Supply 5/214). Although Grayling was a Millman, Supply 5/213 dated the 18th April 1789, recorded that he was "cutting and planting willow trees, cutting of canal at the new Corning House, removing earth to the Store, unloading barge of coals & charring wood." in common with the majority of the workforce. 4. Supply 5/214 dated September 1789 did not record his age as other entries in the list did, but confirmed that he was a Millman. 5. Winters (p.33) stated "Feb. 4th 1790. This morning, at One o'clock, one of the Queens Meads Mills blew up, which entirely unroofed the same. The charge had been worked an hour. Thos. Graylin, Millman on duty, and set fire to his jacket: but he received no bodily harm." This account is confirmed by a letter of the same date in WASC 475. 6. Grayling was still working as a Millman in 1791 and January 1792 on the same pay (Supply 5/215) and this was also the case in July to September 1792, as well as in February 1793 (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February 1793), August to September 1793 (Supply 5/216), January 1794 (Supply 5/216), and August to December 1794 (Supply 5/216). 7. Millmen were paid an extra 3d per night when on duty (Supply 5/217 dated the 3rd July 1795). 8. Robert Coleman recorded on the 9th March 1795 that the Rounder had found Thomas Graylin, Millman, asleep on duty and that he was chequered (fined). 9. A signed document (Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800) relating to a Petition on Pay showed that Thomas was illiterate and was still working as a Millman. 10 Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still a Millman and a married man with one child. 11 Supply 5/221dated 3rd November 1801 recorded that, although still employed as a Millman, Thomas was used in cleaning and deepening the river, canals, and performing sundry necessary work. 12 He was still employed as a Millman in 1804 (Supply 5/222) but his wage had increased to 2/3d per day, and he was still in receipt of an allowance of 3d per night when on duty "working at the mill", i.e., the night-shift rate was 2/6d. This was also the case in 1806 (Supply 5/224) when he had been employed with the Ordnance for 18 years, as well as in June 1807 (Supply 5/226). 13 According to the entry in Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Grayling was still a Millman earning 2/3d per day, and "allowed 6d per night when on duty." 14 Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed that Grayling was still a Millman who was paid 2/3d per day, and allowed 6d per night when on duty. 15 List of Employees dated 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Mr. Grayling was still a Millman, but that he now earned 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d. per night when on duty. The same details were recorded on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230). 16 Supply 5/230 dated the 2nd March 1816, recorded that Mr. Grayling had been employed for 28 years, and his age was given as 53. It was recommended that he receive a daily superannuation of 3/-d. In the attached notes was the comment that Mr. Grayling and others should be superannuated because "of the hurts they have received in this dangerous Manufactory." It was also stated therein that Mr. Grayling "had been very quiet and inoffensive in the discharge of his duty, had scarce ever lost any time from sickness or from any other cause, but has become so feeble as to make it improper to employ him in a Gunpowder Manufactory any longer." However, in a letter dated 6th March 1816, (Supply 5/200) Mr. Grayling was finally awarded superannuation of only 2/6d per day for six days in the week, commencing on the 1st April 1816. 17 A supplement to Supply 5/231 dated the 8th November 1818, listed "persons who have been superannuated on account of their length of service in the departments." and among the recipients was "Thomas Graylin, Millman" who received a pension of 15/-d per week which commenced on the 1st April 1816. 18 List of Persons Receiving Superannuation (Supply 5/232 dated 17th November 1821) confirmed the previous entry in respect of Mr. Grayling. 19 A document dated 6th December 1821 (Supply 5/232) gave the estimated pay of persons between the 1st January and 31st December 1822, along with their superannuated allowance, as well as "the allowance to widows and orphans of those who have lost their lives at this place". It was confirmed that Thomas Graylin, lately a Millman, was in receipt of £39.0.0d superannuation per annum. A similar document, Supply 5/232 dated the 28th December 1821, confirmed that the same pension would be paid in 1822, and, according to Winters (p.96) this was also the case in 1826. 20 List of Pensioners dated the 21st August 1838 (Supply 5/237) recorded that Thomas Graylin, Millman, had been granted a pension on the 6th March 1816. 21 A letter from Waltham Abbey to the Board dated the 7th October 1840 (Supply 5/238) recorded that Thomas Grayling, Millman, had died on the 4th October 1840.Supply 5/212
355PhillipGreenList of Foreman Artificers and Labourers Employed1. Phillip Green started work as a Charcoal Millman in the spring of 1805, earning 2/-d per day. At the 30th January 1806, he had served 9 months (Supply 5/224). 2. Mr. Green was still working as a Charcoal and Brimstone Millman in June 1807; Supply 5/226 of that date recorded, " in addition to his pay he is allowed to Watch in turn for which he receives 2/-d." 3. According to an entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Green was then employed as a Corning House Man earning 2/6d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 4. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed that Phillip was a Corning House Man who was paid 2/6d day, and allowed to watch in turn for 1/6d night. 5. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Green was still a Corning House Man, but that he now earned 3/3d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night. 6. On the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) Mr. Green was described as a Glazing Millman, then only earning 3/-d per day, but he was still allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night.Supply 5/224
356WilliamGreenfieldList of Officers and Artificers, etc. in Employment1. William Greenfield was employed as a Cylinder Man earning 2/-d per day according to Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808. 2. This was also the case in September 1810 (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810). 3. Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812 confirmed he was still in the same position at the same rate of pay as before. 4. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814, indicated that although still a Cylinder Man, at that date, William's pay had been increased to 2/8d per day.Supply 5/227
357SamuelGreenwayList of Employees and their Pay1. Samuel Greenway was a Cylinder Man earning 2/8d per day, according Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812. 2. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February1814 confirmed that Samuel was still a Cylinder Man, earning the same 2/8d per day as before.Supply 5/229
358JGreggPetition on Pay1. J. Gregg worked as a General Labourer, according to a signed document relating to a Petition on Pay dated the 2nd February 1800. The document in question also indicated that Gregg was literate (Supply 5/220).Supply 5/220
359William.GrenvilleList of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers Employed1. William Grenville was employed as a Cylinder Man earning 2/-d per day, according to Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807. 2. The previous information was repeated in Supply 5/227 dated August 1808.Supply 5/226
360ThomasGriffin00/01/791List of Employees1. Thomas Griffin was employed as a Millman earning 3/-d per day, with an additional 6d per night when on duty (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814). 2. A Return of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231 and WO54/524) recorded that Thomas was then employed as a Saltpetre Refiner, and that he was a married man of 27 with 2 children, living in Enfield. This Return stated that he only earned 2/4d per day, but confirmed that he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he then received 1/-d per night. 3. The Establishment was reduced in numbers in September 1818 as a result of peace in Europe and, therefore, a reduction in the production of gunpowder was made. In a letter dated September 1818 (Supply 5/231) it was stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement.", and Mr. Griffin's name was included on that list.Supply 5/230
361ThomasGroverList of employees1. Thomas Grover was employed as a Labourer "drawing and setting stoves and in the willow plantation." He was paid 2/8d per day and allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812).Supply 5/229
362JamesGubbyList of Foremen and Artificers, etc.1. James Gubby was engaged as a Millman in 1805, earning 2/3d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). 2. According to a List of Employees dated the 18th June 1807 (Supply 5/226) he was still employed as a Millman at the same rate of pay, in addition to which, he was allowed 3d per night when on duty.Supply 5/224
363Benjamin (1)Guinn00/00/1767Personnel Record1. Benjamin Guinn (1) was a Labourer by trade who was set to work by Daniel Cornish in October 1787 at 1/6d per day, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase by the Government from Mr Walton (Supply 5/212 dated the 27th November 1788). It was noted in a record dated 27th November 1788, that he was promised to be continued since he was previously employed by Mr Walton (Winters, p.31). In Supply 5/212 dated the 29th January 1789, he was described as a Saltpetre Millman, earning 1/6d per day. 2. He is described as "cutting and planting willow trees, cutting of canal at the new Corning House, removing earth to the Store, unloading barge of coals & charring wood." in Supply 5/213 dated the 18th April 1789, and Supply 5/214 dated September 1789 recorded that he was 22 years of age and employed as a Labourer refining Salt Petre. 3. Supply 5/214 dated the 27th March 1790, confirmed that he was Refining Saltpetre under John Baker, and that he was still in the Refining House in January 1792 (Supply 5/215). This was also the case in July to September 1792 (Supply 5/216), February to September 1793, and January1794 (Supply 5/216) as well as in August 1794 (also Supply 5/216). 4. He apparently went to work drunk on Christmas Day 1794, and was chequered (fined) two days' pay by Robert Coleman, the Clerk of the Cheque (Winters, p.44). 5. Benjamin had been promoted to Millman by December 1794, and was paid 2/-d per day (Supply 5/217 dated the 21st December, 1794). 6. Millmen were paid an extra 3d per night when on duty (Supply 5/217 dated the 3rd July 1795). 7. Benjamin joined the Volunteer Company as a Private on the 7th May 1798 (Supply 5/219 dated September 1798). 8. Supply 5/220 dated the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay, indicated that he was illiterate and confirmed he was still working as a Millman. 9. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) stated that he was still working as a Millman, and that he was a married man with 3 children. 10 A Return dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that, although still employed as a Millman, he was also cleaning and deepening the river and canals, and was performing other sundry necessary work. 11 Benjamin was still employed as a Millman in 1804 (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804) but his wage had been increased to 2/3d per day, and he also had an allowance of 3d per night when on duty, i.e., the night-shift rate was 2/6d. This was also the case on the 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224) when he had been employed with the Ordnance for 17 years, as well as on the 18th June 1807 (Supply 226). 12 Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, confirmed that Mr. Guinn was still a Millman earning 2/3d per day, and he was "allowed 6d per night when on duty." 13 Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810 recorded that he was still a Millman earning 2/3d per day, as well as being allowed 6d per night when on duty. 14 List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Guinn was still a Millman, but that he now earned 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d per night when on duty. This was also the case on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230). 15 List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/ 231 and WO54/524) recorded that Mr. Guinn was aged 52, resided in Waltham Abbey, and was married with six children. He then only earned 2/8d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d per night when on duty. 16 A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December. 1818; Guinn's name was included with pay of 2/-d per day, and his allowances remained unchanged. 17 In a memo dated the 25th January 1819 (Supply 5/202) the Board agreed with the Surgeon's request that Benjamin Guinn be provided with a truss. 18 List of employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Guinn was still employed as a Millman, that he was married man, aged 53, with 6 children, and lived in Waltham Abbey. He was paid 2/8d per day and allowed an additional 6d when on night duty. 19 Supply 5/232 dated the 13th September 1820, updated Benjamin's previous entry with the basic details on pay, etc. remaining unchanged. 20 A statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December 1821, shewing the amounts received by the storekeeper" (Supply 5/232 dated the 16th February 1821) recorded that Benjamin (1) was living in a house purchased by the Board of Ordnance (Tenement No. 42) with a rent of £7.16.0d per annum, which covered his house, garden and a large shed. The property and its small garden has been identified as being one of a terrace of 5 tenements on the south side of High Bridge Street, opposite its junction with Powder Mill Lane. It was part of Property No. 1972 on the 1825 Waltham Abbey Town Map, or Plot 1415 on the 1842 Tithe Map. 21 Supply 5/232 dated the 9th April 1821, recorded that Mr. Guinn was aged 53, was married and had six children. He still lived in Waltham Abbey, and as a Millman was earning the same amount as in Note 17. When on night duty he was still allowed 6d. 22 List of Employees dated the 23rd January 1822 (Supply 5/232) gave Benjamin's age as 53, and recorded that he was paid 2/8d per day. It confirmed he was a Millman, and that he had 34 years' service at that date. 23 Return showing the pay, allowances and length of service and every description of the persons in the pay and employment of the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822) appeared to be a more detailed,and probably more accurate, Return than that dated the 23rd January 1822. It recorded that Benjamin Guinn, Millman, had been appointed as a Labourer on the 22nd October 1787. His position on the Establishment as a Millman was confirmed by an order of the Board dated the 4th September 1818, and confirmed that he was allowed to watch in turn to guard the works, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night. This gave him total annual pay of £46.18.8d. He had served just over 34 years, was aged 53, and was a married man with six children who lived in Waltham Abbey. 24 Supply 5/232 dated the 21st March 1822, was a list of persons to form an Establishment to regenerate 2000 barrels of gunpowder as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually, and recorded that Benjamin Guinn, Millman, was to be retained. 25 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B), Benjamin (1) had his pay reduced by £2.12.0d per annum in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the 27th December 1822 and the 15th January 1823. 26 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 confirmed that Guinn was still a Millman and that his pay for the year was £44.4.0d, which included an allowance opf 2/-d per week for watching in turn. His family and service details were confirmed. These details were repeated in WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1823. 27 Return showing pay and allowances, etc., dated the 1st October 1825 (Winters, pp.93-95) confirmed previous information given and recorded that Benjamin (1) had been in continuous service since the 22nd October, 1787. His annual pay was confirmed at £44.4.0d. 28 WO/550 dated the 1st April 1825 gave his basic pay as £39.0.0d per annum; he was allowed to watch in turn, which gave him, on average, 2/-d per week, making total pay of £44.4.0d per annum. It also confirmed his previous family and service details, and all of this information was repeated in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. 29 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated 1st October 1825, and WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 confirmed the information given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826. 30 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827, recorded "no alteration since the last Report dated the 1st October 1826." 31 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 confirmed the previous information, but at that date Benjamin had served nearly 40 years, and was now 60 years of age. 32 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) gave the same information as provided in the previous notes, except that he had then served just over 40 years. 33 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 34 Return dated 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) also updated his age and length of service with family details and pay unaltered.. 35 WO54/566 dated 1st October 1829 recorded that at that date Benjamin still earned the same £44.4.0d as in Note 27. His length of service was given as nearly 42 years, and he was then aged 61. 36 Return WO54/ 570 dated the 1st April 1830 updated his age and length of service, family and pay details remaining unchanged. 37 WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, recorded that Benjamin Guinn (1) was now 62 and that he had served nearly 43 years. His pay was still the same as in Note 27, and all other information remained the same. 38 According to the Return WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831, Benjamin was then 63 years of age and had served nearly 44 years. He was still earning a total of £44.4.0d. 39 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831, updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 40 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged except that he was then allowed night duties at 6d per night, and was receiving pay of £46.16.0d per annum. 41 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unaltered. 42 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, confirmed that Benjamin Guinn (1) still earned a total of £46.16.0d per annum. His service was given as just over 45 years, and his age as 65. 43 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, recorded that Mr. Guinn was 66 years of age, and that he had served nearly 46 years. He was still in receipt of an annual wage of £46.16.0d, and his family details remained the same. 44 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 recorded that although Benjamin was still employed as a Millman, his basic pay had been cut to £32.12.6d per annum. He was still allowed to watch in turn, and also received an extra 6d when working at night, which increased his annual pay to £39.3.0d. 45 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834, updated the previous Return for service and age, with conditions and pay unchanged. 46 The 1825 Rateable Value of Waltham Abbey showed that Benjamin was living next to widow Hudson (D/DHF B29), so it would appear that he had taken over the property from Thomas Mason, and would, therefore, be Plot 52 on the Town Map in Appendix 1. However, a Return of Properties prepared by the Royal Engineers' Office dated the 20th December 1834 listing the houses and cottages owned by the Board, recorded that Benjamin Guinn had the rent on his cottage in Powder Mill Lane reduced to £5.4.0d per annum with effect from the 6th April 1829 (Supply 5/237) and this tenement was part of Plot 62 on the Town Map in Appendix 1. 47 A letter from the Storekeeper to the Board dated the 2nd September 1837(Supply 5/238) recorded that Benjamin Guinn, Millman, was aged 70, and that he "is too infirm to be trusted with supervising the Mill, and it is proposed to superanuate him." He was retired on the 22nd October 1837, having completed 50 years' service. His position was filled by Joseph Perry (Supply 5/237). 48 Supply 5/238 of the 22nd September 1840, recorded that Benjamin Guinn, Pensioner, formerly a Millman, died on the 20th September 1840, and that his pension was paid to his daughter, Sarah Adams (Supply 5/238).Supply 5/212
364JamesGuinnList of Artificers, etc. Employed in the Engineers' Department1. James Guinn worked as a Labourer in the "Engineers' Department Established", earning 1/6d per day with "one day extra allowed per week agreeable to the Board's Order dated the 12th March, 1801." (Supply 5/222 dated 8th May 1894).Supply 5/222
365GeorgeGuinnList of Officers and Artificers, etc. in Employment1. George Guinn was employed as a Labourer, "setting and drawing stoves, and in Willow Plantations, etc." earning 2/-d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn, according to a Return dated the 23rd August 1808 (Supply 5/227). 2. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, recorded that George was employed as a Cooper, paid 2/6d day, but not allowed to watch. 3. George was still employed as a Cooper on the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) with pay of 4/6d per day, but still not allowed to watch. The same pay and conditions applied on the 13th February 1814, according to Supply 5/230.Supply5/227
366Benjamin (2)GuinnPay List1. Benjamin Guinn (2) was paid 5/6d as a Common Labourer for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809 (Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809). 2. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, recorded that he was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner who was paid 2/-d day, and allowed to watch in turn. 3. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Benjamin (2) was still a Saltpetre Refiner who then earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, was allowed to watch in turn. This was also the case on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230). 4. A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December, 1818. Benjamin Guinn's name was on the list, but his pay had been reduced to 2/-d per day.Supply 5/228
367JohnGuinnList of those Employed and their Pay1. John Guinn was a Saltpetre Refiner who earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, was allowed to watch in turn. (Return of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 - Supply 5/229). 2. John was still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner on the 13th February 1814, with the same pay and conditions as before (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/229
368Thomas (1)Guinn00/00/1794List of Employees1. Thomas Guinn (1) was employed as a Puntman who was paid 2/8d per day, as well as being allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). This information was repeated in Supply 5/230 dated the13th February 1814. 2. WO54/536 dated the 2nd April 1821, recorded that a Thomas Guinn was employed as a Labourer with the Engineers' Department on the 14th August, 1820 "occasionally as the services require". He was a 26-year-old married man with three children living in Waltham Abbey, and was then only paid 2/4d per day.Supply 5/229
369WilliamGuinnList of Officers etc. Employed.1. William Guinn was a Corning House man who earned 3/3d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night. (List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 - WO54/512). 2. William was still employed as a Corning House Man on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) under the same conditions which applied in August, 1812.WO54/512
370Thomas (2)GuinnReturn of Employees in the Engineers' Department1. Thomas Guinn (2) was employed as a Casual Millwrght earning 4/7d per day ( WO54/512 dated the 29th August 1812).WO54/512
371Thomas (3)Guinn00/00/1790List of Employees1. Thomas Guinn (3) was employed in the Engineers' Department as a Labourer and paid 2/2d per day for 313 days, giving him an income of £33.18.2d annually. He had 1 year's service from the 1st April, 1822. He was a 31-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey, with two children (WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823). 2. WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 confirmed the information stated in the previous Return, except that his service was 3 years, and he was then aged 34. His family details remained the same. 3. WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825 confirmed the previous entry. 4. WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 recorded that a Thomas Guinn, a 35-year-old married man with two children, was employed in the Engineers' Department as a Labourer, and confirmed that his appointment dated from the 1st April 1822, i.e., that he had 4 years' service. 5. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, gave the same information as the previous Return. 6. WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827, recorded similar information, except that Thomas was 36 years' old and at that date had served for 5 years. 7. WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827, gave the same details as previously, except that he then had over 5 yeas' service and was nearly 37 years of age. In addition, his children then numbered five. 8. Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) updated Thomas's basic information. 9. Return dated the 1st October 1829 (WO564/566) updated his age and length of service, family and pay details remaining unchanged. 10 According to the Return dated the 1st April 1830 (WO54/570), Thomas (3) was still earning £33.18.2d per annum as a Labourer. By then he had served 8 years and was 39 years' old, with five children. 11 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, confirmed that Thomas was still working as a Labourer; his family details and pay were unchanged, but his length of service and age had been updated. 12 A Return of Persons belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield - showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January, 1831 - recorded that Thomas Guinn was one of the 15 Labourers to be employed at Waltham Abbey Powder Mills and Enfield Small Arms Factory. He was still paid 2/2d per day, and employed to undertake different services as a Labourer in the Manufactories where steadiness and sobriety were particularly required (WO54/575 dated January 1821). 13 WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831 and WO54/575 of October 1831, confirmed that Thomas (3) still earned 2/2d per day as indicated in Note 1, giving him a total of £33.18.2d per annum. In 1831, however, he had served over 9 years and he was aged just over 40. 14 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832, updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 15 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 confirmed that Thomas (3) still earned £33.18.2d per annum. He had by then served over 10 years and his age was given as just over 41. 16 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, gave the same information as in Note 15, except that Thomas (3) was now 42, and had served for 11 years.WO54/542
372JohnGuinstockList of Employees and their Pay1. John Guinstock was employed as a Labourer to the Clerk of the Cheque; he was paid 2/8d per day, as well as being allowed to watch in turn, according to Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812.Supply 5/229
373HowardGunnList of Officers Employed1. Howard Gunn was employed as a Dusting House Man earning 2/3d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." (Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808). 2. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed that Gunn was a Dusting House Man who was paid 2/3d per day, and allowed to watch in turn for 1/6d night.Supply 5/227
374GeorgeGunnettList of officers, Foremen, and Artificers, etc.1. George Gunnett was employed as a Punt man in June 1807, earning 2/-d per day. The description of his work was "Setting & drawing stoves, loading & unloading barges, etc." (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807).Supply 5/226
375JamesGuthrie00/00/1786Return of Employees1. James Guthrie was employed as a casual Millwright by the Engineers' Department He was a 35-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey, and was paid 5/2d per day (WO54/520 dated the 28th February 1817).WO54/520
376JamesHaismar00/00/1789Return of Employees1. James Haismar was employed as a casual Millwright earning 5/2d per day (WO54/512 dated September 1812). 2. WO54/516 dated February 1816, confirmed James was employed as a casual Millwright by the Engineers' Department, and that he had first worked for the Board on the 19th September 1809 in that capacity. He was a 26-year-old single man living in Waltham Abbey, and at that date was paid 5/8d per day. These details remained unchanged on the 28th February 1817 (WO54/520).WO54/512
377CharlesHallList of Officers & Others Employed1. Charles Hall worked as a Labourer in the "Engineers' Dept. Established", earning 1/6d per day with "one day extra allowed per week agreeable to the Board's Order dated 12th March 1801." (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804). 2. Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, recorded that Charles Hall was working in the Dusting House earning 2/1d per day, and that at that date he had completed 2 years' service. 3. Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807, confirmed Charles was still working in the Dusting House earning 2/1d per day. In addition, Dusting House men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d. 4. According to an entry in Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Charles was still employed as a Dusting House Man earning 2/3d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling."Supply 5/222
378ThomasHallWinters' Centenary Memorial (page 28)1. Thomas Hall was a Sawyer by trade who was set to work by Daniel Cornish in October 1787 at 9/-d per week, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase from Mr. Walton by the Government. He was not retained once his work was completed (Winters, p.28).
379SearingHallWinters' Centenary Memorial (p.55)1. Searing Hall was listed as the Master of the Barge "The Betsey" in 1802 (Winters, p.55).
380HenryHalletPersonnel Record1. Henry Hallet was employed in the Corning House as a Labourer earning 1/6d per day (Supply 5/216 dated the 31st July 1792). 2. Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February 1793, recorded that Henry was transferred to refining and melting Saltpetre at that date.Supply 5/216
381BenjaminHalls (Also Hall)List of Employees1. Benjamin Halls (also Hall) was a Millman earning 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d per night when on duty (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 2. Supply 5/230 stated that his name had then been entered in the records as Hall, and that he was still a Millman on the 13th February 1814, with the same pay and conditions.Supply 5/229
382HenryHalstedReport on Artificers and Labourers1. Henry Halsted was a Clerk with a salary of £60 per annum, together with £15 annually for house rent (Supply 5/217 dated the 3rd July 1795). 2. Supply 5/220 dated the 2nd February 1800, recorded that Halsted signed, as a witness, the Petition on Pay and Allowances presented by the workforce . He was the 2nd Clerk. 3. By May 1804, Henry had been promoted to First Clerk with a salary of £80 per annum, lodging allowance of £20.16.0d, and coal/candle allowance of £12.10.0d per annum. He had been awarded a £10 increase in pay and a gratuity of £8.0.0d according to Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804.Supply 5/217
383DrHammondWinters' Centenary Memorial (p.122)1. Dr. Hammond was appointed Surgeon to the Mills in 1784 (Winters, p.122).
384JohnHampton00/00/1769Personnel in the Storekeeper's Department1. John Hampton was a Labourer (Refiner) aged 20, who started at the Mills on the 10th August 1789. During August and September 1789, he was described as "setting & drawing stoves and sundries in various parts of the Manufactory", earning 1/6d per day. (Supply 5/213). 2. Report on Personnel working in the Storekeeper's Department dated the 27th March 1790 (Supply 5/214) confirmed he was refining Saltpetre under Thomas Baker; he was still in the Refining House in January 1792 (Supply 5/215), and in July to Sept 1792 (Supply 5/216) as well as February 1793 (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February 1793). This was also the case in August to September 1793 (Supply 5/216), January and August 1794 (Supply 5/216) and December 1794 (Supply 5/217). 3. On the 7th May 1794, Hampton enlisted in the Volunteer Company as a Private (Winters, p.42). 4. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed that John was a Saltpetre Refiner who was paid 2/-d per day, and allowed to watch in turn.Supply 5/213
385William (1)Hampton00/00/1789List of those Employed and their Pay1. William Hampton was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner who earned 2/8d per day; in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). The same pay and conditions applied in 1814, according to Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814. 2. List of Persons in Employment dated the 2nd March 1816 (Supply 5/230) recorded that William Hampton (1) was 27 years of age, and that he was still a Refiner of Saltpetre with service of 6 years. It was recommended that he receive a daily superannuation of 2/8d, and in the attached notes was the comment that Mr. Hampton and others should be superannuated "because of the hurts they have received in this dangerous manufactory." It was also stated therein that "this man will probably not live many weeks to receive the Board's bounty." However, in a letter dated 6th March 1816, (Supply 5/200) Mr. Hampton was finally awarded superannuation of only 2/-d per day for six days in the week, commencing the 1st April, 1816.Supply 5/229
386William (2)Hampton00/00/1773List of Persons Employed1. William Hampton (2) was employed by the Engineers' Department (WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825). This Return records that William, a married man, aged 51 with 4 children, had been employed as a Labourer for four months since June 1825 on a temporlary basis. He was paid 2/2d per day, but was to be discharged at the end of the month. . He may possibly have been the father of William Hampton (1). 2. A William Hampton was employed as a Labourer in the Engineers's Department in 1790 and paid 1/6d per day. Between August and September 1790, he worked within the Manufactory with his wages submitted by William Spry, Colonel commanding the Royal Engineers, and paid by the Storekeeper, James Wright. He signed for his pay with a cross (WASC 1382).WO54/550
387SamuelHandsList of Artificers, etc. Employed in the Engineers' Department1. Samuel Hands was working as a Labourer in the "Engineers' Dept. Established", earning 1/6d per day, with "one day extra allowed per week agreeable to the Board's Order dated 12th March, 1801." (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804).Supply 5/222
388JohnHanesList of Employees in the Engineers' Dept.1. John Hanes was a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week (WO54/512 dated September 1812).WO54/512
389HenryHarbertList of Employees in the Engineers' Department1. Henry Harbert was a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week (WO54/512 dated September 1812).WO54/512
390JohnHardwickList of Foreman Artificers and Labourers Employed1. John Hardwick was employed in the Dusting House at 2/1d per day, according to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806.Supply 5/224
391JohnHarperList of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc.1. John Harper was described as a Labourer working in various parts of the Manufactory, setting and drawing stoves, and loading and unloading barges, for which he earned 2/-d per day (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807).Supply 5/226
392EdwardHarrisList of Officers, etc. Employed.1. Edward Harris worked as a Corning House Man in February 1814, for which he was paid 3/3d per day. He was also allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night (Supply 5/230 dated 13th February 1814).Supply 5/230
393GeorgeHarris00/00/1779List of Employees in the Engineers' Department1. George Harris was engaged by the Board as a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the 25 June 1815. He earned 2/8d per day, and was a 38-year-old married man living in Cheshunt with four children (WO54/516 dated February 1816) 2. WO54/520 dated 20th February 1817, recorded that his pay had decreased to 2/4d per day, and that he then lived in Waltham Abbey. 3. WO54/524 dated 11th April 1818, confirmed that he was still employed as a Labourer "Occasionally as required". His pay was still 2/4d per day. These details were the same in 1819 (WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819) except that by then he had five children. 4. List of employees dated the 13th September 1820 ( WO54/532) confirmed that George was still employed as a Labourer. At that date he was aged 42, still lived in Waltham Abbey, and his family details remained the same as before. He still earned 2/4d per day, and worked, "Occasionally as required." WO54/536 dated the 2nd April 1821 recorded that he was then aged 43, with his family details and terms of employment, etc. remaining unchanged. 5. WO54/536 dated 31st December 1821 was a repeat of the Return dated the 2nd April 1821. 6. WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823, recorded that he was then paid only 2/2d per day for 313 days, giving him an income of £33.18.2d for the year. He had just over 8 years' service starting on the 25th June 1815. It confirmed he was aged 43, and a married man with five children, living in Waltham Abbey. 7. WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 confirmed that George was still paid 2/2d per day for 313 days as a Labourer. His service was given as just over 10 years, and at that date he was aged 45. 8. WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825 confirmed the previous entry, and WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826, recorded the same details as given in the October 1825 Return. 9. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, indicated the same details as given in Note 8. 10 WO54/558 dated 1st April 1827, gave the same information as previously. However, at that date, Mr. Harris had just over 12 years' service and he was 47 years of age. 11 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827, recorded the same information as in Note 10, with the exception that George then had nearly 13 years' service. 12 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) updated the same basic information given in the previous notes. 13 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 14 WO54/566 dated 1st April 1829 stated that at that date George still earned the same as in Note 7. His length of service was given as just over 14 years, and he was aged 49. 15 Return dated the 1st October, 1829 (no reference given) updated his age and length of service, again with family and pay details remaining unaltered. 16 According to the Return dated the 1st April 1830 (WO54/570) George was still earning £33.18.2d per annum as a Labourer. By then he had served just over 15 years and he was aged 50. 17 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, confirmed that George was still working as a Labourer with his family details and pay unchanged, but with his length of service and age updated. 18 A Return of Persons Belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield, showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January 1831, recorded that George Harris was one of the 15 Labourers to be employed at Waltham Abbey Powder Mills and the Enfield Small Arms Factory. It confirmed he was paid 2/2d per day and employed to undertake different services as a Labourer in the manufactories, where steadiness and sobriety were particuliary required (WO54/575). 19 WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831 updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 20 WO54/575 dated October 1831 confirmed that George still earned 2/2d per day as previously indicated, giving him a total of £33.18.2d per annum. He had then served nearly 17 years and was aged just over 50. 21 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, again with all other details remaining unchanged. 22 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832, confirmed that George still earned £33.18.2d per annum. His service was given as nearly 18 years, and at that date he was just over 52. 23 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 recorded the same information as in Note 22, except that George was now 53 years' old, and had served for 18 years. 24 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, confirmed that George's basic details remained unchanged, but updated his age and length of service. 25 WO54/593 dated 1st April 1834 confirmed that George still earned £33.18.2d per annum, that he had served just over 19 years and that his age was 54.WO54/516
394JamesHarris00/00/1795List of those Employed1. James Harris was employed as a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day. Hewas first engaged by the Board on the 20th July 1815, and was a 20-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/516 dated February 1816).WO54/516
395ThomasHarrisonPay List1. Thomas Harrison was a common Labourer who was paid 17/-d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809. 2. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810 recorded that Harrison was a Cooper who was paid 2/6 day, but that he was not allowed to watch. 3. In 1812 he was employed as a casual Bricklayer's Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week ( WO54/512 dated September 1812). 4. WO54/516 dated February 1816, confirmed that Thomas was employed as a casual Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department, and recorded that was first employed by the Board on the 29 March 1806. In 1816, he was a widower from Enfield with no children.Supply 5/228
396JohnHarrodList of Employees1. John Harrod was a Mixing House Man who was paid 2/3d per day, and allowed to watch in turn for 1/6d per night (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810).Supply 5/228
397WilliamHasler00/00/1813Return of Employees1. William Hasler was employed as a general Labourer on the 3rd December 1838 with pay of £39.0.0d per annum, which included an allowance to watch in turn. He was a 26-year-old bachelor (WO54/623 of the 1st October 1839). 2. The 1841 Census recorded that a William Hasler of the same age was now married and working as an Agricultural Labourer at Horseshoe Hill with his young family.WO54/623
398ArthurHatbyReturn of Employees1. Arthur Hatby was engaged as a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week (WO54/512 dated September 1812).WO54/512
399JohnHattersleyList of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc.1. John Hattersely was employed as a Refiner in the Saltpetre House with pay of 2/-d per day, and "when not working [was] allowed to watch in turn." (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807). 2. He was later employed as a Cylinder Man earning 2/8d per day, according to the List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229).Supply 5/226
400JohnHawkinsList of Officers and Others Employed1. John Hawkins was working as a Labourer in the "Engineers' Dept. Established", earning 1/6d per day, with "one day extra allowed per week agreeable to the Board's Order dated the 12th March 1801" (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804).Supply 5/222
401JamesHayList of those Employed and their Pay1. James Hay was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 2. The same pay and conditions applied as before according to Supply 5/230 of the 13th February 1813.Supply 5/229
402ThomasHaycockPay List1. Thomas Haycock was employed as a Labourer, and was paid 17/-d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809 (Supply 5/228 dated the 21 July 1809).Supply 5/228
403JohnHaycock00/00/1765Return of Employees1. John Haycock was working as a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week (WO54/512 dated September 1812). 2. WO54/516 dated February 1816, confirmed he was employed as a casual Labourer, but recorded that he was only earning 2/4d per day. He was first employed by the Board on the 29th March 1806 as a Labourer, and was a 50-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey. 3. WO54/520 dated 20th February 1817, confirmed that his pay was 2/4d per day, and that all other details remained unchangedWO54/512
404JohnHaydonList of Artificers, etc., and Members of the Volunteer Company1. John Haydon was a Charcoal Millman who replaced Richard Hudson. He was also a Private in the Volunteer Company (Supply 5/219 dated September 1798).Supply 5/219
405PatrickHayes00/00/1784List of Employees1. Patrick Hayes was employed as a Charcoal Burner at Faversham, then transferred to Waltham Abbey (Supply 5/207 dated the 29th November 1832). 2. At Waltham Abbey he was employed as a Labourer in the Cylinder House, with pay of 2/2d per day (Winters, op.cit. p.102). 3. A Return dated the 1st April 1833 (WO54/587) stated that Mr. Hayes was a Cylinder House Man, that the date of his appointment was the 19th November, 1832, and that he had previously been employed as a Labourer at Tooley Street on the 27th May 1827. It would, therefore, appear as though he went from Tooley Street to Faversham and then to Waltham Abbey. Mr. Hayes earned a total of £39.0.0d annually, and his period of service was given as nearly 6 years. At the 1st April 1833, it was recorded that he was a married man of 38, although this is a clerical error, because in fact he was 48, and his age appears inconsistent throughout all the documents researched. He had four children, and was brought up to be a Tanner (WO54/587). 4. WO54/587 dated 1st the 1st October 1833, gave the same details as in the previous Return, but indicated that Patrick had served just over 6 years and that he was 39 years of age. 5. WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834, recorded that Patrick was still employed as a Cylinder House Man. However, his basic annual income by then had been reduced to £28.5.6d. He was allowed to watch in turn, and this gave him a total annual sum of £33.9.6d, as opposed to his previous earnings of £39. His period of service was given as nearly 7 years, and he had 5 children. In this Return his age is given as 49. 6. WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834, confirmed the basic information given in the previous note, but indicated that he was 50 years of age and had served just over 7 years. 7. A Return made by the Royal Engineers' Office dated December 1834 showing how the Board's houses and cottages were let, recorded that Tenement No. 55, previously occupied by Michael Summers, was to be allocated to Patrick Hayes, Cylinder man (Supply 5/237). This cottage has been identified as being on the south side of High Bridge Street and formed out of dwellings in the old Tanyard, Plot No. 55 on the Town Map in Appendix 1. 8. Return of Employees dated the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623) confirmed that Hayes was still employed as a Cylinder House man with pay of £39.0.0d per annum, which included an allowance to watch in turn. His appointment at Waltham dates from the 19th September 1832; he was a 54-year-old married man with 5 children and 12 years' service. 9. A Return of Domestic Properties dated 1840, recorded that Patrick had moved to the opposite side of High Bridge Street into one of the cottages known as High Bank, forming part of Plot 48 on the Town Map shown in Appendix 1.(WO44/133). 10 The 1841 Census recorded that Patrick - aged 40 - and his wife, Catherine (30) were both born in Ireland and confirmed they lived on the north side of High Bridge Street with their children, Thomas (15), Edmund (11) and William (7). Only William was born in Essex.Supply 5/207
406JohnHaynes00/00/1753Personnel Record1. John Haynes was described as an "Occasional Labourer" in Supply 5/212 dated the 27th November 1788. During August and September 1789, he was "setting & drawing stoves and sundries in various parts of the Manufactory" earning 1/6d per day (Supply 5/213). 2. Supply 5/214 dated September 1789 recorded that he was 36 years' old, and was employed in the punts to convey powder from the Mills to the Corning House, and drawing and setting stoves. 3. Supply 5/214 dated March 1790 and Supply 5/215 dated August 1790, both confirm the information given in Note 2. 4. Haynes was working in the Corning House from April to June 1791, according to Supply 5/215 dated 16th April 1791. 5. Returns dated 31st January 1792 (Supply 5/215) and 28th February 1793 (Supply 5/216) both record that John Haynes was a Millman. 6. Robert Coleman, Clerk of the Cheque, stated in his Minute Book on the 11th April 1793, that several men had reported that they had seen Haynes put coal in his pocket while at the Watch House; evidence was given by Ben Wall, Snr. and C. Edwards, who claimed to have seen him do this, and others who gave evidence were A. Gordon, J. Ferguson, W. Dugard and J. Cass. Haynes denied the offence and said that he only took them to admire them. Nevertheless, he was discharged on the 11th November 1793, and replaced by Mr. B. Camp (Winters, op.city.p.38).Supply 5/212
407JamesHaynesWinters' Centenary Memorial, p.321. James Haynes, according to Winters (p.32) was appointed Warder at the Refinery House.
408Thomas Henry (2)Hayward00/00/1809Return of Employees1. Thomas Henry Hayward was possibly the son of Thomas Hayward (1). 2. He was appointed a Carpenter in the Engineers' Department on the 6th July 1830 and was paid 4/1d per day, which gave him an annual amount of £63.18.1d. He was a 22-year-old single man who had trained as a Carpenter (WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830). 3. A Return of Persons belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield, showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January 1831, recorded that Thomas Hayward was one of the 7 Carpenters to be employed at Waltham Abbey Powder Mills and the Enfield Small Arms Factory. He was to be paid 4/1d per day, and was required to undertake general services as a Carpenter in the Manufactory, requiring great care, attention and sobriety, etc. 4. WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831, updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 5. WO54/575 dated October 1831 confirmed that Thomas (2) still earned 4/1d per day, giving him a total of £63.18.1d per annum. At that date he had served just over a year, and was a single man, aged 23. 6. WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832, updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 7. WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832, confirmed that Thomas Henry still earned £63.18.1d per annum. His service was given as just over 2 years, and at that date he was 24 years of age. 8. WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, confirmed the information given in Note 7. 9. WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, gave the same basic details as before, but updated Mr. Hayward's age and length of service. 10 WO54/593 dated 1st April 1834, confirmed that Thomas Henry still earned a total of £63.18.1d per annum, that he was then just over 25, and that his service was just over 4 years.WO54/570
409ThomasHayward/Haywood00/00/1773Return of Employees1. Thomas Hayward had been trained as a Carpenter and Millwright and earned a total of £91.5.10d per annum. His service was given as 38 years, and he was a married man, aged 60, with 6 children (WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833). 2. WO54/587 dated 1st October 1833, gave the same basic details as before, with his age and length of service updated. 3. WO54/593 dated 1st April 1834, confirmed that Thomas, Master Millwright, still earned a total of £91.5.10d per annum, that he was 61, and that his service at that date was 39 years. 4. A Return of Properties owned by the Board, dated the 20th December 1834 and prepared by the Royal Engineers' Office, recorded that Thomas Hayward had been renting one of their cottages since the 3rd June 1825 (Supply 5/237). 5. Thomas was trained as a Millwright and Carpenter and was on the 1795 Pay Return for the Engineers' Department, but no other details were recorded on the Return of Employees for October 1833 (WO54/587). He was appointed Master Carpenter within the Engineers' Department on the 23rd July 1806, and then Acting Foreman of Works on the 14th October 1834. His rate of pay in 1839 was 5/10d per day, and his estimated annual income was £91.11.8d. He lived in a house at the northen end of a row in Powder Mill Lane, for which he paid rent. He was a 66-year-old widower with 6 children, and had served for nearly 45 years (WO54/623 dated the 1st October 1839). 6. The 1841 Census confirmed that Thomas (1) lived in Powder Mill Lane with Eleanor Hayward (25) and Emma Hayward (4), that he was a Carpenter and that he was not born in the County.WO54/587
410CharlesHearnReturn of Employees1. Charles Hearn was employed as a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week (WO54/512 dated September 1812).WO54/512
411ThomasHeathPetition on Pay1. Thomas Heath was a General Labourer working in various buildings. A signed document (Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800) showed that he was literate. 2. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was working as a Labourer, and that he was a married man with no children. Note: in this document, anyone who was not an Artificer was described as a Labourer.Supply 5/220
412JHeatherList of Officers and Others Employed1. J. Heather was an extra Bargeman employed on three barges transporting gunpowder to Picket's Field and the Magazines, and he was paid £2.2.0d. per week (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804).Supply 5/222
413EdwardHeddy (also Heady)00/00/1726Personnel Record1. Edward Heddy, according to a list of old barges employed by the Board 1789, was The Endeavour's Master. Heddy had previously worked for Mr Walton, and was an occasional Labourer at the Mills in 1788 (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.32). Edward earned 1/6d per day according to Supply 5/212 dated the 27th November 1788, and was still earning the same in 1790 (Supply 5/214 dated the 27th March1790). He was still Master of the Endeavour in 1790 (Winters, op.cit. p.55). 2. Between August and September 1790, Edward worked within the Manufactory as a Labourer with his wages submitted by William Spry, Colonel commanding the Royal Engineers, and paid by the Storekeeper, James Wright. He signed for his pay with a cross (WASC 1382). 3. Supply 5/215 of December, 1790 recorded that at that date he was working on the barges, which was also the case in April to June, 1791 (Supply 5/215) and January to March, 1792 (also Supply 5/215). 4. Between July and September 1792, Edward was "in the country charring wood." (Supply 5/216 dated 31st July 1792), 5. Edward was described as a Bargeman in February and March of 1793 (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th January, 1793) as well as in August to September 1793, (Supply 5/216), but by January 1794, he had been replaced by John Turnham. Edward was then employed as a Warder (Supply 5/216 dated January 1794) as was the case in August 1794 (Supply 5/216), December 1794 (Supply 5/217) and July 1795 (also Supply 5/217). Supply 5/217 gave his start date as a Bargeman as the 28th May 1788, and as a Warder, the 1st October 1793. 6. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that Edward was now working as a Labourer, and that he was a married man without children. Note: in this document anyone who was not an Artificer was described as a Labourer). 7. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still employed as Warder "attending at the field gate, Refining House and upper part of the works." 8. Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804, confirmed that he was still working as a Warder and that his pay had increased to 2/-d per day. All Warders received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every 5th night. 9. Edward was shown on Supply 5/224 dated 30th January 1806 as a Warder, and this Return confirmed he was earning 2/-d per day. He had 16 years' service, which agreed with previous information, and this Return also confirmed that he was allowed to watch in turn. This was also the case on the 23rd August 1808 (Supply 5/227). 10 A Return dated 1st September 1810 confirmed he was a Warder at 2/-d per day, and that he was allowed to 'round' every third night for which he was paid 2/- (Supply 5/228). 11 A Petition was received by the Board from Edward's wife (Supply 5/229 dated the 20th November 1811) asking for a pension after the death of her husband. A second Report dated 2nd December 1811 (Supply 5/229) related that he was in his 85th year, and confirmed that prior to becoming a "warderman" he had been a Bargeman, a position he had held with Mr Walton prior to the Mills being purchased by the Ordnance in 1787. The Report also described how Edward Heddy had left his post at the Refining House to wash his hands in the river on the 19th November 1811, when he became giddy and fell into the water. He was rescued, taken to the Wardhouse and lived for another 30 minutes. His wife, Mary, upwards of 67 years, asked for a small allowance "for the remaining years of her life." (Winters, op.cit.p.70). 12 The Board agreed to pay Mary 5/-d per week "upon the charity list", commencing from the date of her husband's death (Supply 5/199 dated 6th December 1811).Supply 5/212
414J.HedleyList of Officers & Others Employed1. J. Hedley worked as a Labourerer in the "Engineers' Dept. Established" earning 1/6d per day, with "one day extra allowed per week agreeable to the Board's Order dated 12th March, 1801" (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804).Supply 5/222
415GeorgeHerbertList of Employees1. George Herbert was employed as a Millman earning 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d per night when on duty (List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812, Supply 5/229). 2. George was still a Millman on the 13th February 1814, with the same rate of pay, and an additional 6d per night when on duty.Supply 5/229
416WilliamHickmanList of employees1. William Hickman was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/8d per day, and when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814).Supply 5/230
417George (1)Hicks00/00/1753Personnel Record1. George Hicks (1) started work at Faversham on the 1st November 1787, and transferred to Waltham Abbey on the 15th September 1788 (Supply 5/212 dated the 27th November 1788). 2. According to the Personnel Return for the Storekeepers Department (Supply 5/212 dated 21st March 1789) he was paid 1/6d per day as a Sieve Puncher. 3. George is described as "cutting and planting willow trees, cutting of canal at the new Corning House, removing earth to the Store, unloading barge of coals & charring wood" in Supply 5/213 dated the 18th April 1789, and Supply 5/214 dated September 1789, recorded that he was 36 and employed punching parchment bottoms and mounting sieves. 4. Supply 5/189 dated the 26 December 1789, was a memorandum signed by William Congreve which stated that "Hicks, the puncher and mounter of sieves, is to do that duty in the proof house and have the care of that building." 5. He was still "punching sieves and at the proving house" in March 1790 (Supply 5/214) and this was also the case in July 1795 (Supply 5/217). In addition, he had also enlisted as a Private in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794 (Supply 5/219). 6. Winters, (op.cit. pp. 46/47) recorded that in December 1795, George Hicks stole a considerable quantity of Saltpetre, which he took to London; he was subsequenty tried at Chelmsford Assizes, and a cart was sent to Chelmsford after his trial to collect the stolen Salpetre. In March 1796, he was sentenced to seven years' transportation.Supply 5/212
418NathanielHicksEmployee List1. Nathaniel Hicks was a Saltpetre Refiner who was paid 2/-d per day and allowed to watch in turn, according to a Return of Employees dated the 1st September 1810 (Supply 5/228). 2. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Nathaniel was still a Saltpetre Refiner who then earned 2/8d per day, and confirmed that in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn. 3. The same pay and conditions applied as before, according to Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814.Supply 5/228
419George (2)Hicks00/00/1769Return of Employees1. George Hicks (2) was first employed as a casual Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department on the 18th July 1815, and was a 46-year-old bachelor living in Enfield (WO54/516 dated February 1816). 2. According to WO54/520 dated the 20th February 1817, his pay was only 2/4d per day, and he was then living in Waltham Abbey.WO54/516
420R.HideList of Officers & Others Employed1. R. Hide was an extra Bargeman who was employed on three barges transporting gunpowder to Picket's Field and the Magazines, and was paid £2.2.0d. per week (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804).Supply 5/222
421RichardHiggins00/00/1791Faversham Gunpowder People Return1. Richard Higgins was born at Preston-next-Faversham in 1791, and employed as a Cooper at Faversham in 1806. His service records indicated that he left the Ordnance for a short while, but was re-employed as a Cooper on the 30th November 1808 until the 25th June 1824, when his occupation changed to that of a Charcoal Burner. On the 1st April 1825, a Return (Supply 5/116) recorded that he was still a Charcoal Burner earning 2/4d per day, and that he was a married man with one child. Between the 1st July and 31st December 1825, he was stopped 1/-d for medical attention. During October 1826, he was suffering from ague, possibly Malaria, (Supply 5/116, FGPR, p.44) 2. Richard was transferred to Waltham Abbey on the 30th July 1832, and promoted to Foreman Charcoal Burner at 4/-d per day (Winters, op.cit., p.102). At that time, charcoal was burnt in slip cylinders at Waltham. 3. WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, confirmed that Richard was then at Waltham Abbey and that at that date he was earning £72.16.0d annually. His period of service was given as 24 years, and his age as 42. This Return confirmed he was a married man with one child, and had trained as a Cooper. His present appoinment was dated from the 30th July 1832. 4. WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, recorded that Richard's details were the same as the previous Return except that he had served just over 24 years, and was 43. 5. WO54/593 dated 1st April 1834, recorded that Richard was employed as Foreman of the Cylinder Works. He was still earning £72.16.0d annually, was still 43, but by then had served just over 25 years. 6. WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834 confirmed the information given in Note 5; he was then 44, and had served just over 25 years. 7. Return of Properties made by the Royal Engineers' Office dated the 20th December 1834 (Supply 5/237) recorded that Richard Higgins had been leasing one of the Board's cottages (Tenement No. 62) from the 10th July 1833, at a rent of £5.4.0d per annum. The cottage was in Powder Mill Lane and formed part of Plot o. 62 on the Town Map in Appendix 1. 8. Return of Employees dated the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623) confirmed that Richard had come to Waltham from Faversham, where he had been employed on the 20th November 1806 as a Cooper. In 1839 his annual income was £72.16.0d, and he was a 48-year-old married man with one child 9. A Return of Domestic Properties for 1840 (WO44/133) dated the 28th May 1840) confirmed that Richard was living in a small cottage in Powder Mill Lane previously occupied by widow Freeman, for which he paid an annual rent of £4.0.0d. The cottage, with its small garden of two and a half perches, was listed as No.12 in a "statement of monies due on the 31st December, 1821" (Supply 5/232 dated the 14th February 1822). 10. The 1841 Census confirmed that Richard and his wife, Amy, were living in Powder Mill Lane; neither were born in the county, and no child was mentionedSupply 5/116
422JohnHillList of Foremen, Artificers, etc.1. John Hill was employed as a Millman in 1805, earning 2/3d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806).Supply 5/224
423RobertHilton00/00/1766Record of Wages paid to Artificers and Labourers1. Robert Hilton was born circa 1766 and appointed Surgeon on the 1st April 1791 (Supply 5/217 dated 3rd July 1795, and remained in that capacity on the same salary until the 18th June 1807, according to a document of that date (Supply 5/226 ). In the remarks column of this document, it also stated that in addition to his salary, each of the Foremen and Labourers paid Robert Hilton an allowance of 6d per month for medicines, . This was also the case in August 1808, and in September 1810. 2. List of Officers and Other Persons Employed dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) stated that Hilton was earning £63.17.6d, and confirmed that in addition to his salary, each of the Labourers paid him an allowance of 6d per month for medicines . 3. Winters (op.cit., p.122) confirmed he was appointed Surgeon to the Mills in 1791, and retained that position until 1839. 4. In 1814 Robert's Terms of Employment were changed, insomuch as he received a lump sum of £50 per annum in lieu of stoppages for medicines from the men (Supply 5/230 dated 13th February 1814). 5. Supply 5/231 dated 25th June 1818, confirmed that he was employed as Surgeon, that he was 52, resided at Waltham Abbey, and was married with 7 children. It also confirmed that he was appointed on the 1st April 1791, and that his salary in 1818 was £63.17.6d per annum. In additon, he was allowed £50 per annum in lieu of "stoppages for medicines". He did not have a house, but was "Upon the Establishment". 6. According to a further List of Employees (Supply 5/231dated 19th May 1819) Mr. Hilton was still the Surgeon, he was then aged 53, and all the other information given previously remained the same. 7. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) updated the previous entries; his age was given as 55. 8. List of Officers and other Persons Employed dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) confirmed that Robert Hilton was still Surgeon, that he was then aged 55, was married with 7 children and resided in Waltham Abbey. 9. Supply 5/232 dated 6th February 1822 indicated that Hilton was still paid £63.17.6d, plus £48.8.0d per annum for medicines, giving him a total income of £112.5.6d. He had served for nearly 34 years, was 56 years old, and was married with 7 children. 10 In June 1822, the Establishment at Waltham Abbey was reduced, and with the decrease in numbers, the Board ordered the Storekeeper to reduce Hilton's salary to £40 per annum, and that the allowances for medicines should be discontinued (Supply 5/232 dated the 16th July 1822). 11 According to the document, 'Alteration in Return A' dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542) Mr. Hilton's salary was confirmed at only £40 per annum, with his allowance for medicines discontinued. His family details and date of appointment were also confirmed. 12 Hilton was replaced as Surgeon at the Mills by Edwin Wheble in 1839 (Winters, op.cit.p.132). 13 It is possible that Robert had died, since the 1841 Census recorded that only Charlotte Hilton, Independent aged 70, Frederick Hilton, Surgeon aged 45, and Marriett Goss, female servant aged 20, were all living in Sewardstone Road.Supply 5/217
424JosephHilton00/00/1788List of Foremen and Artificers, etc.1. Joseph Hilton was born circa 1788 at Great Munden in Hertfordshire, and was employed as a Millman in January 1805, earning 2/3d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). This was also the case in in June 1807 (Supply 5/226) when he was allowed 3d per night while on duty 2. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Joseph was still a Millman earning 2/3d per day, but was then "allowed 6d per night when on duty." 3. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810 confirmed that he was still a Millman whose pay remained at 2/3d day, and that he was allowed 6d per night when on duty. He married Elizabeth Webb at Waltham Holy Cross Church on the 26th August 1810, and their first son, William was born and baptised at the Abbey Church in 1813. William was followed by Thomas in 1815, and Joseph, jnr. in 1818. In addition, they had 2 other sons, John, born in 1826 and Benjamin in 1829, as well as two daughters, Harriet, born in 1820 and Frances in 1822. Joseph died in 1862. Elizabeth died in 1843 and John in 1861. Their sons, William, Thomas and John, all worked at the Mills (David Bishop Family History). 4. Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812, confirmed that Joseph was still a Millman, but that he then earned 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d. per night when on duty. 5. List of Employees and their Pay (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814) recorded that Joseph was now the Storekeeper's Labourer, earning 2/8d per day. 6. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded that Joseph Hilton was a Saltpetre Refiner. He was a married man, aged 29, with 2 children, who lived in Waltham Abbey, and earned 2/4d per day as well as being allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night. (His given age means he was born circa 1788; he seems, therefore, to have been very young to have been a Millman in 1805). 8. With the output of gunpowder reduced following the end of the wars in Europe, the workforce was cut back. The Storekeeper drew up lists of people who were to be made redundant, and initially Joseph was to be retained, but in a letter to the Board dated September 1818 (Supply 5/231) it was stated, "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement." and the list included Joseph Hilton. 9. The 1841 Census showed that a Joseph Hilton, Labourer, of a similar age, was living in Silver Street with his wife, Elizabeth, and sons, William (25) John (15) and Benjamin (12). 10 Joseph died in 1862.Supply 5/224
425WilliamHilton00/00/1812Return of Employees1. William Hilton, the eldest son of Joseph and Elizabeth, was born circa 1812, and was baptised at the Waltham Abbey Church in 1813. He joined the Ordnance Board on the 22nd December 1830 when he was 18 according to Return WO54/575 dated the 1st April 183,. And had replaced Thomas Martin, Snr. as a Saltpetre Refiner. He was unmarried and his basic rate of pay was £33.16.0d per annum, but he was allowed to watch in turn, which gave him a total income of £39 per annum. 2. WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 3. WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832, updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, again with all other details remaining the same. 4. Supply 5/207 dated the 8th August 1832, indicated that William Hilton and three others had been cautioned for being absent from their work for a whole day without leave, and warned that a repeat would result in their dismissal. 5. WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832, updated Hilton's age and period of service in the April 1832 Return, confirming that he was still a Salpetre Refiner. 6. WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, recorded that at that date William was earning £39.0.0d annually. His period of service was given as 2 years and his age as 20, and the Return indicated that he was still unmarried. 7. WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, confirmed that William's details were the same as given in the previous Return, except that he had now served over 2 years and that he was 21 years of age. 8. WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834, recorded that although William was still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner, his basic pay had been cut to £28.5.6d per annum. However, he was still allowed to watch in turn, which increased his annual pay to 33.9.6d. 9. WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834, confirmed the information given previously; he was then 22, and had served nearly 4 years. 10 Return of Employees dated the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623) confirmed that William had been employed at the Mills as a Saltpetre Refiner on the 22nd December 1830. His annual pay in October 1839 was £39.0.0d, which included an allowance to watch in turn. He was then a 26-year-old bachelor. 11 He was described as a Labourer in the 1841 Census, living with his parents in Silver Street. Although there was no reference to the Gunpowder Mills, William was working there in 1855 where he had become Foreman in the Granulating House (Winters, op.cit. p.112)WO54/575
426ThomasHilton1841 Census1. Thomas Hilton, the second son of Joseph and Elizabeth, was born at Waltham Abbey in 1815. He possibly married Ann Bardell, the widow of William Bardell, who died in 1834, aged 23. At the time of William's death, Ann was pregnant and went to the workhouse (information from family member, Sally Thorn). 2. According to the 1841 Census, Thomas was a man of 25, working as a Labourer in the Gunpowder Mills. He and his wife, Ann, (also 25 - rounded down) were living in Blackboy Alley with William Bardell, then aged 7, and their daughter, Elizabeth, aged 1. Although Thomas was born in Essex, Ann was born elsewhere.Census
427JohnHilton00/00/1826Winters Centenary Memorial, p.1121) John Hilton, the youngest son of Joseph Hilton, was born at Waltham Abbey, circa 1826. The 1841 Census recorded that he was living with his parents in Silver Street. 2. In 1855, he was employed within the Manufactory as a Millman (Winters, op.cit. p.112). 3. The 1861 Census confirmed the above information.
428SamuelHobbsAccounts for September 17901. Samuel Hobbs was employed as a Millwright in the Engineers' Department at 3/6d per day. In August 1790, he worked within the Manufactory, and his wages - amounting to £1.13.3d - were submitted by William Spry, Colonel commanding the Royal Engineers, and paid by the Storekeeper, James Wright. He signed for his pay with a firm hand (WASC 1382).WASC 1382
429HenryHodgsonRecord of Personnel in Storekeeper's Department1. Henry Hodgson was a Labourer who started in the Corning House at 1/6d per day on the 11th December 1792. He continued to work in the Corning House in August to September 1793 (Supply 5/216) and January to December 1794 (also Supply 5/216). Robert Coleman, Clerk of the Cheque, recorded that on the15th May 1793, Henry Hodgson had been chequered for "coming to work in liquor" and was ordered off his watch until the 1st June. (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.39). Henry enlisted as a Private in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794 (Supply 5/219). 2. He was promoted to Foreman by July 1795, with his pay remaining unchanged, "& as rounder every 3rd night 1/6" (Supply 5/217). 3. He was still a Private in Volunteer Company according to Supply 5/219 dated September 1798. 4. Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 - a Petition on Pay - showed that Hodgson was illiterate, and was working as a Foreman in the Corning House. He was still a Rounder. 5. In a letter to the Board (Supply/220 dated the 19th April 1801) the Board was informed that the new Corning House blew up on the 18th April with a tremendous explosion. Nine men, including Henry Hodgson, were in the building, and were killed, together with four horses. 6. A Petition (Supply 5/194 dated the 24th April 1801) signed by their widows and in two cases, their mothers, requested "relief in their distress." 7. Supply 5/220 dated the 29th April 1801 was a statement of the ages of children and the circumstances of the widows and children. Henry left a widow, Frances, aged 57 (another source says 51) with two sons, "the oldest in deep decline, and the youngest, an Apprentice who is kept in clothing by the widow." 8. Supply 5/194 dated 5th May 1801, recorded that pay and allowances were to be continued to Mrs. Hodgson, "...until her eldest son shall recover his health, or until his decease, after which, she is to receive half her husband's pay." 9. The Board queried payments made to the widows; Hodgson's basic pay was 12/-d per week, plus 1/6d "on account of the severity of the times." The Ordnance Board decreed that the widow's pension should be based upon her husband or son's basic pay, and should not include the extra "due to the severity of the times." On the 23rd May (Supply 5/194) the Board agreed that the pension awarded to Mrs. Hodgson should be 12/-d per week.Supply 5/216
430DanielHoldenList of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed.1. Daniel Holden worked as a Millman, according to Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807. 2. Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, confirmed that Mr. Holden was still a Millman and that he earned 2/3d per day, as well as being "allowed 6d per night when on duty." 3. List of Employees (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810) recorded that Mr. Holden was a Dusting House Man who was still paid 2/3d day, and allowed to watch in turn for 1/6d per night. 4. In August 1812, Daniel was employed as a Puntman with increased earnings of 2/8d per day, as well as still being allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 5. The above details were repeated in Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814.Supply 5/226
431ThomasHolden00/00/1756Return of Employees1. Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809, stated that Thomas supervised the Engineering Department Labourers working in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809, for which he was paid £1.4.6d. 2. Thomas had been appointed to the Ordnance on the 1st August 1806, and was made Foreman in charge of the Labourers in the Engineers' Department on the same day. His pay was 5/3d per day for a six-day week, and if he worked on a Sunday, he was paid one and a half days' pay (WO54/512 dated September, 1812). 3. WO54/516 dated February 1816, confirmed that he was still employed as Labour Foreman earning 5/3d per day in the Engineers' Department. At that date he was a 59-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey, with four unmarried children. WO54/524 dated 11th April 1818 gave identical information, but noted that he was "established." 4. On the 21st April 1818 (Supply 5/231) Thomas petitioned the Ordnance Board for a cottage, stating that he entered the army in 1772 and was made a Serjeant in 1774, whereby he was at the Battle of Camden in South Carolina at the defeat of Generals Gates and Green, and that on the night prior to the engagement, was stationed with a party of men at an outpost about a mile from the battle in order to guard a Corn Mill (the only one in that station to supply the troops) when the enemy advanced with a party with lighted matches to set the same on fire. Mr. Holden, having posted his men, attacked the party and routed them, forcing them precipitately to fly and throw away their matches, for which action Colonel Doyle (afterwards Sir John), warmly recommended him to Lord Moira, who for good conduct appointed him in the year 1804 to the situation he at held at the date of the Petition. Mr. Holden further stated that he had never asked any favour whatever of them during the seventeen years he had been employed, and that in the whole of that time no complaint had ever been made against him for neglect of any kind. He then stated that he had a wife and four children - all females - and, therefore, could not but feel that the reduction which had been made in his pay should be viewed with dismay. He further stated that other cottages had been assigned to several of the Foremen in the different departments, and, therefore, he humbly requested that he would be granted the same, a cottage being much nearer to the works than the dwelling he occupied at that time. Mr. Holden also mentioned that should he be granted a cottage, it would enable him in case of any accident to attend his duty with more expedition. 5. On the 7th May, 1818 (Supply 5/231) it was recorded, "having received the Hon. Board's Commands of the 1st instant to report upon the Petiton by Thomas Holden, Foreman of Labourers, praying that on account of his services and the reduction made in his pay, Mr. Holden be allowed to inhabit a cottage, the property of the Board, it was found that a Mr. Matthews was in possession of the house which Holden desired to occupy, and that Mr. Matthews signified that he obtained the Board's permission to deposit therein portions of furniture and other articles, his property, until he had an opportunity of removing same, and that it was quite impossible for him to give up possession of this house until he was enabled finally to remove. The house was in any case under orders to be divided into two tenements to be let to Labourers or others in the Department, but which division must now be delayed until Mr. Matthews could give up possession." In addition, it was stated that the property was much too large for a person in Holden's situation, even should the Hon. Board be desirous of granting a cottage to him for his residence. Holden was first employed as a Labourer on the 1st September 1804 to 31st July 1806 at 1/6d per day, and afterwards as Foreman of Labourers at 2/6d per day from the 1st August to the 11th December, 1806. In consequence of an application to Lord Moira, his pay was increased from 2/6d per day to 4/9d per day. In April, 1812, he received an addition of 6d per day on account of the high price of provisions in common with all other Foremen, and he had only had a reduction of that 6d by the Board's order of the 19th April 1816, in common with all other Foremen. His pay in May 1818, was 4/9d per day for six days in the week, in addition to which, he was paid a considerable military pension, which was conceived to be an ample provision for his services in the army. It was concluded, therefore, that there were many Foremen in the Powder Works who were much more entitled to a residence at the public expense than was Holden. 6. WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819, gave Holden's age as 63. It confirmed he was married with four children and that he was living in Waltham Abbey, that he was on the Establishment as the Labour Foreman, and that he was paid 4/9d per day. 7. List of employees dated the 13th September 1820 ( WO54/532) confirmed that Thomas Holden was still employed as a Foreman of Labourers. He was then 64, still lived in Waltham Abbey, was married with four children and earned the same 4/9d per day. 8. WO54/536 dated the 2nd April 1821 recorded that he was 65, and that his terms of employment, etc. remained unchanged.Supply 5/228
432ThomasHolmes00/00/1764Personnel Return - Storekeeper's Department1. Thomas Holmes started work at Faversham on the 1st November 1787, transferring to Waltham Abbey on the 1st February 1789 as a Labourer in the Storekeeper's Department, earning 1/6d per day. 2. He was recorded as "cutting and planting willow trees, cutting of canal at the new Corning House, removing earth to the Store, unloading barge of coals & charring wood" in Supply 5/213 dated the 18th April 1789. During August 1789, he was "setting & drawing stoves and sundries in various parts of the Manufactory" and in September 1789, he was described as a "collier" of 25 years old (Supply 5/214). 3. In March 1790 (Supply 5/214) he was "setting and drawing stoves and in the boats, and planting willows." 4. In August and September 1790, he was "in the country bagging alder wood." (Supply 5/215 dated the 14th August, 1790). 5. In December 1790, he was "At the Corning House" (Supply 5/215). 6. Between April and June 1791, he was "In the country charring" (Supply 5/215). 7. Between July and September 1792, he was still "in the country charring wood." (Supply 5/216 dated the 31st July 1792) returning to the punts in February to March 1793, before returning to the country again cutting wood (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February, 1793). This was also the case in August to September 1793, but by January 1794, he was in the Mixing House "Mixing composition" (Supply 5/216 dated the 31st January 1794). 8. Thomas enlisted as a Private in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794 (Supply 5/217). 9. In August 1794, he was "charring wood" (Supply 5/216) while in December of the same year he was "setting & drawing stoves, etc. in the punts" (Supply 5/217). 10 He was described as a charcoal burner in Supply 5/217 dated the 24th June 1795. 11 Robert Coleman recorded on the 25th October 1795, " Holmes and (Richard) Jameson sent to Faversham." He also recorded that on the 22rd March 1796, he wrote to Faversham asking for their return (Winters, op.cit. p.47). 12 At some stage Thomas was transferred to Fernhurst in West Sussex and made a "Foreman of Cylinders" (for making charcoal). 13 A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still a Foreman of Cylinders and that he was a married man with four children. 14 A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801(Supply 5/221) recorded that he was still employed as a Foreman of Labour at the Cylinder Houses in Sussex. The same document said that since the cylinders had been out of repair, Holmes had supervised the men in stacking timber in the yards and levelling and preparing the ground where the cylinders were to be resited. 15 Thomas was still a Foreman of Cylinders in 1804 with pay of 3/1d per day, and an extra allowance of 6d per month (Supply5/222 dated the 8th May 1804). 16 In March 1805, he was still the Foreman of the Cylinders earning £1.2.0d per week, with an additional allowance of 6/-d per month. A note said that the appointments at the Cylinder Works were at Fisher Street and Faversham, but it is unclear where he and another Foreman, Fish, actually worked there. 17 According to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, Thomas was still employed as a Foreman of Cylinders, earning 3/6d per day, and at that date, he had 18 years' service . 18 Holmes was still a Foreman of Cylinders in June 1807, on the same pay (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807)and in the 'remarks' column, it was stated that he had "apartments at Fishers Green and Farnhurst (Fernhurst)." In August 1808 (Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808) his pay was 4/-d per day, as was the case in 1810, according to Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810. 19 Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812, recorded that Mr. Holmes was an "Overseer of Cylinder Works" earning 5/8d per day. He also had an apartment at the Cylinder Works. 20 All of the above (19) still applied in 1814 (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814). 21 List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded that Thomas Holmes was the Junior Overseer of the Cylinder Works at Fernhurst in Sussex. He was a married man aged 50, with seven children, and was provided with accomodation at Fernhurst. He earned 5/8d per day. 22 A List of Empoyees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December, 1818. Holmes' name was included, with his pay shown as 4/8d per day.Supply 5/212
433Thomas (2)Holmes00/00/1774List of employees1. Thomas Holmes (2) was employed as a Hoopmaker; he was a married man aged 44, with 3 children, who lived in Cheshunt. He earned 3/6d per day and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night (Supply 5/231dated the 25th June 1818). 2. In a letter dated September 1818, it was stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement." The list included Mr. Thomas Holmes (2), Hoop Maker (Supply 5/231).Supply 5/231
434SamuelHoradList of Employees1. Samuel Horad worked as a Punt Man earning 2/-d per day, and at the 30th January 1806, he had 3 months' service (Supply 5/224). 2. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Mr. Horad was employed as a Corning House Man who earned 3/3d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night. 3. Samuel was still a Corning house man on the 13th February 1814, with the same rate of pay and allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/224
435RHoramList of Foremen, etc., in the Manufactory.1. R. Horam was listed as a Brimstone Refiner in January 1806, with a rate of pay of 2/-d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). The format of the entry suggested that he had only just joined the labour force).Supply 5/224
436John (1)HoramList of Officers, Foremen, Artificers & Labourers Employed1. John Horam (1) was employed as a Cooper at September 1810, and was paid 2/6d per day, but was not allowed to watch. 2. He was still employed as a Cooper in August 1812, by which time his pay had risen to 4/-d per day (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). On the 13th February 1814, his pay was given as 4/6d per day, but he was still not allowed to watch (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/226
437JamesHoram00/00/1785List of Employees and their Pay1. James Horam was employed as a Labourer on the 28th August 1806, but later became a Bargeman with pay of 3/10d per day, according to Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812. 2. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814, confirmed that Mr. Horam was still a Bargeman at that date, earning the same 3/10d per day. 3. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded that James was still a Bargeman. He was a married man, aged 30 ,with no children, and lived in Enfield, but, according to this Return, he only earned 3/-d per day. 4. A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Horam's name was on the list with his pay remaining unchanged, but he was then not paid watch money. 5. List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Horam was still employed as a Bargeman, that he was a married man, aged 31, with no children, and lived in Cheshunt. This document also confirmed that he was paid 3/-d per day. 6. List of employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Horam was still employed as a Bargeman, with his conditions remaining unchanged from above, except that he then had one child and lived in Waltham Abbey. 7. List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that James was 33, lived in Waltham Abbey, and had one child; he was still paid 3/-d per day, and these details were confirmed by WO54/536 of the same date. 8. List of Employees at the Royal Powder Mills (Supply 5/232 dated 23rd January 1822) gave the age of James, Bargeman, as 37, with 16 years' service and pay per day of 3/-d. 9. Return showing the pay, allowances and length of service and every description of the persons in the pay and employment of the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822) appeared to be a more detailed, and probably more accurate, Return than that dated the 23rd January 1822. It confirmed that James Horam, Bargeman, was appointed on the 28th August1806 at Waltham Abbey as a Labourer, with total pay for the year amounting to £46.19.0d; it also confirmed 16 years' service, that he was aged 37, was a married man with one child and that he lived in Waltham Abbey. 10 In the spring of 1822, the Ordnance Board decided to reduce the production and regeneration of gunpowder, and the Establishment at Waltham was to be reduced accordingly. Empson Middleton and James Wright drew up a list of people to be dismissed (Supply 5/232 dated the 21st March, 1822) and James Horam was one of the men to go on the 1st June 1822. However, a List of Employees dated the 10th October 1822 (Supply 5/233) showed that he had been retained, and was required to carry out any type of work required anywhere within the Manufactory. 11 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823 confirmed that Horam was classed as a "a Labourer for general purposes to be sent to all parts of the Manufactory wherever their services may be requested." His pay for the year was £39.0.0d, and this included an allowance for watching in turn. His family and service details were confirmed. 12 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B), James had had his pay reduced by £2.12.0d per annum in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the 27th December 1822 and the 15th January 1823. 13 A Return dated the 1st October 1824 (WO54/546) confirmed James earned £39.0.0d per annum, which included an allowance for watching in turn, for which he received 2/-d per week. His period of service was given as 18 years, he was aged 38, was married and had two children. 14 A Return showing pay and allowances, etc. dated the 1st October 1825 (Winters, pp.93-95) confirmed previous information given, except that he now worked as a Labourer drawing stoves. It also recorded that he had been in continuous service with the Board since the 28th August 1806, and that his salary was £33.16.0d per annum. 15 WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825, confirmed his position as a general purpose Labourer within the Manufactory, and that in addition to his basic pay of £33.16.0d, he was allowed to guard the works in turn, for which he received, on average, 2/-d per week, giving him an annual income of £39.0.0d. James' family and service conditions were confirmed. 16 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825, and WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, confirmed the information given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826. 17 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded, "no alteration since the last report dated the 1st October 1826." 18 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827, recorded that on the 27th February 1827 James was promoted as a Corning House Man, which increased his basic pay to £42.18.0d per annum. He was still allowed to watch, which increased his annual income to £48.2.0d . At that date he had over 21 years' service; he was 40 years of age, and was married with three children. 19 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) gave the same information as in the previous notes, with the exception that he had now served 22 years. 20 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 21 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, family details and pay remaining unchanged. 22 WO54/566 dated 1st October 1829 stated that at that date, James still earned the same as was recorded in Note 18. His length of service was given as over 23 years, and he was now aged 41. 23 Return WO54/ 570 dated the 1st April 1830, updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details remaining unchanged. 24 WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, recorded that James was now 42 and had served over 24 years. His pay was still the same as given in Note 18, and all other information remained the same. 25 According to Return WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831, James was now 43 years of age and had served 25 years. He was still earning a total of £48.2.0d as he was in 1827, some four years earlier. This Return, however, states that he was now a widower. 26 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining the same. 27 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832, updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 28 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832, updated his age and period of service in the April 1832 Return, again, with all other details remaining unchanged. 29 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 confirmed that James still earned a total of £48.2.0d per annum. His service was given as over 26 years, and his age as 45. 30 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 recorded that James was now 46, and that he had served 27 years. He was still in receipt of an annual wage of £48.2.0d, and his family details remained the same. 31 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 recorded that although James was still employed as a Corning House Man, his basic pay had been cut to £35.17.9d per annum. He was still allowed to watch in turn, which increased the annual pay to £41.1.9d. He had 4 children, and his age and service details were updated. 32 James Horam was now Bargeman in the place of James Boswell, who had been appointed as the Master Bargeman in the late summer of 1837 (Supply 5/237). 33 Return of Employees of the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623), confirmed he was a Bargeman on the 22nd September 1837, with pay of £39.0.0d per annum. He was a 52-year-old widower with 4 children.Supply 5/229
438CharlesHoramReturn of Employees1. Charles Horam worked as a Labourer within the Manufactory, but was discharged at the end of September 1839 (WO54/623)WO54/623
439John (2)HoramPay List1. John Horam (2) was a Millwright's Assistant who was paid £1.1.3d for work carried out in the Manufactory by the Engineers' Department, between the 15th and 21st July 1809 (Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809). 2. WO54/516 dated February 1816, recorded that John (2) was employed as a casual Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department, and that he was first employed by the Board in this capacity on the 26th November 1815. He was a 22-year-old bachelor from Cheshunt..Supply 5/228
440John (3)Horam00/00/1793Return of Employees1. John Horam (3) was first employed as a casual Labourer by the Board on the 26th November 1815. He was a 22-year-old bachelor from Cheshunt and was paid 2/8d per day (WO54/516 dated February 1816).WO54/516
441JamesHorn00/00/1756Pay List1. James Horn was described as a Common Labourer who was paid 17/-d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory, between the 15th and 21st July 1809. (Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809). 2. WO54/512 dated September 1812, recorded that James was an occasional Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week. 3. WO54/516 dated February 1816, confirmed he was employed as an occasional Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department, and that he was first employed by the Board on the 29th March 1806. He was a 59-year-old married man, who lived in Waltham Abbey. He had three children, two married and one unmarried.. 4. These details were updated by WO54/520 dated the 20th February 1817, and his pay was given as 2/4d per day.Supply 5/228
442NathanielHorneList of Foremen and Artificers, etc.1. Nathaniel Horne was employed as a Millman in 1805 and paid 2/3d per day; at that date he had been employed with the Ordnance for one year (Supply 5/224 dated 30th January 1806). 2. Employed as a Brimstone Refiner with pay of 2/3d per day, and, in addition, Brimstone Refiners were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d. (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807). 3. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Horne was again employed as a Millman earning 2/3d per day, and "allowed 6d per night when on duty." 4. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed that Nathaniel was still a Millman who was paid 2/3d day, and allowed 6d per night when on duty. 5. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Nathaniel Horne was a Saltpetre Refiner who earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, was allowed to watch in turn. This was also the case on the 13th February 1814, with the same pay and conditions (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/224
443JamesHorneList of Foremen, etc. in the Manufactory.1. James Horne started work in the Manufactory in September 1805 as a Refiner in the Salt Petre House earning 2/-d per day, according to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806. 2. In a letter dated September 1818 (Supply 5/231), it was stated, "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement." The list included James Horne.Supply 5/224
444HenryHorneList of Officers, etc. Employed.1. Henry Horne was employed as a Cooper earning 1/9d per day, but he was not allowed to watch (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814). 2. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Henry was still a Cooper. He was a single man, aged 19, who lived in Waltham Abbey and earned 4/-d per day, although he was still not allowed to watch. 3. In a letter dated September 1818 (Supply 5/231) it was stated, "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement." The list included Henry Horne, Cooper.Supply 5/230
445JohnHorrod (Also Horod)List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc.1. John Horrod (also Horod) was employed as a Punt Man at 2/-d per day (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807). 2. According to an entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, John was then employed as a Mixing House Man earning 2/3d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 3. Mr. Horrod was a witness to a fight in the Watch House when Barnard Presland killed Noah Sayer on the 8th April 1809. Sayer left a widow, Ann. Presland was discharged from the Mills, but it is not known what punishment he received for killing Sayer (Winters, pp.67/68)Supply 5/226
446WilliamHostyList of Employees1. William Hosty was employed as a Labourer "drawing and setting stoves and in the willow plantation". He was paid 2/8d per day and allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 2. By the 13th February 1814, he had become a Puntman earning 2/8d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/229.
447WilliamHounsomList of Artificers etc., their Marital Status and number of Children1. William Housom was employed as a Labourer at the Cylinder Houses in Sussex earning 1/6d per day (Supply 5/221 dated the 8th May 1801). The same document recorded that since the cylinders had been out of repair, Hounsom had been employed in stacking timber in the yards and levelling and preparing the ground where the cylinders were to be resited 2. According to the List of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806) although possibly given notice to leave in 1802, William returned to work on the cylinders in 1803. He earned 2/-d per day, and, according to this Return, at that date he had 3 years' service. 3. At the 18th June 1807 (Supply 5/226) Mr. Hounsom was still employed as a Cylinder Man on the same pay, as he was on the 23rd August 1808 (Supply 5/227). 4. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed Hounsom was still employed as a Cylinder Man at 2/-d per day. 5. Although still a Cylinder Man on the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229), William's pay had then increased to 2/8d per day. 6. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814, confirmed that William was still a Cylinder Man at 2/8d per day.Supply 5/221
448EdwardHoweList of Foremen, etc. in the Manufactory.1. Edward Howe started work as a Refiner in the Salt Petre House in 1805. At the 30th January 1806, he was paid 2/-d per day (Supply 5/224).Supply 5/224
449RichardHudson00/00/1761Personnel Record1. Richard Hudson was hired at the age of 28, according to records dated the 27th November 1788 and 24th January 1789 (Supply 5/212). He was promised to be continued as a general Labourer since he had previously worked for Mr Walton. He started work at the Mills on the 1st April 1788, and was paid 1/6d per day. 2. Richard was described in Supply 5/212 dated 21st March 1789 as "mixing composition." 3. He was "cutting and planting willow trees, cutting of canal at the new Corning House, removing earth to the Store, unloading barge of coals & charring wood." according to Supply 5/213 dated 13th April 1789, but Supply 5/214 dated September 1789, recorded that he was employed in mixing composition, and confirmed that at that date he was 28 years of age. 4. Supply 5/214 dated the 27th March1790, confirmed that he was mixing composition. 5. Richard was again described as mixing composition on 22 August 1789 (Supply 5/213) as well as on the 14th August 1790 (Supply 5/215) and January 1792 (also Supply 5/215), 6. He was "marking barrels" in August 1793 (Supply 5/216 dated the 31st August 1793) as well as in January to August 1794 (Supply 5/216) and in December 1794 (Supply 5/217). 7 In June 1795, his work was described as marking barrels and attending the magazine, and he was paid 1/6d per day. (Supply 5/217 dated the 24th June 1795). 8. Hudson was working in the Magazine and a Private in Voluntary Company, according to Supply 5/219 dated September 1798. 9. A signed document relating to a Petition on Pay (Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800) showed that he was literate and was working as a Labourer. 10 Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was working as a Labourer, and that he was a married man with no children. Note: in this document anyone who was not an artificer was described as a Labourer. 11 In a letter dated 23rd June 1801 (Supply 5/195) it was stated that the writer had "the Board's commands to transmit to you on the other side hereof a list of the men who have been burnt and otherwise hurt by the fire which lately destroyed (16th June 1801) the Corning House at Waltham Abbey; and I am to desire the storekeeper will pay the men all of their pay until they are recovered." 12 The list, also dated 23rd June 1801 (Supply 5/195) included Richard Hudson, and therein stated, "we beg to represent the situation of the poor men who were burnt when the Corning House took fire 16th instant while under repair." It further stated "These men are burnt in a dreadful manner, their pain is very great..." and "Our surgeon has represented the necessity of the men most burnt having immediate assistance in wine, as a considerable Suppuration is come on their constitutions. They cannot Support it without wine, and we have directed wine to be immediately provided to them, and request your permission for our continuing to Supply these poor men with such wine or other proper Support as their surgeon may think their respective situations require." Winters, in his book "Centenary Memorial", makes it clear that the men were employed in repairing the Corning House which blew up on the 18th April 1801, [and that] the fire was caused "from the blow of a copper hammer on pit wheel." 13 In a letter to the Board dated the 29 July 1801 (Supply 5/221) it was recorded that the men who were burnt at the Corning House on the 16th June had requested that they were reimbursed for the loss of clothing. The list included Mr. Hudson, whose claim amounted to £2.4.6d in all - for a hat (4/-d), handkerchiefs (5/-d) stockings (3/6d), shirt (6/-d) coat (5/-d), breeches (6/-d) and sheets (15/-d). The same letter went on to say that Mr. Hudson, amongst others, suffered so much that he wished for death to release him from his torture, and that it was a matter of surprise that he was recovering. The constant attention the men needed meant that their wives could not undertake seasonal work (haymaking) at which they could earn sufficient to pay the rent. It was requested that financial allowances be made. 14 A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that because Mr. Hudson was so severely burnt in the Old Corning House, it would be dangerous to expose him with the other men in repairing the river banks at that particular time, and he that he may instead perform trifling jobs as they occurred. 15 Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804, recorded that Richard was working as a Refiner with pay of 2/-d per day. All Refiners received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every 5th night. 16 In March 1805, he working as a barrel-marker earning 2/-d per day, in addition to which, he was paid an allowance of 1/6d every third night for rounding. 17 According to a List of Foreman Artificers and Labourers dated the 30th January 1806, Mr. Hudson was marking barrels, earning 2/-d per day, and at that date he had 17 years' service (Supply 5/224). 18 According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Hudson was an "Office Keeper" earning 2/6d. per day, and a "Rounder at 2/-d each night." 19 The List of Officers on Employment dated 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Mr. Hudson was then a Foreman of Stoves earning 5/2d per day, as well as still earning 2/-d per night as a Rounder every third night. 20 All in Note 19 still applied in 1814 (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February). In 1816 the Board formed three tenements out of the dwellings in the Tanyard on the south side of High Bridge Street, and Richard, Foreman of the Stoves, was allocated one of them, with a rental of 3/-d per week (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.83). This was confirmed in the statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and 31st December 1821, shewing the amounts received by the storekeeper", which recorded that Richard had been living in a Board of Ordnance house, Tenement No. 23, from the 24th December 1816. It confirmed that his rent at the time was £7.16.0d per annum. The property has been identified as Plot No. 53 on the Waltham Abbey Town Map, being opposite Powder Mill Lane (Supply 5/232). 21 Lists of Officers & Others Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231 and WO54/524) confirmed that Richard Hudson was still a Foreman of Stoves, that was aged 58, resided in Waltham Abbey and was married, but had no children. He then only earned 4/2d per day. He was trained as a baker.. 22 Supply 5/231dated the 28th August 1818, recorded the names of employees to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Hudson's name was on the list with his pay reduced to 3/8d per day. 23 List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/523) confirmed that Hudson was still employed as a Foreman of Stoves, and that he was a married man of 59 with no children, who lived in Waltham Abbey. He was paid 4/2d per day and had trained as a Baker. 24 List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) updated the above entry, with the basic details on pay, etc. remaining unchanged. 25 A statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December, 1821, shewing the amounts received by the storekeeper" dated the 4th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Richard had been living in a Board of Ordnance house, Tenement No. 23, from the 24th December 1816, and that his current rent was £7.16.0d per annum. This property has been identified as one of five cottages on the south side of High Bridge Street, almost opposite Powder Mill Lane, and shown as Property No. 1972 on the 1825 Waltham Abbey Town Map. This same information was repeated in Supply 5/232 dated 16th February 1822, for the year 1821. 26 Supply 5/232 dated the 9th April 1821, recorded that Mr. Hudson was then 61, and confirmed that he was married, but that he had no children. He still lived in Waltham Abbey, was still a Foreman of Stoves, was trained as a Baker, and was earning the same amount as in Note 23. 27 A letter from Waltham Abbey to the Board giving details of a petition received from Mrs Ann Hudson, widow of Richard Hudson, Foreman of Stoves, who had recently died, pointed out that Richard Hudson was sent to Waltham Abbey by the late Gen. Congreve as a Labourer on the 1st April 1788 and that by good conduct and activity in the service he was made Office Keeper. In the year 1808, he was promoted to the situation of Foreman of the Stoves, in which situation he continued until his death. On the 16th June 1801, he was severely burnt in the fire at No.3 Corning House, and, thereafter, never enjoyed a good state of health. Ann, at the age of 60, and in a hapless situation, requested that the Board grant her a small charitable pension, or allow her to live in her cottage - which belonged to the Board - rent free. 28 The Board replied to the letter asking further questions, which Waltham replied to on the 22nd January 1822 (Supply 5/232). They agreed that Hudson had been severely burnt in the explosion at the Corning House in 1801, although the Surgeon who treated him, Robert Hilton, did not think that this was a contributory factor to his death at the age of 64. To alleviate her financial hardship, however, Middleton and Wright requested the Board to allow Mrs Hudson to continue to live in her cottage with the rent reduced from 3/-d to 1/-d per week. The Board agreed - see Note 29. 29 A Return of Properties prepared by the Royal Engineers' Office listing the houses and cottages owned by the Board and dated the 20th December 1834, recorded that widow Hudson had rented one of their cottages in High Bridge Street South (the site of the old Tanyard) from the 1st March 1822, paying £2.12.0d rent annually, which reflected Note 28 (Supply 5/237). 30 The 1841 Census confirmed that Ann Hudson, an Ordnance pensioner aged 70, was living on the south side of High Bridge Street, with James and Elizabeth Free as lodgers.Supply 5/212
450WilliamHudsonList of Employees1. William Hudson was employed as a Labourer "drawing and setting stoves and in the willow plantation." He was paid 2/8d per day, and allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). This was also the case in 1814 (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814).Supply 5/229
451JohnHughesList of Foremen, etc. in the Manufactory.1. John Hughes started work as a Brimstone Refiner in September 1805, and in January 1806, it was noted that he had 3 months' service (Supply 5/224). He was still a Brimstone Refiner in June 1807 (Supply 5/226) and the Return in question included a note saying "when not working, allowed to watch in turn." 2. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Hughes was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/-d. per day, and again, "when not working extra, they are allowed to watch in turn."Supply 5/224
452JohnHukenAccounts for September 17901. John Huken was employed as a Labourer in the Engineers' Department at 1/6d per day. In August 1790, he worked within the Manufactory, with his wages submitted by William Spry, Colonel commanding the Royal Engineers, and paid by the Storekeeper, James Wright. He signed for his pay "with a firm hand." (WASC 1382 dated 30th September 1790).WASC 1382
453JHunchList of Foreman Artificers & Labourers Employed1. J. Hunch worked in the Dusting House earning 2/1d per day. At the 30th January 1806, he had served one year (Supply 5/224).Supply 5/224
454WilliamHunnsAccounts for 17901. William Hunns was employed as a Millwright in the Engineers' Department and paid 3/6d per day. Between August and September 1790, he worked within the Manufactory with his wages submitted by William Spry, Colonel commanding the Royal Engineers, and paid by the Storekeeper, James Wright. He signed for his pay with a firm hand (WASC 1382 dated the 30th September 1790).WASC 1382
455JohnHunt00/00/1784List of Officers & Other Employees1. John Hunt worked as a Refiner in the Saltpetre House at 2/-d per day. All Refiners received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every 5th night (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804). 2. John was employed as an extra Bargeman in January 1806 (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806) and was still paid 2/-d per day. He had 2 years' service. 3. According to Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807, Mr. Hunt was still employed as a Bargeman, earning 2/-d per day; an additional List dated the 23rd August 1808, recorded that he was then earning 3/-d per day. 4. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed John was still employed as a Bargeman at 3/- day. 5. Mr. Hunt was employed as a Master Bargeman in August 1812, with pay of 5/2d per day (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 6. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1813, confirmed that Mr. Hunt was still a Master Bargeman at that date, earning the same 5/2d per day. 7. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded that Mr. Hunt was a Master Bargeman; he was a married man, aged 32, with three children, who lived in Cheshunt and earned 4/2d per day. 8. Supply 5/231 dated December 1818, recorded the names of people to be retained. Hunt's name was included, with his pay unchanged. 9. List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Hunt was still employed as a Master Bargeman (later, this trade was described as Bargemaster), a married man, aged 33, with 3 children, who lived in Cheshunt and was paid 4/2d per day. 10 The 1841 Census recorded that John Hunt, Bargeman, aged 51, Sarah, aged 50, James, Shemaker aged 20, and Ellen, aged 15, were living in Romseland. None had been born in the County of Essex.Supply 5/222
456Wm.HuntList of Foreman Artificers and Labourers1. William Hunt was a Labourer working in the Corning House, earning 2/2d per day. He had 1 year's service, so had started work early in the year 1805 (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). 2. Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807, confirmed that he was still working in the Corning House earning the same amount. In addition, Corning House men were allowed to watch in turn, for which they received 1/-d.Supply 5/224
457ThomasHuntList of officers, foremen, artificers etc.1. Thomas Hunt was employed as Punt Man in June 1807, earning 2/-d per day. 2. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Hunt was then a Millman earning 2/3d per day, and was "allowed 6d per night when on duty." 3. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1808, confirmed he was still a Millman who was paid 2/3d day, and allowed 6d per night when on duty. 4. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Hunt was still a Millman, but that he then earned 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d. per night when on duty. This was also the case on the 13th February 1814, with the same rate of pay and the additional 6d per night when on duty according to Supply 5/230.Supply 5/226
458RichardHuntList of those Employed and their Pay1. Richard Hunt was a Cylinder Man earning 2/8d per day, according to the List of Employees, dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229). 2. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814, recorded that Richard was still a Cylinder Man, earning the same 2/8d per day.Supply 5/229
459MeadIngle00/00/1767Return of Employees1. Mead Ingle was employed as an occasional Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department. He was first employed by the Board on the 22nd April 1815 as a Labourer, and was a 48-year-old married man, with one married, and five unmarried children, living in Cheshunt (WO54/516 dated February 1816).WO54/516
460JamesInglesList of Artificers, etc ., and Members of the Volunteer Company1. James Ingles started work at the Mills as a General Labourer in the Magazine on the 20th October 1787. He was paid 1/6d per day, and was also a Private in the Volunteer Company (Supply 5/219 dated September 1798). 2. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800, relating to a Petition on pay, showed that James was literate and was still working as a General Labourer. 3. Supply 5/221 dated the 8th May 1801, confirmed that he was still working as a Labourer, and that he was and a married man with one child. Note: in this document, anyone who was not an Artificer was described as a Labourer).Supply 5/219
461WilliamIronsRecord of Personnel Working in the Storekeeper's Dept.1. William Irons worked as a Labourer dusting powder in March 1793, earning 1/6d per day. 2. Supply 5/215 dated the 14th August 1790, recorded that he was a Millman who then earned 2/-d per day, and these details were confirmed by Supply 5/215 of the 11th December 1790 and Supply 5/215 of the 16th April 1791. 3. Supply 5/216 of the 28th February 1793, recorded that Irons was a Barrel Marker earning 1/6d per day.Supply 5/214
462JosephIvesList of Officers and other Employees1. Joseph Ives worked in the Corning House as a Labourer, with pay of 2/1d per day. All Labourers received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every 5th night (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804). 2. Mr. Ives was working as an extra Bargeman in January 1806, and paid 2/-d per day. He had 2 years' service according to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806. 3. Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807, confirmed that Mr. Ives was still employed as a Bargeman earning 2/-d per day. 4. Ives was promoted to being a Master Bargeman by August 1808, earning 4/-d per day, according to Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808. 5. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810 confirmed Joseph was employed as a Master Bargeman at 4/- day.Supply 5/222
463WilliamIzzardList of Artificers & their Marital Status1. William Izzard was a General Labourer who started work at the Mills in 1799, according to Note 4 below. He was a married man with one child, who was paid 1/6d per day, and was "cleaning and deepening the river, canals, & performing sundry necessary work." (Supply 5/221 dated 2nd May1801) 3. At the 8th May 1804 (Supply 5/222), Izzard was working as a Refiner with pay of 2/-d per day; all Refiners received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every 5th night. 4. According to a List of Foreman Artificers & Labourers employed (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806) Mr. Izzard was then working as a Charcoal Millman, earning 2/-d per day, and at that date he had 7 years' service. 5. Still working as a Charcoal and Brimstone Millman in June 1807, a note said "in addition to his pay he is allowed to watch in turn, for which he receives 1/-d" (Supply 5/226). 6. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Izzard was still employed as a Charcoal Mill Man earning 2/3d per day, and "in addition to their pay, they are allowed to watch in turn, for which they receive one shilling." 7. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed Izzard was a Charcoal Millman earning 2/3d day, and allowed to watch for 1/6d night. 8. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Izzard was still a Charcoal Millman who then earned 3/-d per day, and in addition, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night. 9. Mr. Izzard was still employed as a Charcoal Millman on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) earning 3/-d per day and allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night.Supply 5/221
464RJamesWinters' Centenary Memorial, p.281. R. James was a Carpenter by trade, set to work by Daniel Cornish in October 1787, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase by the Government from Mr Walton (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.28).
465WilliamJamesPay List1. William James, Sawyer, was paid £1.9.9d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809 (Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809).Supply 5/228
466RichardJamesonPersonnel Record for Storekeeper's Dept.1. Richard Jameson started work at the Mills on the 4th June 1790, as a Labourer "Mixing composition" (Supply 5/215 dated the 14th August 1790). He was paid 1/6d per day in December 1790, and this was also the case in April and June 1791 (Supply 5/215 dated 11th December 1791). 2. Jameson was promoted to Millman on the 31st Jauary 1792 (Supply 5/215) and remained a Millman until February 1793 when he earned 2/-d per day (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February 1793). This was also the case in August to September 1793 (Supply 5/216), and January 1794 (Supply 5/216) as well as August to December 1794 (Supply 5/216). Millmen were paid an extra 3d per night when on duty {Supply 5/217 dated the 3rd July 1795). According to Supply 5/217 dated the 24th June 1795, he was in the Artillery from November 1779 to March 1790. Richard enrolled in the Militia - the Waltham Volunteers - in May 1794, and was promoted to Sergeant (Supply 5/219 dated September 1798). The same document indicated that he was then the "foreman of cylinders" at Fenhurst, West Sussex, earning 2/6d per day. 3. Robert Coleman recorded on the 25th October 1795 " (Thomas) Holmes and Jameson sent to Faversham." He also recorded that on the 22nd March 1796, he wrote to Faversham asking for their return (Winters, op.cit. p.47). Both Jameson and Holmes were appointed as Foremen of Cylinders on the 25th October 1795 (Supply 5/219). Winters also recorded on p.92 of his book, that Jameson was appointed Senior Foreman in the Cylinder House under the direction of the Board on the 1st October 1796. 4. At some stage he was transferred to Fernhurst (West Sussex) as a Foreman filling cylinders with charcoal for Waltham Abbey, and possibly for Faversham. 5. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still a "foreman of cylinders". It also recorded that he was a married man with one child. 6. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was still employed as a Foreman of Labour at the Cylinder Houses in Sussex. The same document said that since the cylinders had been out of repair, Jameson had supervised the men in stacking timber in the yards and levelling and preparing the ground where the cylinders were to be re-sited. 7. Still Foreman of Cylinders in 1804, at that time Jameson earned 3/1d per day, with an extra allowance of 6d per month (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804). 8. In March 1805 he was still Foreman of the Cylinders, on a weekly wage of £1.2.0d., with an additional allowance of 6/-d per month. A note said that the appointments at the cylinder works were at Fisher Street and Faversham, but it is unclear where he and Holmes (another Foreman) actually worked (Supply 5/223 dated the 28th March,1805). 9. List of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers (Supply 5/224 dated 30th January 1806, recorded that he was still working as a Foreman of Cylinders, earning 4/-d per day. At that date he had 16 years' service. 10 Still a Foreman of Cylinders in June 1807 and on the same wage, the Remarks column stated that Jameson had "apartments at Fishers Green and Faversham." (Supply 5/226). 11 According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Jameson then earned 4/6d per day, and still had "apartments at Fishers Green and Faversham." This was still the case in 1810. 12 According to the List of Officers and Others employed dated 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) Mr. Jameson was an Overseer of cylinder works at 6/3d per day, with an "apartment at the Cylinder Works." 13 The details given in Note 12 also applied in 1814 (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February). 14 List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded that Richard Jameson was the senior overseer of the Cylinder Works at Fisher Street in Sussex. It confirmed that he was a married man with one child, and was provided with accomodation at Fisher Street. It also stated that at that date, he earned 6/3d per day. 15 A Return dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818; Jameson's name was on the list with his pay shown as only 5/3d per day.Supply 5/215
467WilliamJasaminePersonnel Record1. W. Jasamine was employed as an occasional Labourer, and was under promise to be continued (Report on Labourers employed dated the 27th November 1788). 2. He was employed as a Labourer in the Engineers' Department and paid 1/6d per day, and between August and September 1790, worked within the Manufactory with his wages submitted by William Spry, Colonel commanding the Royal Engineers, and paid by the Storekeeper, James Wright. He signed for his pay with a cross (WASC 1382). 3. Winters' Centenary Memorial (p.32) recorded him as an occasional Labourer in November 1788.Supply 5/212
468JamesJasperReturn of Employees1. James Jasper was a Casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day-week (WO54/512 dated September 1812).WO54/512
469JJenkinsWinters, Centenary Memorial, p. 331. J. Jenkins worked as the Foreman of the Corning Houses in November 1789, and was paid 1/6d per day (Winters, p.33). No other details for this man could be found in the records.
470J.JennerList of Artificers, etc., Marital Status and No. of Children.1. J. Jenner worked as a Labourer at 1/6d per day, according to Supply 5/221 dated the 8th May 1801. This document also recorded that Jenner was unmarried. Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 2. A Return of Artificers and Labourers confirmed that he was still employed as a Labourer at the Cylinder Houses in Sussex. The same document reported that since the cylinders had been out of repair, Jenner had been employed in stacking timber in the yards, and levelling and preparing the ground where the cylinders were to be re-sited (Supply 5/221 dated the 3rd November 1801). He was possibly given notice to leave in 1802, since his name does not appear in the records after 1801.Supply 5/221
471ThomasJennins00/00/1793Return of Employees1. Thomas Jennins was employed on the 4th September 1815, as an occasional Labourer in the Engineers' Department earning 2/8d per day. He was a 22 year-old-bachelor living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/516 dated September 1815).WO54/516
472JamesJessopList of Staff on the Establishment1. James Jessop was appointed to the Ordnance on the 26th May 1787 as a Junior Clerk at Sheerness, and transferred to Waltham Abbey as the Second Clerk of the Cheque on the 14th March 1805, with a salary of £80 per annum and an allowance of £10 (Supply 5/223 dated the 28th March 1805).Supply 5/223
473ThomasJiepes00/00/1793Return of Employees1. Thomas Jiepes was employed as an occasional Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the 7th April 1815, earning 2/8d per day. He was a 22-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/516 dated February 1816).WO54/516
474JohnJohnson00/00/1761Document relating to a Petition on Pay.1. John Johnson was appointed Master Refiner in the Saltpetre House, possibly following the death of John Baker in November 1798. He was paid 3/-d per day (Supply 5/220 dated the 2nd February 1800). 2. Another document (also Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800) relating to a Petition on Pay, recorded that Johnson was literate. 3. Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still the Master Refiner, and a married man with no children. 4. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was still employed as the Master Refiner, but having "considerable depot of salt petre etc. " was directed by the Comptroller to take care of the Refining House and Saltpetre Storehouse. In December 1801, Johnson, Master Refiner, was allowed £4.4.0d per annum for coal and candles (Winters, p.61). Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804 gave his rate of pay as 4/3d per day. 5. Johnson earned £1.10.0d per week, with a candle/coal allowance of £4.4.0d per annum (Supply 5/223 dated the 28th March, 1805) and was to be paid an extra allowance of 6d per month (Supply 5/223 dated 8th May 1805). 6. On the 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224) his pay was given as 5/-d per day, and at that date, he had just over 15 years' service. 7. In June 1807, he was still in the same position, receiving the same 5/-d per day; in the Remarks column of this document (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807) it was noted that Johnson was entitled to take on an Apprentice. 8. The Mills were, presumably, working long hours and Johnson was spending considerable time there, for on the 20th July 1807, he petitioned the Board for "a house on the premises to ensure that the necessary degrees of heat at which the liquor in the boilers must be kept..." He went on to say that the Master Refiner at Faversham was provided with a house. The Board granted his request (Supply 5/198). 9. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Johnson now earned 6/-d. per day, with an allowance of £20.0.0d house rent, and coal and candle allowance of £4.4.0d. He was also entitled to an allowance of 7/-d per week to train an Apprentice, and his Terms of Employment were the same in 1810 (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810). By the 7th March 1810, he was entitled to a rent-free house, which was located in the Saltpetre Refinery on the north side of High Bridge Street (Plot No.712 on the 1825 Waltham Abbey Parish Map) 10 According to the List of Officers and Others Employed dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229), Mr. Johnson was then earning 8/1d per day, he still had a house and an allowance of £4.4.0d for coals and candles, and was allowed an Apprentice. This was also the case in 1814 (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814). 11 Lists of Officers & Others Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231 and WO54/524) recorded that Mr. Johnson was a Master Refiner of Saltpetre, aged 57, who resided in Waltham Abbey and was married with three children. He earned 7/7d per day, had a house owned by the Board with an allowance of £4.4.0d per annum for coal and candles, as well as £22.8.0d per annum in respect of an Apprentice. . 12 A Return dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Johnson's name was included, with his pay and conditions unchanged. 13 According to the List of Officers and Other Persons in the Employment and Pay of the Board dated 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) Mr. Johnson was still a Master Refiner of Saltpetre, then aged 58, and all the other information given in Note 11 remained the same. He was also still training an Apprentice. 14 List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) updated the previous entry, the basic details on pay and conditions etc. remaining unchanged, except that it was recorded that he then received 6/-d per week to train an Apprentice. 15 A statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December, 1821, shewing the amounts received by the storekeeper" dated the 4th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) confirmed that John Johnson, Master Refiner of Saltpetre, had been living rent free in a Board of Ordnance house, Tenement No. 9, from the 7th March 1810. The Refinery and house were located on the north side of High Bridge Street, and shown as Plot No. 39 on the Town Map in Appendix 1. The same information was repeated in Supply 5/232 dated the 16th February 1822, for the year 1821. 16 List of Officers and other Persons Employed dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) confirmed that Mr. John Johnson was still Master Refiner, that he was then aged 60, was married, with no mention this time of children, and resided in Waltham Abbey. All other information as indicated in Note 11 remained the same, with the exception that there was no mention made of an allowance for an Apprentice. 17 Return (Supply 5/232 dated the 26th January, 1822) giving age, number of years in service and pay per day, confirmed that John Johnson was the Master Saltpetre Refiner and that he was paid 7/7d per day. He was then aged 60, and at that date had 40 years' service. 18 Return showing the pay, allowances and length of service and every description of the persons in the pay and employ of the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822) appeared to be a more detailed, and probably more accurate, Return than that dated the 23rd January 1822. It stated that John Johnson, Master Refiner of Saltpetre, was appointed on the 1st April 1780, as a Labourer at Woolwich, appointed Saltpetre Refiner at Faversham 1 June 1793, and appointed Master Saltpetre Refiner at Waltham on the 4th December 1798. His total pay for the year, including an allowance of £16.5.9d for teaching an Apprentice, amounted to £138.13.4d. In addition, it stated that he was provided with a house, that he had nearly 42 years' service, that he was aged 61, was married and lived in Waltham Abbey. 19 List dated the 21st March 1822 (Supply 5/232) of persons to form an Establishment at Waltham Abbey to regenerate 2000 barrels of gunpowder as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually, included John Johnson, Master Refiner of Saltpetre, who was to be retained. 20 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823, confirmed his pay, allowances and previous employment details. 21 According to Winters (op.cit. p.90) John Johnson, Master Saltpetre Refiner, was killed by lightning on the 27th June 1823, and his position remained unfilled. 22 Henry Wright's memories of the Powder Mills at Waltham Abbey as related to Winters, said, "I knew perfectly well Mr Johnson, Master Refiner of salt petre, who was killed by lightning in the presence of my father and myself; the only two persons that were with him in his office. He was reading at his desk close to the window, which looked towards the chrystalizing house; he was struck on the left side of his head; he was wearing his hat at the time; this was shattered. The electricity passed down his side and out of his shoe bursting it. He did not fall from his chair for a few seconds. My father immediately opened a vein in his arm; the blood was solid, not a drip came. At this terrible flash his wife was dreadfully alarmed; she was at home in a small room near the refinery now occupied by Mr Knowler. We were told she exclaimed ' My dear husband,' and I am under the impression she died very shortly afterwards." (Winters, op.cit., p.142)Supply 5/220
475HenryJohnsonList of Officers & Others Employed1. Henry Johnson was a Millwright in the "Engineers Department Established", paid 3/6d per day by the Storekeeper, and allowed "6d per month in addition." (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804). 2. Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809, recorded that Johnson, Master Millwright, was paid £1.15.0d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809. 3. WO54/512 dated September 1812, recorded that Johnson was first appointed on the Establishment at Waltham Abbey on the 16th November 1804, as the Foreman Millwright . In 1812, he was paid 6/4d per day for six days' work and one and a half days' pay for working on a Sunday. He was also entitled to 6/-d per week to train an Apprentice. 4. WO54/516 dated February 1816, confirmed Henry was still the Master Millwright on the Establishment, that he was a 63-year-old married man with one married and five unmarried children, that he had trained as a Millwright; his pay and allowances remained unchanged. 5. WO54/520 dated the 28th February 1817, confirmed that Henry Johnson was still the Master Millwright. At that date he was 64 years' old and married, with 2 married and 4 unmarried children. He was then only earning 5/10d per day, with an allowance of 7/-d per week for an Apprentice. 6. WO54/524 dated 1818 reflected no change from the information given in Note 5. W054/528 dated the 19th May 1819 was also the same, but Henry's allowance for training an Apprentice had increased to 8/-d per week. 7. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 ( WO54/532) confirmed that Henry was still employed as the Master Millwright. He was now aged 68, lived in Waltham Abbey, and this Return recorded that he was married with six children. He still earned 5/10d per day, with the same allowance of 8/-d per week for an Apprentice. These details are also confirmed in WO54/536 dated the 9th April 1821. 8. WO54/536 dated 31st December 1821, was a repeat of the Return dated the 2nd April 1821. 9. WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823, confirmed he was paid 5/10d per day for 313 days, giving him an income of £91.5.10d for the year; his family and service details remained the same. 10 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825, confirmed that Henry was still paid 5/10d per day as the Master Millwright for 313 days, giving him an annual income of £91.5.10d. His service was just over 20 years, and his age, 73. It also confirmed that he was married and had six children. 11.WO54/550 dated 13th October 1825, was a repeat of the previous record. 12 WO54/554 dated 1st April 1826 gave identical information as in Notes 10 and 11, with the exception that he was then 74, with over 21 years' service. 13 WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826 was a repeat of the previous Return. 14 WO54/558 dated 1st April 1827 gave the same information as Note 13. However, at that date, Henry had over 22 years' service and he was then 75 years of age. 15 WO54/558 dated 1st October 1827, contained no basic alterations from the previous Return. 16 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) updated the basic information given previously. 17 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 18 WO54/566 dated 1st April 1829, confirmed that at that date, William still earned the same as in Note 10. His length of service was given as nearly 25 years, and he was then 77. 19 Return dated 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details remaining unchanged. 20 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for Henry as in Note 10, except that his service was then over 25 years, and he was aged 78. 21 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, confirmed that Henry was still the Master Millwright. His length of service and age were updated, but his family detailes remained unaltered. 22 A Return of Persons belonging to the Civil Establishment of the Ordnance at the Gunpowder and Small Arms Manufactories at Waltham Abbey, Faversham and Enfield, showing in detail the several points of information called for by the Master General and Board's Order dated the 31st January 1831, recorded that Henry Johnson was one of the three Master Artificers to be employed at Waltham Abbey and Enfield; he was the Master Millwright and was paid 5/10d per day. His duties were to work with Artificers and Labourers in the Gunpowder Manufactory, which, consequently, required great attention; sobriety, and steadiness of conduct (WO54/575). 23 WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831, updated his age and period of service in the October 1830 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 24 WO54/575 dated October 1831, confirmed that Henry Johnson still earned 5/10d per day, giving him a total of £91.5.10d per annum as indicated in Note 22 above. He had by then served 27 years, and was aged 79 years. 25 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832, updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return; all other details remained unchanged. 26 WO54/581 dated 1st October 1832, confirmed that he still earned £91.5.10d per annum, and that by then, he had served for 28 years and was just over 80 years' old. 27 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 confirmed the information given in Note 26, except that Henry was then 81 years of age. 28 Under an order of the Board dated the 15th March 1833, Henry Johnson, Master Millwright, was to be discharged and granted a pension of £36.10.0d per annum, until an opportunity to employ him again should arise (Supply 5/208 dated 26 July 1833).Supply 5/222
476ThomasJohnsonList of Officers & Other Employees1. Thomas Johnson was a Millwright in the "Engineers Department Established." He was paid 3/6d per day by the Storekeeper, and allowed 6d per week in addition.Supply 5/222
477JamesJohnsonWinter's Centenary Memorial (page 29)1. James Johnson was a Labourer by trade, set to work by Daniel Cornish in October 1787 at 9/- per week, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase by the government from Mr. Walton. He does not appear to have been retained (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.29).
478George (1)JohnsonPay List1. George Johnson (1) was a common Labourer who was paid 8/6d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809 (Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809). 2. He was a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week, according to WO54/512 dated September 1812.Supply 5/228
479RichardJohnsonList of Employees.1. Richard Johnson was employed as a Puntman at 2/8d per day, and allowed to watch in turn. (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 2. List of Employees and their Salaries (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814) recorded that Richard Johnson was an additional Bargeman at the 13th February 1814, earning 3/10d per day (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/229
480George (2)JohnsonReturn of Employees1. George Johnson (2) was a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day-week (WO54/512 dated September 1812).WO54/512
481EdwardJones00/00/1739Personnel Record for the Corning House1. Edward Jones was an experienced Millwright who started his trade in 1761, and began working at the Powder Mills on the 1st November 1787 (Supply 5/217 dated the 25th June 1795)). His pay was recorded in Supply 5/212 dated the 21st March 1789 as 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was entitled to train an Apprentice, for which he received 7/-d per week (Supply 5/188 dated the 16th February 1789). 2. Report on the activities "in the storekeepers department" dated the 18th April 1789 (Supply 5/213) recorded that he was "repairing dust reel in the Corning House & making a new curb to the charcoal mixer." Supply 5/214 dated September 1789, recorded that he was a Millwright repairing the machinery used in the different parts of the Manufactory, and that at that date he was aged 50. He continued with maintenance work throughout 1790 to 1793, and unless stated to be working on a specific item, was generally described as "repairing mills and sundrys". 3. Letter from William Congreve, the Comptroller, to the Rex Officers at Waltham Abbey, dated 1791, expressed his surprise that "Jones the Millwrght" had been allowed to put iron keys in the "Brass Bridges of your Corning House." He ordered that the Corning House was to stop work until metal keys had been fitted (WASC 475). 4. Supply 5/216 dated the 31st July 1792, described Edward as "fitting machinery to new salt petre and charcoal mill, sundry repairs to mills etc." 5. Continued as Millwright throughout the 1790's, enlisting in the Volunteer Company as a Private on the 7th May 1794 (Supply 5/219). 6. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay, indicated that he was literate. 7. A Report dated 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed he was working as a Millwright, and that he was unmarried. Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer.Supply 5/212
482SamuelJones00/00/1775Personnel Record for the Storekeeper's Dept.1. Samuel Jones was appointed on the 16th July 1789 at the age of 14 as an Apprentice Millwright, at 1/-d per day (Supply 5/213 dated the 22nd August, 1789)/ He was possibly related to Edward Jones, the Gunpowder Mills' Millwright. 2. Samuel was still an Apprentice in December 1794, but his wage had been increased to 1/10d per day (Supply 5/217). 3. After serving his 7-year Apprenticeship on the 1st March 1796, Samuel was taken on the Establishment 4. Samuel was still working as a Millwright in February 1800, and a signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay, indicated that he was literate. 5. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was working as a Millwright, was unmarried and his pay had been increased to 3/-d per day. Note: In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 6. In a letter dated the 23rd June 1801 (Supply 5/195) it was stated that the writer "had the Board's commands to transmit to you on the other side hereof a list of the men who have been burnt and otherwise hurt by the fire which lately (16th June 1801) destroyed the Corning House at Waltham Abbey; and I am to desire the storekeeper will pay the men all their pay until they are recovered." Samuel Jones, Millwright employed by the Engineers' Department was one of those burnt. 7.The list, also dated 23rd June, 1801, (Supply 5/195) included Mr. Jones, and therein stated, "we beg to represent the situation of the poor men who were burnt when the Corning House took fire 16th instant while under repair." It further stated that Mr. Jones and two others were "Burnt so as to prevent them working, but they may soon be well." and "Our surgeon has represented the necessity of the men most burnt having immediate assistance in wine, as a considerable Suppuration is come on their constitutions. They cannot Support it without wine, and we have directed wine to be immediately provided to them, and request your permission for our continuing to Supply these poor men with such wine or other proper Support as their surgeon may think their respective situations require." Winters, in his book "Centenary Memorial", maked it clear that the men were employed in repairing the Corning House which blew up on the 18th April 1801, and that the fire was caused "from the blow of a copper hammer on pit wheel." 8. In a letter to the Board dated the 29 July 1801 (Supply 5/221), it was stated that the men who were burnt at the Corning House on the 16th June had requested that they be reimbursed for the loss of clothing. Mr. Jones' claim amounted to 5/-d in all for a hat. 9. Pay List (Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809) stated that Samuel Jones, Millwright, was paid 17/6d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809.Supply 5/213
483EvanJonesRecord of Personnel working in the Storekeeper's Dept.1. Evan Jones was employed as a Labourer earning 1/6d per day "setting and drawing stoves and in the boats as well as planting willows." (Supply 5/214 dated the 3rd March 1790). 2. A letter to the Rex Officers at Waltham Abbey from the Comptroller, William Congreve, requested that Evan Jones be sent to the Royal Laboratory, and that the bearer of the letter, Phillip Sherren, be "entered as a Labourer in his place" (WASC 475).Supply 5/214
484HughJones00/00/1761Personnel Record for Storekeeper's Department1. Hugh Jones was listed as a Millman earning 2/-d per day in August 1790, but by the end of that year he is shown as a Labourer in the Corning House (Supply 5/215 dated the 14th August 1790). 2. From May 1790 to January 1791, he was still described as "Working in the Corning House." (Supply 5/215 dated January 1791). 3. Supply 5/215 dated January 1792, referred to him "grinding salt petre, charcoal and brimstone." 4. Jones was made Office Keeper and Rounder on the 11th July 1792, earning 2/-d per day (Supply 5/215 dated the 14th August, 1790). 5. According to Supply 5/217 dated the 24th June 1795, he started work at the Powder Mills as a Labourer on the 10th May 1790. He served in the Artillery from May 1784 to January 1790, and joined the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794, initially as a Corporal, but was made a Sergeant in 1798 (Supply 5/219 dated September 1798). 6. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay, recorded that he was literate, and still the Office Keeper. 7. Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still the Office Keeper, and a married man with 2 children. 8. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) recorded that he was still employed as the Office Keeper "attending at the office." This was also the case in 1804 (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804) when he was paid 2/3d per day, and received an allowance of 1/6d every third night for "rounding." 9. In March 1805, he was on a weekly wage of 16/-d per week (Supply 5/223 dated the 28th March1805) 10 In the List of Foreman Artificers and Labourers Employed dated the 30th January 1806 (Supply 5/224) he was described as an Office Keeper earning 2/3d per day. This document also stated that he had been employed with the Ordnance for 16 years. 11 He was promoted to Foreman of Stoves, drying gunpowder in January 1808. (Supply 5/198 dated the 4th January, 1808) 12 According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Jones was still a Foreman of Stoves, then earning 4/-d per day. In addition, every third night he was "allowed 2/-d as Rounder (Supervisor) to superintend the Millmen and Watchmen on duty." 13. Winters (p.43) said that Jones had lived "...where Mr. C. Wiggs now resides." 14. Still Foreman of Stoves in 1810, his pay was unchanged and he received 2/-d for being a Rounder every third night (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810). 15 According to the above document dated 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) Hugh Jones was then employed as the Master Mixer of Composition with pay of 6/4d per day, and WO54/536 dated the 6th February 1822, confirmed that he was appointed as the Master Mixer of Composition on the 28th February 1812. 16 Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814, confirmed Hugh Jones was still Master Mixer, with the same pay as he had in 1812, 17 Supply 5/231 and WO54/524 confirm that Mr. Hugh Jones was still a Master Mixer of Composition, aged 57, who resided in Waltham Abbey, and was married with one child. He earned 5/10d per day, with an allowance of £15.12.0d per annum in respect of an Apprentice. He also had a house; this may have been the Master Worker's house within the Manufactory (Building No. 21 on the 1801 map). 18 A Return of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818; Hugh Jones's name was recorded, with his pay unchanged. On the 6th November 1818, he moved into a rent-free house owned by the Board on the north side of High Bridge Street, previously occupied by Thomas Austin, who had moved to the Mill House in Romelands (Supply 5/232). 19 A very faint photostat copy of a letter dated 6th November 1818 (Supply 5/202) recorded that Jones had requested he be allowed to live rent free in a cottage he recently occupied. The Board were of the opinion that "as an indulgence to Hugh Jones" it should be let to him at a rent of £5 per annum. The hiouse, together with its large garden of 22 perches, is shown as being at the northern end of Plot No. 64 on the Town Map in Appendix 1. 20 According to the List of Officers and Other Persons Employed and Pay dated 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) Mr. Hugh Jones was still a Master Mixer of Composition, then aged 58, with all the other information given in Note 17 remaining the same. He was still allowed an Apprentice. 21 Return dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) updated the previous entry, with the basic details on pay, etc. remaining unchanged. This document recorded that he was allowed 7/-d per week to train an Apprentice. It also confirmed that he lived in a house owned by the Board. 22 A Statement "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December, 1821, shewing the amounts received by the storekeeper" dated the 4th April 1821, (Supply 5/232) confirmed that Hugh Jones, Master Mixer, was living rent free in a Board of Ordnance house from the 6th November 1818. The same information was repeated in Supply 5/232 dated 16th February 1822, for the year 1821. 23 Return of Persons Employed dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) confirmed that Mr. Hugh Jones was still a Master Mixer of Composition, that he was then aged 60, was married and had one child, and resided in Waltham Abbey. His pay was still 5/10d per day, and he was allowed a house. 24 List of Employees in January 1822 (Supply 5/232 dated the the 26th January, 1822) giving age, number of years in service and pay per day, confirmed that Hugh Jones was still a Master Composition Mixer, aged 60, with 32 years' service, and that he was still paid 5/10d per day. 25 Return showing the pay, allowances and length of service and every description of the persons in the employment of the Ordnance as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822) appeared to be a more detailed and, probably more accurate Return, than that dated the 23rd January 1820. It recorded that Hugh Jones, Master Mixer of Composition, was appointed as a Labourer at Waltham Abbey on the 10 May 1790, then appointed Master Mixer on the 28th February 1812. His total pay for the year, including an allowance to train an Apprentice, amounted to £113.2.9d, and he was provided with a house. He had nearly 32 years' service, was aged 60, was married man with one child and lived in Waltham Abbey. 26 List dated the 21st March 1822 of persons to form an Establishment to regenerate 2000 barrels of gunpowder as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually, included Mr. Hugh Jones, Master Mixer of Composition (Supply 5/232). 27 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823, gave Jones' pay as £91.5.10d per annum. His family and service details were confirmed, but it would appear from this document that he no longer had an allowance for an Apprentice. 28 Return showing the Pay, Allowances and Length of Service of all Employees (WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1824) included Mr. Hugh Jones, who was appointed Master Mixer and Master Refiner of Saltpetre on the 30th July 1823. His pay was given as £118.3.7d per annum, with an allowance for an Apprentice amounting to £23.18.0d , making a total of £142.1.7d per annum. He was entitled to a house, had nearly 35 years' service, was then aged 63, and was married with one child. 29 According to Winters (p.92) Hugh Jones was appointed Master Worker on the 23rd February 1825, and that around that time, he moved to Powder Mill Lane (recollections of Henry Wright, as recorded in Winters). 30 Supply 5/205 dated the 21st December 1825 confirmed that Jones was a Master Worker, with total pay from the1st January 1825 of £130 per annum. 31 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825, confirmed pay, and repeated the previous information given, as did WO54/550 dated 1st October 1825. His service at that date was given as just over 35 years, and his age as 63. 32 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826, confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, confirmed the information given in the Return dated the 1st April 1826. 33 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded "no alteration since the last report dated the 1st October 1826." 34 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827, gave the same information as in the notes above. At that date, Hugh Jones had just over 37 years' service and was 65 years of age. 35 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) gave the same information as in the notes above. At that date he had served nearly 38 years and was aged 65. 36 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) recorded that Jones was paid £140 per annum, having received an increase of £10 per annum on the 22nd February 1827. All of his other details remained unchanged. (Note: this Return does not reflect his increase in pay). 37 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, with family details unchanged, but his pay in this document was shown correctly as £150 per annum. 38 WO54/566 dated 1st October 1829, stated that at that date Hugh Jones still earned the same as in Note 37. His length of service was given as just over 39 years, and he was aged 66. 39 Return WO54/ 570 dated the 1st April 1830 updated his age and length of service, with family details remaining the same. However, his pay had increased by £10 per annum from the 22nd February 1830, giving him £160 per annum.. 40 According to the Return dated the 1st October 1830 (WO54/570) Hugh was still earning the same per annum as a Master Worker as as he was in Note 39. By then he had served just over 40 years, and he was 68 years of age. 41 According to Return WO54/ 575 dated the 1st April 1831, Hugh Jones, Master Worker, earned a total of £170 per annum, and had served for nearly 41years. His age was given as 69. 42 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831, updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 43 WO545/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, also recording that he had been awarded another increase in his pay of £10 per annum, giving him an annual salary of £180 for the year. All other details remained unchanged. 44 WO54/581 dated 1st October 1832 confirmed that Hugh Jones still earned the same as indicated in Note 43. All other details remained the same, except that at that date he was 71 years of age and had served just over 42 years. 45 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, indicated that Hugh Jones then earned a total of £190.0.0d per annum. His service was given as nearly 43 years, and his age as 71. 46 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 stated that Hugh Jones was 72 and had served just over 43 years. He was still in receipt of an annual wage of £190.0.0d. 47 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834, updated the October Return for service and age, but his pay had been increased by a further £10 per annum with effect from the 22nd February 1834, giving him a total annual salary of £200. 48 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834 updated the previous Return for service and age, with conditions and pay remaining unaltered. 49 Undated entry in Winters (p.103) for 1834, stated that Fred. Wright, an Apprentice to the Rex Offices, and Hugh Jones, Master Worker, paid, viz., Fred. Wright, 79 days at 3/-d - £11.17.0d; Hugh Jones for instructing Fred. Wright, 79 days, at 6d - £1.19.6d. 50. According to Winters, Jones retired in 1838 (p.104). 51 Henry Wright, relating his memories to William Winters, recalled that on one occasion, Jones, who resided in Powder Mill Lane, was superintending proving the powder, and the mortar was placed near the barge house and bridge, when "a great mistake was made by putting in a double charge of powder, sending the ball over the left lodge at the entrance crossing the lane and river, and some distance into the marsh"Supply 5/215
485WilliamJonesRecord of Personnel working in the Storekeeper's Dept.1. William Jones started work at the Mills as a Labourer on the 1st June 1793, earning 1/6d per day. By January 1794, he was described as "setting & drawing stoves in the punts" (Supply 5/216). This was also the case in August 1794 (Supply 5/216) and in December 1794 (Supply 5/217). 2. Jones also enlisted on the 7th May 1794, as a Private in the Volunteer Company (Supply 5/219). 3. By July 1795, William Jones was described as a Millman, with pay of 2/-d per day and 3d per shift extra if on night duty (Supply 5/217 dated the 3rd July 1795).Supply 5/216
486JohnJonesList of Artificers, etc. & Volunteer Corps members1. John Jones started at the Mills as an Apprentice Millwright on the 3rd March 1796; he also served as a Private in the Volunteer Company (Supply 5/219 dated September 1798). 2. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed he was still an Apprentice Millwright and that he was unmarried. During this period he was paid 1/10d per day.Supply 5/219
487Lt.Col. John T, Royal EngineersJonesReturn of Persons Employed1. Lt.Col. John Jones signed the Return of Persons Employed in the Royal Engineers' Department for the 1st April 1823 ( WO54/542 dated April 1823)WO54/542
488JohnJuddList of Officers, Etc. Employed.1. John Judd was employed as a Puntman earning 2/8d per day, and was also allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814.Supply 5/230
489John (1)KeensList of Foreman Artificers & Others employed1. John Keens (1) had worked for a year in the Dusting House, earning 2/1d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). 2. He was employed as a Millman in June 1807, with pay of 2/3d per day and 6d per night when on duty (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807). 3. According to the entry in Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Keens was still a Millman earning 2/3d per day, and "allowed 6d per night when on duty."Supply 5/224
490John (2)KeensList of Officers and Other Persons in Employment1. John Keens (2) was working as a Puntman earning 2/-d per day, and "allowed to watch in turn" (Supply 5/227 dated 23rd August 1808). This was also the case in September 1810 (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810).Supply 5/227
491ThomasKeensList of Employees1. Thomas Keens was employed as a Millman earning 3/-d per day, and in addition, he was allowed 6d per night when on duty (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 2. Supply 5/230 of the 13th February 1814 confirmed that Mr. Keens was still a Millman, with the same rate of pay and additional 6d per night when on duty.Supply 5/229
492JamesKeensList of Employees1. James Keens was a Corning House Man who earned 3/3d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 2. He was still a Corning House man on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230). In addition, he was paid the same amount as previously, and allowed to watch in turn at the same 1/6d per night.Supply 5/229
493JacobKegbread00/00/1769Return of Employees1. Jacob Kegbread was first employed by the Board on the 23rd September 1815 at 2/8d per day. He was a 48-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey, according to WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816.WO54/516
494SamuelKennarley00/00/1765Return of those Employed1. Samuel Kennarley was employed in the Engineers' Department as an occasional Labourer, earning 2/8d per day (WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816). He was first employed by the Board on the 16th October 1815, and was a 50-year-old married man with one married and six unmarried children, living in Waltham Abbey.WO54/516
495JosephKentList of Officers, Foremen and Artificers. Etc. employed in the Storekeeper's Dept.1. Joseph Kent was employed as a Sieve Puncher and Proof House Man at 2/-d per day. In addition, he was allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810). 2. By August 1812 he was employed as a Puntman, paid 2/8d per day, and allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 3. He was employed as a Corning House Man on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230), earning 3/3d per day and allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night.Supply 5/228
496William (1)KentReturn of Employees1. William Kent (1) was a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day-week (WO54/512 dated September 1812).WO54/512
497William (2)Kent00/00/1806Return of Employees1. William Kent (2) was a single man aged 18, who had been employed as a Labourer for four months from June 1825 on a temporary basis, and was to be discharged at the end of October 1825. He was paid 2/2d per day, and was possibly the son of William Kent (1) (WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825).WO54/550
498GeorgeKestfieldList of Artificers, etc., and Members of the Volunteer Corps1. George Kestfield was employed as a Cylinderman in Sussex on the the 1st October 1796. He also served in the Volunteer Company as a Private (Supply 5/219 dated September 1798).Supply 5/219
499JohnKimble00/00/1768Record of Personnel in the Storekeeper's Department1. John Kimble started work as a Labourer refining Saltpetre on the 10th May 1791, earning 1/6d per day. This was also the case in 1792 and February 1793 (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February 1793), as well as August to September 1793 (Supply 5/216) January 1794 (Supply 5/216) August 1794 (Supply 5/216), and December 1794 (Supply 5/217). 2. Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was working as a Labourer, and was a married man with one child. In this document, anyone who was not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 3. On the 23rd October 1801, Robert Coleman recorded in his Minute Book that 24 men were required to work at Faversham or be discharged. Kimble was one of the men who agreed to go (Winters, p.60), and it appeared that he was one of the few who stayed at Faversham for some time. 4. In a letter (Supply 5/199 of the 28th April 1809) Kimble applied to the Storekeeper for relocation from Faversham to Waltham Abbey because it would be better for his health, and the transfer was confirmed. 5. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810 stated that Kimble was a Saltpetre Refiner, who was paid 2/-d per day and allowed to watch in turn. 6. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) confirmed that Mr. Kimble was still a Saltpetre Refiner who now earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn. The same pay and conditions applied according to Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814. 7. Return dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded that John Kimble was still a Saltpetre Refiner, and that he was a married man, aged 50, with 3 children, living in Waltham Abbey and earning 2/4d per day. In addition, he was allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night. 8. In a letter dated September 1818 (Supply 5/231) it was stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement." The list included John Kimble, Saltpetre Refiner.Supply 5/216
500StephenKingList of Foremen, etc. employed in the Manufactory1. Stephen King was a Refiner in the Saltpetre House with pay of 2/-d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). At that date he had one year's service. 2. According to the entry in Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. King was still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/-d per day, and "when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn." 3. Letter dated the 28th April 1809 (Supply 5/199) recorded that he was relocated to Faversham to replace John Kimble in the Refining House there.Supply 5/224
501WilliamKingWinters' Centenary Memorial, p.551. William King was listed as the Master of The Hunter in 1802, according to Winters (p.55).
502HenryKingshott00/00/1742List of Artificers and Members of the Volunteer Corps1. Henry Kingshott started work as a Labourer on the 3rd July 1796, earning 1/6d per day. He served as a Private in the Volunteer Company, and at some stage was transferred to West Sussex as a Cylinder Man (Supply 5/219 dated September, 1798). A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was working as a Labourer and was a married man with no children. In this document anyone who was not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 2. A Return of Artificers and Labourers dated the 3rd November 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was still employed as a Labourer at the Cylinder Houses in Sussex. The same document said that since the cylinders have been out of repair, Kinshott had been employed in stacking timber in the yards, and levelling and preparing the ground where the cylinders were to be resited. 3. According to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806, Mr. Kingshott was employed as a Cylinder Man earning 2/-d. per day, and at that date he had 10 years' service . 4. At the 18th June 1807 (Supply 5/226) it was confirmed that Mr. Kingshott was still employed as a Cylinder Man and he was still earning 2/-d per day. 5. According to a Return dated the 23rd August 1808 (Supply 5/227) Mr. Kingshott was still employed as a Cylinder Man earning the same 2/-d per day. 6. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed he was a Cyclinder man at 2/-d per day. 7. Still a Cylinder Man but then earning 2/8d per day, according to Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812. 8. List of Employees and their Salaries (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814) confirmed that Henry was still a Cylinder Man and still earning 2/8d per day. 9. Return dated the 2nd March 1816 (Supply 5/230) recorded that Mr. Kingshott was still a Cylinder House Man; his length of service was given as 20 years. His age was 73, and it was recommended that he receive a daily superannuation of 2/8d. In the attached notes was the comment that Mr. Kingshott "both from his age and from the effects of his employ, is no longer capable of exerting himself." However, in a letter dated 6th March 1816, (Supply 5/ 200), Mr. Kingshott was finally awarded superannuation of only 2/-d per day for six days in the week, commencing the 1st April 1816. 10 A supplement to a document dated the 8th November 1818 (Supply5/231) listed persons who had been superannuated on account of their length of service in the departments. Among the recipients was "Henry Kingshott, Cylinderman" who received a pension of 12/-d per week which commenced on the 1st April 1816.Supply 5/219
503JohnKippingWinter's Centenary Memorial (p.28)1. John Kipping was a Labourer by trade, set to work by Daniel Cornish in October 1787 and paid 9/-d per week. He was possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase by the Government from Mr. Walton (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.28) but did not appear to have been retained.
504WilliamKirbyRecord of Personnel in Storekeeper's Department1. William Kirby started work as a Labourer on the 21st April 1794. In August 1794, he was working in the punts at 1/6d per day (Supply 5/216 dated 31st August 1794). 2. In December 1794, he was working in the Corning House (Supply 5/217) as was the case in July 1795 (Supply 5/217). 3. William was working as a Refining Labourer in September 1798 (Supply 5/219). 4. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800 relating to a Petition on Pay, showed that he was illiterate, and still working as a Refining Labourer. 5. Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed that he was working as a Labourer, and that he was a married man with one child. Note: in this document, anyone who was not an Artificer was described as a Labourer.Supply 5/216
505JohnKnight00/00/1746Pay List1. John Knight was a common Labourer who was paid 17/-d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809 (Supply 5/228 of the 21st July 1809). 2. WO54/512 dated September 1812 recorded that John was an occasional Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week. 3. WO54/516 dated February 1816, confirmed he was employed as an occasional Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department, and that he was first employed by the Board on the 29th March 1806. He was a 59-year-old married man living in Waltham Abbey, with two married children and one unmarried child, . 4. WO54/520 dated the 20th February 1817 recorded that Knight's pay was now only 2/4d per day, with all other details remaining unchanged. 5. WO54/524 dated 11th April 1818, confirmed that he was still employed as a Labourer "Occasionally as required" and still paid 2/4d per day. This was also the case in 1819 (WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819).Supply 5/228
506Samuel, Snr.Knowler00/00/1764Personnel Return of those working in the Storekeeper's Department.1. Samuel Knowler, Snr. was engaged as a Labourer at Faversham on the 1st February 1787 (Supply 5/212) and transferred to Waltham Abbey as a Labourer at 1/6d per day on the 1st February 1789 (Supply5/113). He was "cutting and planting willow trees, cutting of canal at the new Corning House, removing earth to the Store, unloading barge of coals & charring wood." according to Supply 5/213 dated the 18th April 1789. Supply 5/214 dated September 1789 recorded that he was 25 years of age, and was employed dusting and glazing powder. 2. In March 1790, he was working in the Corning House (Supply 5/214). 3. In August and September 1790, he was "dusting & glazing gunpowder."(Supply 5/215). 4. Knowler was in the Corning House in December 1790 to September 1793 (Supply 5/216), when he was transferred to the Refining House refining Saltpetre after Benjamin Wall was sacked. He was still there in January 1794 (Supply 5/216) to December 1794 (Supply 5/217). 5. By June 1795, he was "setting and drawing stoves etc." (Supply 5/217 dated the 24th June 1795). 6. An entry for July 1795 listed Samuel Knowler as a Millman with pay of 2/-d per day, plus an extra 3d when on night duty. It also recorded that Knowler had enlisted as a Private in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794 (Supply 5/219). 7. Supply 5/219 dated September 1798 described Samuel Knowler, Snr., as a Refining House Labourer. 8. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800, relating to a Petition on Pay, showed that he was illiterate and was still working as a Labourer in the Refining House. 9. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed he was working as a Labourer, was a married man, and had three children. In this document, anyone not an Artificer, was described as a Labourer. Robert Coleman recorded in his Minute Book on the 23rd October 1801, that 24 men were required to work at Faversham or be discharged and Knowler was one who agreed to go (Winters, p.60). However, the Faversham Gunpowder Personnel Register 1573-1840 did not record his name, so it can only be assumed that his services were retained at Waltham Abbey 10 In 1804 he was working at the Mills as a Refiner in the Saltpetre House, with pay of 2/-d per day. All Refiners received an additional allowance of 1/-d per night when it was their turn "to watch" - on average every 5th night. (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804). The Parish Poor rates for 1805 (Huggins) indicated that he was living in High Bridge Street, adjacent to the Cock Inn (Plot 2158 on the 1825 Town Map). 11 Knowler was still a Refiner in the Saltpetre House in 1806, being paid 2/-d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). At that date he had 16 years' service, and "when not working allowed to watch in turn." 12 Samuel was promoted to Foreman Saltpetre Refiner in January 1808 (Supply5/198 dated the 4th January, 1808). 13 According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, he was still a Foreman of Saltpetre Refiners, and earned 4/-d per day as well as being entitled to take an Apprentice, who, in1808, was March Baker. 14 He was still a Foreman in 1810 (Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810) with his pay unchanged,and at that time was receiving 2/-d for being a Rounder every third night. 15. According to a Return dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) Mr. Knowler was an Assistant Master of Refiners of Saltpetre, earning 6/4d per day, as he was in 1814 (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814). He was granted a Board House in Powder Mill Lane on the 1st September 1815, with a rent of £1 per annum ( Supply 5/232). The house was one of the larger houses in the lane, and was built in timber salvaged from the buildings forming the Horse Mills (Winters, p.82). There was a clause written into the tenancy that the tenants were not allowed to take in lodgers or cause unnecessary delapidations. His house was the second from the northern end of the terrace of houses and cottages running back from High Bridge Street in Powdermill Lane, forming part of plot No. 64 on the Town Map in Appendix 1. 16 Supply 5/231 of the 28th August 1818confirmed that Mr. Knowler was an Assistant Master Refiner of Saltpetre, that he earned 5/10d per day, resided in Waltham Abbey and was married with six children, Edward Samuel Knowler - baptised 9th July 1794 at Waltham Abbey - Samuel John Jones Knowler - baptised Waltham Abbey on the 17 May 1799 - Thomas William Knowler - baptised Waltham Abbey 9th March 1805 - Catherine Mary Knowler - baptised Waltham Abbey 7th September 1796, and Francis Knowler - baptised Waltham Abbey 5th December 1810. 17 A Return of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Knowler's name was on the list with his pay reduced to 5/4d per day. 18 Memo dated 14th December 1818 (Supply 5/202) stated that Samuel Knowler, Assistant Master Refiner of Saltpetre, was to continue to pay the same rent of £1 per annum for the cottage he occupied in Waltham Abbey. 19 Still Assistant Master Saltpetre Refiner in May 1819, Supply 5/231 confirmed that Samuel was a married man with 6 children, aged 52, who lived in Waltham Abbey, trained as a Baker, and was paid 5/4d per day. 20. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) updated the previous entry, with the basic details on pay, etc., remaining unchanged. 21 A Statement dated the 4th April 1821 "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December, 1821, shewing the amounts received by the storekeeper" (Supply 5/232) confirmed that Samuel Knowler had been living in a Board of Ordnance house, Tenement No. 21, from the 1st September 1815, at a rent of £1 per annum. This house with its garden has been identified as part of a terrace of houses located in Powder Mill Lane and shown as Property No. 714 on the Waltham Abbey Town Map of 1825. The same information was repeated in Supply 5/232 dated the 16th February 1822, for the year 1821. 22 Return dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) confirmed that Mr. Knowler was still the Assistant Master Refiner of Saltpetre, that he was then aged 52, was married with six children, and resided in Waltham Abbey. His pay was still 5/4d per day. 23 The Storekeeper at Waltham Abbey, Empson Middleton, wrote to the Board of Ordnance on the 15th September 1821 requesting that Samuel Knowler, Assistant Master Refiner of Saltpetre, be granted a pension. He went on to say that during Knowler's 32 years' service at the Gunpowder Mills, he had received severe concussion on the chest by the falling of a quantity of saltpetre bags, "which occassions, at times, severe indispositions if he takes cold." The Board agreed in their letter of the 16th November 1821 (Supply 5/203) that he should receive a superanuated sum of £20.17.4d per annum, and allowed him to continue to live in the cottage, paying the same rent of £1 per annum. 24 A document dated 6th December, 1821 (Supply 5/232) gave the estimated pay of persons between the 1st January and 31st December 1822, along with their superannuated allowance as well as "the allowance to widows and orphans of those who have lost their lives at this place." It confirmed that Samuel Knowler was in receipt of £20.17.4d. superannuation per annum. A similar document, Supply 5/232 dated the 28th December, 1821, confirmed that the same pension would be paid in 1822, and according to Winters (p.95), this was still the case in 1826. 25 A list of Properties owned by the Board prepared by the Office of the Royal Engineers on the 20th December 1834, showed that Samuel's house was to be let to Mr. Simes, Millwright, with effect from the 7th November 1834. 26 Knowler was still in receipt of a pension in 1837 (Supply 5/237) and this document recorded that his pension started on the 16th November 1821. 27 The 1841 Census recorded that he was living with his son, Samuel John, in High Bridge Street.Supply 5/212
507HenryKnowlerRecord of Personnel in the Storekeeper's Department1. Henry Knowler, the brother of Samuel Knowler, started work as a Labourer working on the punts and "Setting and drawing stoves" on the 5th April 1791, and was paid 1/6d per day (Supply 5/215 dated the 16th April 1791). In May, 1791, he was "Dusting and Glazing Powder", and between January 1792 and September 1793, he was in the Corning Houses (Supply 5/216). In September 1793, he was replaced by William Speller. 2. Robert Coleman, Clerk of the Cheque, recorded that on the 29th July 1793, Henry Knowler (and others) was chequered (fined) one day's pay for "having gone across the Hoppit contrary to repeated orders." (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.39). 3. January 1794 saw Henry working as a Labourer in the Refining House and he still earned 1/6d per day (Supply 5/216). He was still there in August 1794 and December 1794 ((Supply 5/216 and Supply 5/217 respectively) as well as in July 1795 (Supply 5/217 dated the 3rd July 1795) and September, 1798 (Supply 5/219). This document also recorded that he enlisted as a Private in the Voluntary Company on the 7th May 1794. 4. A signed document, Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800, relating to a Petition on Pay, showed that he was literate and was still working as a Refining House Labourer. 5. A Report dated the 8th May 1801 (Supply 5/221) confirmed he was working as a Labourer, was a married man and had one child. In this document, anyone not an Artificer was described as a Labourer. 6. Robert Coleman recorded in his Minute Book on the 23rd October 1801, that 24 men were required to work at Faversham or be discharged, and Knowler was one who agreed to go (Winters, op.cit. p.60). However, the Faversham Gunpowder Personnel Register 1573-1840, did not record his name, so it can only be assumed his services were terminated. 7. On the 13th February 1814, Henry Knowler was apparently re-engaged as a Labourer, "setting and drawing stoves and in the willow plantations", earning 2/8d per day; he was also allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/230).Supply 5/215
508JohnKnowlerList of Artificers, etc., and Members of the Volunteer Company1. John Knowler started work as a Labourer in the Corning House on the 15th March 1798. He was also a Private in the Volunteer Company (Supply 5/219 of September 1798).Supply 5/219
509Samuel Jnr. (also 2)Knowler00/00/1799List of Employees and their Pay1. Samuel Knowler, Jnr., according to the Employee List of the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) was Apprenticed to the Master Refiner of Saltpetre, and earned 6/-d. per week. His Master was given 6/-d per week for this Apprentice, and this was was also the case on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230). WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825, recorded that he started his Apprenticeship with the Master Refiner on the 3rd June 1811. 2. In a letter dated 12th June,1818 (Supply 5/202) it appeared that Samuel Knowler had completed his Apprenticeship and was entered as a Saltpetre Refiner from the 8th June 1818, earning 2/4d per day . The letter also stated that approval was given by the Board for the Master Refiner to take on John Simpson, Junior, as an Apprentice in place of Samuel Knowler. 3. Contrary to the information given in the previous note, a List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded that Samuel Knowler was still an Apprentice to the Master Saltpetre Refiner at that date, and that he was a single man, aged 19, who lived in Waltham Abbey and earned 7/-d per week.. 4. A Return dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Samuel Knowler (2) was included, with his pay shown as 2/-d per day. 5. List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) indicated that Samuel Knowler (2) was employed as a Brimstone Refiner; he was still single, was aged 20, lived in Waltham Abbey and was paid 2/4d per day. He was also allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. 6. List of Officers on Employment dated 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) states that Samuel Knowler (2) was now 21, still lived in Waltham Abbey and was single, still earned 2/4d per day as a Saltpetre Refiner, but now received 1/6d per night whilst on watch. 7. List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) indicated that Samuel was now 22 and employed as a Saltpetre Refiner; all other entries remained the same as in Note 6. 8. List of Employees (Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822) gives the age of Samuel (2), Saltpetre Refiner, as 23, with 10 years' service and pay per day of 2/4d. 9. Return dated the 6th February 1822 (Supply 5/232) shows length of service and other full details of those persons employed by the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821. This appears to be a more detailed and accurate Return than that of the 23rd January 1822. Samuel Knowler (2), Saltpetre Refiner, was appointed Apprentice to the Master Refiner at Waltham Abbey on the 3rd June, 1811, and by Orders of the Board dated 4th September 1818 and the 4th October 1819, as a Saltpetre Refiner. He was allowed to watch in turn to guard the works, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night, giving him total annual pay of £41.14.4d. According to this Return, at the 31st December 1821, he had ten and a half years' service, was 23 and a single man who lived in Waltham Abbey. 10 List dated the 21st March 1822 of Persons to form an Establishment at Waltham Abbey to regenerate 2000 barrels of gunpowder as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually, recorded that Samuel Knowler, Saltpetre Refiner, was to be retained (Supply 5/232). 11 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B) Samuel Knowler (2) had his pay reduced by £2.12.0d per annum, in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the 27th December 1822 and the 15th January 1823. WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1823, recorded that he was still a Saltpetre Refiner and that his annual pay was £39.0.0d, which included an allowance for watching the works in turn, for which, on average, he received 2/-d per week. His service details were confirmed, but he was then a 26-year-old married man without children. 12 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825, confirmed Samuel (2) was still a Saltpetre Refiner, and gave his basic pay as £33.16.0d per annum. He was allowed to watch in turn, which gave him, on average, 2/-d per week, making an annual amount in total of £39.0.0d. This Return also confirmed his previous family and service details, and the details are repeated in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825, with the additional information that he then had one child, who was baptised at Waltham Abbey on the 25th September 1825. 13 Return dated the 1st October 1825 (Winters, pp.93-95) confirmed previous information, and recorded that he had been in continuous service with the Board since the 3rd June 1811. His pay was £33.16.0d. per annum. 14 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826, confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. 15 WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, confirmed the information given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826, but recorded that at that date he had two children. 16 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827, recorded "no alteration since the last report dated the 1st October 1826" except that Samuel then had 3 children. It would also appear that the length of service 'goal posts' had been changed and started from the end of his Apprenticeship. 17 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827, confirmed the same information as in the notes above, except that apparently one child had died. At that date, Samuel Knowler had just over 9 years' service and was 28 years' old. 18 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) confirmed the information given in the notes above, with the exception that he had served for nearly 10 years, although his age on this Return was shown as 27. 19 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 20 On the 14th October 1828, Samuel Knowler was paid 16/-d for travelling from Waltham to Woolwich for the purpose of instruction as to the mode of proof, and practical use of the new gun Epreuvette. The amount covered 48 miles at 4d per mile (Winters, op.cit.p.99). 21 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, with his family details and pay remaining unchanged. 22 Return of Employees at the 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) indicated that Samuel Knowler (2) earned in total £39.0.0d per annum, that his service was just over 11 years, that he was 28 years of age, was married and had two children. 23 According to the Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for Samuel Knowler (2) as in Note 22, except that his service was given as nearly 12 years, and that he was 29 years of age. 24 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830 gave the same information as that provided at the 1st April 1830, except that Samuel had then served just over 12 years. WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831, updated the October Return, and confirmed that he was still employed as a Salt Petre Refininer. 25 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831 updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 26 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return. 27 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832, updated his age and period of service in the April 1832 Return, and all other details remained unchanged. 28 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833, recorded that at that date Samuel (2) still earned £39.0.0d annually. His period of service was given as nearly 15 years, and his age as 32. 29 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, confirmed that Samuel's details were the same as in the previous Return, except that he had then served just over 15 years and he was 33 years' old. 30 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834 recorded that although Samuel was still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner, his basic pay had been cut to £28.5.6d per annum. He was still allowed to watch in turn, which increased his annual pay to £33.9.6d. He still had two children, and his age and his service details were updated. 31 WO54/593 dated 1st October 1834, confirmed the information given in the note above; Samuel (2) was then 33 years' old and had served just over 16 years. 32 Return of Employees dated the 1st October 1839 (WO54/623) recorded that Samuel Knowler, Jnr., was promoted to Master Refiner of Salt Petre on the 5th September 1834. He was then entitled to a house, which is shown as Plot No. 39 on the Town Map in Appendix 1, and his pay was £118.13.7d per annum. He was then 37 years' old with nearly 22 years' service. 33 The 1841 Census recorded that Samuel, Jnr., aged 40, and his wife Elizabeth, also aged 40, were living on the north side of High Bridge Street with their family of Mary, 15, and John, 11). His father, Samuel Snr., was living with them, and with the exception of Elizabeth, they were all born in the County.Supply 5/229
510HenryLagdon00/00/1787List of Employees and Their Pay1. Henry Lagden was a Brimstone Refiner who earned 3/-d per day, and in addition, was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d per night (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). This was also the case on the 13th February 1814, according to Supply 5/230 of that date. 2. Lists of Officers & Others Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231 and WO54/524) confirmed that Henry was still a Brimstone Refiner, aged 31, married with 3 children, living in Waltham Abbey, earning 2/8d per day and allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night. 3. A Return dated the 28th August 1818 ( Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Lagdon's name was included, with his pay reduced to 2/-d per day, and he was then not allowed to watch. 4. List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Lagdon was still employed as a Brimstone Refiner; he was aged 32, had 3 children, lived in Enfield, was paid 2/4d per day, and was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. 5. Return dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) updated the entry above, and the basic details on pay, etc. remained unchanged, except he was now allowed 1/6d per night to watch. 6. List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Henry was then 34; all other entries remained the same as in Note 5. 7. Supply 5/232 dated 23rd January 1822 gave the age of Henry Lagdon, Brimstone Refiner, as 36, with nearly 17 years' service and pay per day of 2/4d. 8. Return showing the pay, allowances, and length of service, and every drescription of those employed by the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822) appeared to be a more detailed, and probably more accurate Return than that dated the 23rd January 1822. Henry Lagdon, Brimstone Refiner, was appointed as a Labourer with the Ordnance Board at Waltham Abbey on the 7th October 1805. His position on the Establishment as a Brimstone Refiner was confirmed by orders of the Board dated the 4th September 1818 and 4th October 1819, and he was allowed to watch in turn to guard the works, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night, giving him total pay for the year of £41.14.4d. He had just over 16 years' service, was aged 36, was a married man living in Enfield, and he had three children. 9. In the spring of 1822, the Ordnance Board decided to lower the production and regeneration of gunpowder, and the Establishment at Waltham was to be reduced accordingly. Empson Middleton and James Wright drew up a list of people to be dismissed (Supply 5/232 dated the 21st March, 1822). The men were subquently dismissed on the 1st June, and several Petitions were submitted by them asking for financial assistance. Many were long service employees in their middle age, and they pointed out that they had little hope of finding employement after the hay and corn harvest had been gathered. The Storekeeper at Waltham was sympathetic, and forwarded their Petitions to the Board for their consideration. Henry Lagdon, signing with a cross, was one of the Petitioners, and he was awarded two weeks' pay to ease his financial burden.Supply 5/229
511JohnLagdon (Lagden)List of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers Employed1. John Lagdon (Lagden) was a Labourer "drawing and Setting Stoves etc" earning 2/-d per day, according to Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806. At that date he had 6 months' service. In June 1807, he was a "Labourer in various parts of the Manufactory and setting & drawing stoves, loading and unloading barges etc." (Supply 5/226 dated 18th June 1807). 2. According to the List of Officers, Foremen and Artificers, etc. Employed dated the 23rd August 1808 (Supply 5/227) Mr. Lagden was still employed as a Labourer, "setting and drawing stoves, and in Willow Plantations, etc." earning 2/-d per day, and he was allowed to watch in turn. 3. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, recorded that he was a Brimstone Refiner who was paid 2/3d day and allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/6d per night.Supply 5/224
512JohnLakeList of Names in a Petition on Pay1. John Lake was literate, and was working as a general Labourer. according to a signed document relating to a Petition on Pay (Supply 5/220 of the 2nd February 1800). 2. A letter to the Board (Supply 5/220 dated the 19th April 1801) recorded that the new Corning House blew up on the 18th April 1801, with a tremendous explosion. Nine men in the building, including John Lake, were killed, together with four horses. 3. Supply 5/220 dated the 29th April 1801 (Report of ages of children and circumstances of widows and children) recorded, "the nearest relation is a brother, has no family, but we do not think him entitled to claim."Supply 5/220
513GeorgeLambRecord of personnel working in the Storekeeper's Department1. George Lamb was employed as a Labourer earning 1/6d per day (Supply 5/216 dated the 28th February 1793). 2. Robert Coleman, Clerk of the Cheque, recorded in his Minute Book (Winters, p.40) that on the 12th August 1793, "G Lamb went away without leave. Chequered (fined) and ordered him off watch. N.B - He never came again to work till 19th, when agreed to discharge him." 3. There was a Corning Mill known as Lambs Mill which blew up on the 11th February 1793; Mills were often named after the Millman, so George Lamb may have had a relative who worked for Mr Walton.Supply 5/216
514JamesLambList of Foremen, etc. working in the Manufactory1. James Lamb was a Refiner in the Salt Petre House with pay of 2/-d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806) and at that date, he had a year's service. In June 1807, his details were identical except that "when not working extra allowed to watch in turn." (Supply 5/226 dated 18th June 1807). 2. According to an entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Lamb was still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/-d. per day, and "when not working extra, they are allowed to watch in turn." 3. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed that James was still a Saltpetre Refiner who was paid 2/-d per day and allowed to watch in turn. 4. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that James then earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn. This information was also confirmed in Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814. 5. A letter from the Office of Ordnance dated the 18th March 1818 (Supply 5/202) stated "having laid before the Board your letter dated yesterday reporting upon the Petition of James Lamb, late a Saltpetre Refiner, soliciting some relief in consideration of his services and the injury he received in the Department under your superintendence, I am directed to desire the Storekeeper will pay James Lamb the sum of two guineas as a donation agreeably for your recommendation."Supply 5/224
515AnthonyLambertReturn of Employees1. Anthony Lambert was taken on as an Apprentice Cooper, but discharged himself according to Supply 5/204 dated the 27th December 1822.Supply 5/204
516HenryLambert00/00/1801Return of Employees1. Henry Lambert was engaged in the summer of 1825 as a Cooper, and paid 4/6d per day. At the time, the Waltham Abbey Mills were making cement casks, presumably for gunpowder, for Harwich. The task had to be completed by the 1st October 1825, when it was assumed that Lambert would be discharged (Supply 5/205 dated the 5th September, 1825). 2. WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825, recorded that Henry was employed for three months as a Cooper making cement casks for Harwich, with pay of £54.12.0d per annum. This Return stated that he had been trained as a Cooper, and that he was a 24-year-old single man.5/205
517RobertLammonReturn of Employees1. Robert Lammon was employed as a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week (WO54/512 dated September 1812).WO54/512
518WilliamLarby00/00/1789List of Employees1. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Mr. Larby was employed as a Millman who earned 3/-d per day, in addition to which, he was allowed 6d per night when on duty. He was still a Millman on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) with the same rate of pay and additional 6d per night when on duty. 2. WO54/516 dated February 1816, stated that William was employed as an occasional Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department and that he was first employed by the Department in September 1814. He was a 25-year-old married man with one child, who lived in Waltham Abbey.Supply 5/229
519JohnLatch00/00/1795Return of Employees in the Engineers' Department1. John Latch was first employed by the Board as a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the 16th January 1816, at 2/4d per day. He was a 40-year-old married man with three children, living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/520 dated 20th February 1817).WO54/520
520RobertLawmonList of employees1. Robert Lawmon was employed as a Puntman and paid 2/8d per day, as well as being allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 2. He was employed as a Corning House Man at 3/3d per day on the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) and allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night.Supply 5/229
521ThomasLawrenceList of Officers & Others Employed1.Thomas Lawrence was an extra Bargeman employed on three barges transporting gunpowder to Picket's Field and Magazines. His pay was given as £2.11.6d per week (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804).Supply 5/222
522Donald M.LeanWinters, p.118"Donald M Lean would be discharged for illtreating a young servant-maid to the clerk of the cheque in one of the watch houses" according to a note in the records dated the 22nd May 1789 (Winters, p.118).Winters
523MichaelLee00/00/1773Return of Employees1. Michael Lee was an occasional Labourer in the Engineers' Department earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week (WO54/512 dated September 1812). 2. WO54/516 dated February 1816, confirmed he was employed as an occasional Labourer earning 2/8d per day in the Engineers' Department. It also recorded that he was first employed by the Board on the 18th July 1812, and that he was a 42-year-old married man with three children, who lived in Waltham Abbey.WO54/512
524JamesLee00/00/1780Return of Employees1. James Lee was first employed by the Board on the 9th September 1815 as an occasional Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day. He was a 35-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/516 dated February 1816).WO54/516
525EdwardLeopard00/00/1771List of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers Employed1. Edward Leopard was employed as a Cylinder Man earning 2/-d per day, according to a Return of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). At that date he had 10 years' service 2. According to a further Return (Supply 5/226 ) Mr. Leopard was still employed as a Cylinder Man and was still earning 2/-d per day. This was also the case in August 1808 (List of Officers and Artificers, etc. in Employment dated the 23rd August 1808 - Supply 5/227). 3. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed that he was employed as a Cylinder Man at 2/-d per day. 4. Edward was still a Cylinder Man earning 2/8d per day according to Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812. 5. List of Employees and their Salaries (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814) confirmed the information given in Note 4. 6. List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Edward Leopard was still a Cylinder Man . He was a married man aged 46, with two children, who lived in Fisher Street in Sussex, and earned 2/4d per day. 7. In a letter dated September 1818 (Supply 5/231), it was stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement.", i.e., a reduction in the Establishment due to a downturn in work. The list included Edward Leopard.Supply 5/224
526JosephLeserfRecord of Personnel in Storekeeper's Department1. Joseph Leserf was taken on for one of seven vacancies available in August 1793 (Winters, p.40) and employed as a Labourer in the Corning House at 1/6d per day. 2. He was still in the Corning House in January to August 1794 (Supply 5/216) and had enlisted as a Private in the Volunteer Company on the 7th May 1794 (Supply 5/219). 3. In December1794, he was "separating gunpowder" (Supply 5/217, and was in the Corning House in July 1795 (also Supply 5/217).Supply 5/216
527RichardLewis00/00/1784Return of Employees1. Richard Lewis, a 42-year-old married man, was a casual Labourer in the Engineers' Department who had first worked for the Board on the 18th January 1816. He lived in Waltham Abbey, had 6 unmarried children and was paid 2/4d per day (WO54/520 dated 20th February 1817). 2. WO54/524 dated 11th April 1818, confirmed that he was still employed as a Labourer "Occasionally as required" at 2/4d per day. 3. WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819, confirmed that he had 6 children. 4. Return dated the 13th September 1820 ( WO54/532) recorded that Richard was still employed as a Labourer. He was aged 45 at that date, still lived in Waltham Abbey, and was married, but then had seven children. He still earned 2/4d per day, and was employed "Occasionally as required." 5. WO54/536 dated the 2nd April 1821, showed that he was aged 46 years, and that his family and terms of employment, etc. remained unchanged.WO54/520
528SamuelLincoln00/00/1746Pay List1. Samuel Lincoln was employed as a common Labourer, and was paid 17/-d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809 (Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809). 2. WO54/512 dated September 1812, confirmed he was an occasional Labourer in the Engineers' Department, earning 2/8d per day for a six-day week. 3. WO54/516 dated February 1816, recorded that Samuel was first employed by the Board on the 29th March 1806. He was a 62-year-old widower, with four married children and one unmarried child, who lived in Waltham Abbey and had been trained as a Butcher. 4. WO54/520 dated 28th February 1817, updated the previous entry and stated that he was then only paid 2/4d per day.Supply 5/228
529GeorgeLindsay00/00/1768Record of Pay1. George Lindsay was taken on as a Labourer grinding Saltpetre and Charcoal at 1/6d per day (Supply 5/212 dated the 21st March 1789). 2. He was "cutting and planting willow trees, cutting of canal at the new Corning House, removing earth to the Store, unloading barge of coals & charring wood." (Supply 5/213 dated the 18th April 1789). 3. On the 22nd August 1789, he was "marking powder barrels" and this information is repeated in September (Supply 5/213) and again in Supply 5/214 dated the 27th March 1790, as well as in December 1790 (Supply 5/215 dated the 11th December, 1790). 4. Supply 5/214 dated September 1789, recorded that he was 21 years of age, and confirmed that he was employed marking powder barrels. 5. In August and September 1790, he was "in the barges." (Supply 5/215 dated the 14th August 1790). 6. In April to June 1791, he was "weighing powder & marking barrels." (Supply 5/215). 7. Between January and March 1792, he was "in the punts and likewise drawing & setting stoves, loading and shipping gunpowder & stores etc." (Supply 5/215).Supply 5/212
530ThomasLittler19/02/1759List of Appointments and Salaries1. Thomas Littler served in the Royal Navy before joining His Majesty's Ordnance Board at Dover on the 8th June 1805 (Huggins, WAGP, p.124). He was appointed Extra Clerk (Assistant Clerk) at Waltham Abbey on the 8th June 1805 on the same day, with a salary of £70 per annum, and was still in the same position in June 1807 (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807). Supply 5/232 dated the 6th September 1822, recorded that he was transferred to Dover on the 1st August 1807, as First Clerk. 2. According to the List of Officers and Other Persons Employed dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229), Mr. Littler was appointed First Clerk at Waltham Abbey on the 26th February 1812. His salary was given as £90 per annum. with a £20.16.0d lodging allowance and £12.10.0d for coals and candles. 3. Return dated the 13th February 1814, (Supply 5/230) confirmed his salary was £90, and that he was allowed £20.16.0d per annum lodging allowance and £12.10.0d per annum for coal and candles. 4. List of Officers and other Persons Employed dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Mr. Littler was First Clerk, that he was aged 58, lived in Waltham Abbey, and was a widower with seven children. It also stated that on the 8th June 1805, Mr. Littler became a Junior Clerk at Waltham Abbey, and that his appointment of First Clerk dated from 26th February, 1812. His salary was £90 per annum, with a £12.10 coal and candle allowance and a £35 gratuity, in addition to which, he was given a house upon the Establishment. Between 1814 and 1818, he was not entitled to a lodging allowance and was, therefore, living in Ordnance Board accommodation rent free, viz. Corn Mill House in Romelands, which had previously been occupied by James Wright, Jnr., who possibly vacated it during September 1814. 5. According to a Return dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) Mr. Littler was still First Clerk, then aged 59, with all the other information given previously remaining the same. 6. List of employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) updated the above entry with Littler's basic details on pay, etc. remaining unchanged,. His given age was then 60. 7. A Statement dated the 4th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December 1820 showing the amounts received by the storekeeper" recorded that Thomas Littler was living rent free in a Board of Ordnance house from sometime in September 1814. His house was identified as being on the north-east corner of Romeland, Plot No. 715 on the 1825 Waltham Abbey Town Map or Plot No. 70 on the Town Map in Appendix 1. The same information was repeated in Supply 5/232 dated 16th Feb 1822 for the year 1821. 8. List of Officers and other Persons Employed dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) confirmed that Mr. Littler was still First Clerk, that he was aged 60, was a widower with seven children, and lived in Waltham Abbey. All other information as indicated in Note 7 remained the same, except for his gratuity, which had been increased to £50. 9. Supply 5/232 dated 6th February 1822 updated his salary, etc. Littler was then paid £90 per annum, with a gratuity based on service of £50 and a candle and coal allowance of £12.10.0d, giving him a total income of £152.10.0d. He was provided with a house in Waltham Abbey, had served with the Ordnance for over 16 years, was 60 years of age, and a widower with 7 children. These details were confirmed by WO54/536 of the same date. 10 List of employees WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823, confirmed Litter's salary, entitlement to a house, allowance of £25 for coal and candles and £27.7.6d in lieu of attendance of labour. His family details and previous employment were also confirmed in this Return. 11 WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1824, recorded that Mr. Littler's salary was £140.0.0d per annum, with allowances amounting to £12.10.0d, making a total of £152.10.0d per annum. He was entitled to a house, had just over 19 years' service, was then aged 62 and was married with 7 children. WO/550 dated the 1st April 1825 repeated the previous information given. 12 Return dated the 1st October 1825 (WO54/550) recorded that Thomas's basic salary was £90 per annum, and that at that date he received an increase of £50 per annum, with an allowance in lieu of coals and candles of £12.10.0d, making a total of £152.10.0d per annum in all. He had a house, and his period of service was given as just over 20 years. At that date he was 63, and a widower with 7 children. 13 Supply 5/205 dated the 21st December 1825 confirmed that he was First Clerk and recorded that his total salary at the 1st January 1825, was £176 per annum. Note: this was in the form of a memorandum, and adjustments in his salary do not appear to have been put into effect 14 WO54/554 dated 1st April 1826, recorded that he received a salary increase of £24.15.0d giving him a total income with allowances of £177.5.0d per annum, and showed that all other details were unchanged. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, confirmed the Return dated 1st April 1826. 15 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded "no alteration since the last report dated the 1st October 1826." 16 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827, gave the same information as in the notes above. At that date Mr. Littler had just over 22 years' service and he was then 64. 17 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) confirmed the same information as in the notes above, with the exception that he had served nearly 23 years and was aged 65. 18 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) recorded that Littler was paid £164.10.0d per annum, plus an allowance of £12.10.0d for coals and candles. Other details remained unchanged. 19 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unaltered. 20 Littler requested payment of two guineas for auctioning timber at the Mills on the 4th June 1827 (Winters, p.97). 21 WO54/566 dated the 1st October 1829, stated that at that date Thomas still earned the same as in Note 18. His length of service was given as just over 24 years, and he was aged 66. 22. Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, updated his age and length of service, with family and pay details remaining unchanged. 23. According to the Return dated the 1st October 1830 (WO54/570) Thomas, First Clerk, was still earning the same per annum as as he was in Note 18. By then he had served just over 25 years and was 67 years of age. 24 Return WO54/ 575 dated 1st April 1831 gave the same information as that in Note 21, except that he had then served nearly 26 years and he was aged 68. 25 WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831, updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 26 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832, confirmed Mr. Littler earned the same as stated in Note 21. At that date he had served over 27 years, and was aged 70. 27 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833, confirmed that Mr. Littler still earned £177.0.0d per annum. His service was given as just over 28 years, and his age as 71. 28 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834, updated the October Return for service and age, with conditions and salary remaining the same. 29 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834, updated the previous Return for service and age, with conditions and salary remaining unchanged. 30 Return of Staff dated 1st April 1839 (WO54/623) confirmed dates of appointments, etc. as before. Littler's salary, including allowances in lieu of coal and candles, was given as £177.0.0d. He had over 33 years' service, and was then aged 76 years. 30 Thomas died on the 17th July 1839, and is buried in Waltham Abbey Churchyard; he left 7 daughters, all of whom were mentioned in his Will.Supply 5/226
531James (1)LivermoreList of Foremen and Artificers, etc, Rates of Pay & Service.1. James Livermore (1) was employed as a Millman in 1805 at 2/3d per day, and at the 30th January 1806 had been employed with the Ordnance for a year (Supply 5/224 dated 30th January 1806). These details were confirmed in June 1807 when he was allowed 3d per night when on duty. (Supply 5/226 dated the 18th June 1807). 2. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Livermore was still a Millman earning 2/3d per day, and "allowed 6d per night when on duty." 3. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed Mr. Livermore was still a Millman who was paid 2/3 day, and allowed 6d per night when on duty.Supply 5/224
532CharlesLivermoreList of Foremen, Artificers and Labourers Employed1. Charles Livermore was taken on as a Labourer in June 1807, drawing and setting Stoves, etc. at 2/-d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). The full description of his work was given as "Labourer in various parts of the Manufactory and setting & drawing stoves, loading and unloading barges etc."Supply 5/224
533James (2)LivermoreList of Officers, Artificers, etc. in Employment1. James Livermore (2) was employed in the autumn of 1805 as a Labourer drawing and setting stoves etc., and he was paid 2/-d per day (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). 2. According to the List of Officers, Foremen, and Artificers, etc. Employed dated the 23rd August 1808 (Supply 5/227), Mr. Livermore was employed as one of two "Respective Office Labourers" - i.e. he worked as a Labourer for one of the senior staff - earning 2/-d per day, and he was allowed to watch in turn. 3. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, recorded that James (2) was a Millman who was paid 2/3 day, and allowed 6d per night when on duty.Supply 5/227
534WilliamLivesey00/00/1790Return of Employees 1. Born in Lancashire in 1790, Livesey was a retired regular soldier (Supply 5/238 dated the 30th November 1840). 2. He had originally trained as a Weaver before joining the Royal Regiment of Artillery (Fourth Battalion) at Rochdale as a Gunner on the 18th June 1808, on his eighteenth birthday. During his military career he saw service in the Peninsular War for 3 years and 9 months, and a further 6 years and 3 months in Canada. William was promoted to the rank of Corporal on the 1st June 1813, to that of Serjeant on the 1st June 1825, and, finally, to Serjeant-Major on the 1st April 1830. 4. On the 11th September 1839, Livesey appeared before a Medical Board at Woolwich where he was diagnosed with chronic Rheumatism and judged to be unfit for military service with a recommendation that he should be discharged. His military service spanning 31 years ended on the 8th October 1839 (WO97/1243). 3. Livesey took the position of Warder at the Gunpowder Mills in 1840 when John Smith (1) retired. 4. According to the 1841 Census, Wlliam, his wife, Isobella, and their 5 children, were then living at the Gatehouse - John Smith's old house - being Plot No. 91 on the Town Map in Appendix 1.Supply 5/238
535WilliamLock00/00/1772Return of Employees1. William Lock was first employed by the Board as an occasional Labourer earning 2/4d per day in the Engineers' Department on the 13th May 1815. He was a 43-year-old married man with four children, who lived in Enfield (WO54/516 dated February 1816).WO54/516
536John Snr.LockyerList of Foremen, etc. in the Manufactory.1. John Lockyer, Senior, had been transferred from Faversham as Foreman of the Brimstone Refining House, possibly in 1805. He had then been with the Ordnance for some 14 years, having started work in September 1792. His pay was 4/-d per day. (Supply 5/224 dated the 30th January 1806). See below for details and dates, and see also, "The Faversham Gunpowder Mills", p.57. 2. John petitioned the Board in January 1805, pointing out that he came to Waltham Abbey from Faversham, and that since he had taken over refining Brimstone following Mr Townsend's death, production costs using the methods employed at Faversham had fallen, and he now asked the Board for financial recognition. The Board agreed to increase his pay to 5/-d per day. He was still in same position and receiving the same pay on the 18th June 1807 (Supply 5/226). 3. Lockyer Snr. petitioned the Board again on the 5th May 1808 to be allowed an Apprentice, the same as the Master Brimstone Refiner at Faversham (Supply 5/198 dated 5th May 1808) which was agreed on the 23rd May 1808. The conditions and rates of pay for the Master and the Apprentice were clearly laid out in a letter dated 5th August 1808 (Supply 5/198). 4. According to the entry on Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, Mr. Lockyer then earned 5/-d. per day. He also received an allowance of 6/-d per week for training an Apprentice, who so happened to be his son, John Junior. 5. The details given in Note 4 are confirmed by Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810. 6. According to a Return dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) Mr. Lockyer, Snr, now earned 6/4d per day as the Master Refiner of Brimstone. This was also the case in 1814 (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814). 7. In a letter dated 6th September 1814 (Supply 5/230) Lockyer stated that his son and Apprentice, John Lockyer, junior, had served the legal time of his Apprenticeship, and humbly solicited The Honourable Board to grant him another Apprentice. Messrs. Matthews, Breeze and Wright confirmed in a letter that the facts were as stated, and requested the Board direct the Assistant to the Ordnance Solicitor to prepare the usual kind of Indentures for Apprenticing a Thomas Martin, Junior, son of Thomas Martin, senior, to be Mr. Lockyer's new Apprentice. Master Thomas Martin, junior was described therein as "a stout lad about thirteen years' old." 8. Returns dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231 and WO54/524) confirmed that Mr. Lockyer was a Master Refiner of Brimstone aged 49, who resided in Waltham Abbey and was married, with one child. He earned 5/10d per day with no other allowances. 9. A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Lockyer's name was included, with pay of 5/10d per day. 10 According to the Return dated 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) Mr. Lockyer, Snr. was still a Master Refiner of Brimstone, then aged 50, with all the other information given in Note 8 remaining the same; he still trained an Apprentice. 11 List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) updated the above entry, with the basic details on pay, etc. remaining unchanged. He was allowed 7/-d per week to train an Apprentice. 12 Return dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) confirmed that Mr. Lockyer was still a Master Refiner of Brimstone recording that he was then aged 51, was married and had one child. He resided in Waltham Abbey, and his pay was confirmed atl 5/10d per day. 13 A statement dated the 4th April 1821 "of monies to which the public were entitled to receive credit between the 1st January and the 31st December 1820, showing the amounts received by the storekeeper" (Supply 5/232) recorded that John Lockyer was living in a house purchased by the Board of Ordnance - Tenement No 38 - with a rent of £5.4.0d per annum. The property, together with its small garden, has been identified as being one of a terrace of tenements in Powder Mill Lane (part of Property 714 on the 1825 Waltham Abbey Town Map or Plot 1434 on the 1842 Tithe Map). Similar information was repeated in Supply 5/232 dated 16th Feb 1822 for the year 1821, except that then his tenement number was shown as 37. This may possibly be because John Archer had moved and his tenement was left empty. 14 List of Employees in January 1822 (Supply 5/232 dated the the 26th January, 1822) gave John Lockyer's age as 52, and recorded that he had 29 years' service and that his pay per day as Master Refiner of Brimstone was 5/10d. 15 Return showing the pay, allowances and length of service and every description of the persons in the pay and employ of the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821 (Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822) appeared to be a more detailed and, probably, more accurate Return than that dated the 23rd January 1822. It recorded that John Lockyer, Master Refiner of Brimstone, was appointed on the 5 May 1792 as a Labourer at Faversham, then appointed Master Brimstone Refiner at Waltham on the 4th September 1818. His total pay for the year, including an allowance of £21.13.5d for an Apprentice, amounted to £112.19.3d. His service was given as nearly 30 years, and he was aged 52, married, with one child. He lived in Waltham Abbey. 16 List dated the 21st March 1822 of persons to be retained to form an Establishment at Waltham Abbey to regenerate 2000 barrels of gunpowder as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually, included John Lockyer, Master Refiner of Brimstone (Supply 5/232) 17 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823, confirmed Lockyer's pay as £91.5.10d per annum, and recorded that he no longer had an allowance for training an Apprentice. His family and service details were unchanged, and it also confirmed he was trained as a Brimstone Refiner. 18 WO54/546 dated the 1st October 1824, included John Lockyer Senior and confirmed that he was appointed Master Refiner of Brimstone on the 4th September, 1818. His pay was given as £91.5.10d per annum, with no allowances. By then he had just over 32 years' service, was aged 55 and was married with one child. WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 confirmed his pay and previous family and service details.. 19 Return dated October 1st 1825 (Winters, pp.93-95) confirmed previous information, and recorded that Lockyer's service had been continuous since 1792. This information was also confirmed in Return WO54/550 of that date, giving his service as 33 years, and his age as 55. 20 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826, confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825, and WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, confirmed the information given in WO54/554 dated 1st April 1826. 21 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827, recorded "no alteration since the last report dated the 1st October 1826." 22 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827, gave the same information as in the previous notes. At that date, however, John Lockyer had just over 35 years' service and was then 57. 23 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) gave the same information as previously recorded, except that Mr. Lockyer, Sr. had now served nearly 36 years. 24 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 25 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) recorded that John Lockyer, the Master Refiner, had died and had been replaced by James O'Brien. 26 Winters (p.101) recorded that John Lockyer, Master Brimstone Refiner, had died on the 10th January 1829, aged 59.Supply 5/224
537John Jnr.Lockyer00/00/1797List of Officers and Artificers etc.1. John Lockyer, Junior, was Apprenticed on the 23rd May 1808 to his father, the Master Refiner of Brimstone. John Jnr., according to Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, earned 6/-d per week, and his father was allowed the same amount per week in respect of his son and Apprentice. 2. Supply 5/277 dated 30th September 1808, confirmed that John Lockyer, Junior, was Apprenticed to the Master Refiner of Brimstone at 6/- per week. This document also indicated that he was literate. 3. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed that John was Apprenticed to the Master Refiner of Brimstone at 6/-d per week, and that his Master received 6/-d per week also. 4. According to Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812, John Junior was still Apprenticed to his father, the Master Refiner of Brimstone, but he now earned 6/2d per week, with his Master getting 6/6d each week for his Apprentice. 5. At the 13th February 1814 (Supply 5/230) John Lockyer, Junior, Apprentice to the Master Refiner of Brimstone, had his earnings increased to 6/8d per week and his Master then received 8/-d in respect of his Apprentice. 6. A letter dated 6th September 1814 (Supply 5/230) stated that John Lockyer, Junior, had "served the legal time of his Apprenticeship." 7. Supply 5/231 and WO54/524 dated the 25th June 1818 record that John Lockyer (2) was employed as a Brimstone Refiner; he was 21, a single man living in Waltham Abbey earning 2/8d per day, and he was allowed to watch in turn for which he was paid 1/-d per night. 8. A List of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people who were to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December 1818. Lockyer's name was included, with his pay reduced to 2/6d per day and he was not allowed to watch. 9. List of Employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231)) confirmed that Lockyer was still employed as a Brimstone Refiner, that he was still asingle man of 22 who lived in Waltham Abbey, and was paid 2/4d per day. He was allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night.Supply 5/227
538JacobLofts00/00/1778List of Officers, etc. Employed.1. Jacob Lifts was employed as a Labourer, setting and drawing stoves and in the willow plantations, earning 2/8d per day and allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814). 2. Return dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded that Jacob was then employed as an Hoop Bender. He was a married man, aged 40, with 6 children, who lived in Cheshunt and earned 3/6d per day; he was also allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/-d per night. 3. In a letter dated September 1818 (Supply 5/231), it was stated "We respectfully beg leave to add the names and stations of those persons whom it will be necessary to discharge in consequence of this arrangement." The list included Jacob Lofts, Hoop Bender.Supply 5/230
539JohnLording00/00/1799Return of Employees1. John Lording joined the Engineers' Department on the 13th July 1810 as an Apprentice Millwright. He earned 2/2d per day for 313 days, giving him an annual amount of £33.18.2d. His period of service at that date was 11 years, and he was a 33-year-old married man, with 4 children (WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833). 2. WO54/593 dated 1st April 1834 confirmed that John still earned £33.18.2d per annum, that he had served nearly 13 years and that his age was 33. 3. WO54/623 dated the 1st October 1839 confirmed that Lording joined the Engineers' Department on the 13th July 1810 as an Apprentice Millwright. In 1839, he was was working as a Labourer and paid 2/2d per day, with estimated annual pay of £33.18.2d. At that date he was a 39-year-old married man with 5 children, living in Waltham Abbey who had 22 years' service. He left the Mills at Waltham Abbey for London where he commanded a higher wage. 4. A Return of Properties owned by the Board prepared by the Royal Engineer's Office on the 20th December 1834, recorded that William Bunce had died, and that it was proposed to let his cottage to John Lording, Labourer (Supply 5/237). The cottage was shown as Tenement No. 54 on the Town Map in Appendix 1. A similar Return for May 1840, showed that his cottage was then let to a J. DavyWO54/587
540GeorgeLovellReturn of Domestic Properties1. George Lovell was employed at the Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield Lock, and according to a Return prepared by the Royal Engineers dated the 28th May 1840, regarding domestic properties owned by the Board, he lived in a house previously occupied by William Breeze, deceased. This house was set in over an acre of ground in High Bridge Street, Plot No. 705 on the 1825 Waltham Abbey Parish Map (D/DHF B29). It recorded also that Lovell was about to move (WO44/133). 2. Breeze's position within the Manufactory was abolished on the 31st December 1821, and he died shortly after (Supply 5/232).
541JohnLuckList of those Employed and their Pay1. John Luck was employed as a Salpetre Refiner who earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, was allowed to watch in turn (Supply 5/229 dated the 29th August 1812). 2. The same pay and conditions applied according to Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814.Supply 5/229
542JamesLuck00/00/1817Return of Employees1. James Luck was employed as a general Labourer on the 3rd December 1838 at £39.0.0d per annum, which included an allowance to watch in turn. He was a 21-year-old bachelor (WO54/623 dated the 1st October 1839). 2. The 1841 Census recorded that James and his wife Eliza (aged 20) were living in Sewardstone Street, and that both were born in Essex. 3. On the 13th April 1843, some 40 barrels of gunpowder exploded in the Corning House, together with another 20 in the Press House. Seven men were killed and much damage was caused in the town. Among those killed was James Luck. In a note dated June 2nd, "Elizabeth Luck to receive a donation of £2 in her confinement, consequent of the explosion." (Winters, p.106). 4. A graphic description of the explosion and damage caused, etc., was given in the London Illustrated News dated Saturday, the 22nd April 1843 (WAAC). James, of course, left a widow and a child.WO54/623
543JohnLumathAccounts for September 17901. John Lumath was employed as a Labourer in the Engineers' Department, and earned 1/6d per day. Between August and September 1790 he worked within the Manufactory, with his wages submitted by William Spry, Colonel commanding the Royal Engineers, and paid by the Storekeeper, James Wright. He signed for his pay with a cross (WASC 1382).WASC 1382
544JamesMadell00/00/1791Return of Employees in the Engineers' Department1. James Madell was first employed by the Board as an occasional Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the 26th November 1815, earning 2/8d per day. He was a 20-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/516 dated February 1816).WO54/516
545JohnMadgwick/Magwich/MagwickList of officers, foremen, artificers etc.1 John Madgwick was first employed in the Dusting House in the summer of 1805, and was paid 2/1d per day (Supply 5/221 dated the 30th January 1806). In June 1807, it is recorded that he was then employed as a Refiner in the Saltpetre House with pay of 2/-d per day, and "when not working extra allowed to watch in turn." (Supply 5/226 dated 18th June 1807). 2. By August 1808, he was working as a Cylinderman at Fisher Street in West Sussex, with pay of 2/-d per day. (Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808). 3. Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed he was still employed as a Cylinder Man at 2/-d per day. 4. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Mr. Magwick was a Saltpetre Refiner who then earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, he was allowed to watch in turn. 6. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814, recorded that Magwick was a Cylinder Man, earning the same 2/8d per day.Supply 5/221
546JerimiahMahonyReturn of Employees in the Engineers' Department1. Jerimiah Mahony was employed as a Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the 18th May 1826 at 2/2d per day, which gave him an annual income of £33.18.2d. He was a 32- year-old married man with one child (WO54/554 dated 1st October 1826). 2. WO54/558 dated 1st April 1827 gave the same information as in Note 1. At that date Mr. Mahony had one year's service and was 32 years of age. 3. WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827 confirmed the information given in Notes 1 and 2, with the exception that he had then served for eighteen months, and he was then 33 years of age. 4. Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) updated the same basic information given in the previous notes.WO54/554
547LeviMarchWinter's Centenary Memorial (page 28)1. Levi March was a Labourer by trade, set to work by Daniel Cornish in October 1787 at 9/- per week, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase from Mr. Walton by the Government (Winter's Centenary Memorial, p.28).
548WMarchantWinters' Centenary Memorial1. W. Marchant was a Surgeon at the Mills between 1787 and 1791 (Winters, p.122)
549JohnMarrPay List1. John Marr was a common Labourer who was paid 17/-d for work carried out by the Engineers' Department in the Manufactory between the 15th and 21st July 1809 (Supply 5/228 dated the 21st July 1809). 2. List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Mr. Marr was now a Brimstone and Saltpetre Millman who earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, was allowed to watch in turn, for which he earned 1/6d. per night. 3. Supply 5/230 dated the 13th February 1814, stated that Mr. Marr was employed as a Dusting House Man earning 3/-d per day and allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/6d per night.Supply 5/228
550WilliamMarshallList of Officers and Others Employed1. William Marshall was employed as an extra Bargeman on three barges transporting Gunpowder to Picket's Field and Magazines, with pay of £2.2.0d. per week. (Supply 5/222 dated the 8th May 1804).Supply 5/222
551Thomas SnrMartin00/00/1770Accounts for Serptember 17901. Thomas Martin was employed as a Labourer in the Engineers' Department and paid 1/6d per day. Between August and September 1790 he worked within the Manufactory, with his wages submitted by William Spry, Colonel commanding the Royal Engineers, and paid by the Storekeeper, James Wright. He signed for his pay with a cross (WASC 1382). According to Supply 5/215 dated the 16th April 1791, Thomas was then employed in the Corning Houses at 1/6d per day. This was also the case on the 31st Jauary 1792 (Supply 5/215) and on the 31st July 1792 (Supply 5/216). 2. On the 31st August 1793 he was "in the country felling wood" (Supply 5/216) but the following August he was back in the Corning Houses, still at 1/6d per day (Supply 5/216 dated the 31st August 1794). 3. Supply 5/217 dated the 31st December 1794, indicated that he was working in the Dusting House at 1/6d per day. 4. Supply 5/217 dated the 24th June 1795, recorded that Thomas was a Refiner with pay of 1/6d per day. This Return gives his appointment to the Ordnance as the 21st September 1790. He was also confirmed as a Refiner on the 3rd July 1795 by Supply 5/217. 5. Thomas joined the Volunteers as a Private (Supply 5/219 dated September 1798) and this document recorded that he started his employment with the Board on the 21st September 1790. 6. A "signed" document, Supply 5/220 dated the 2nd February 1800, relating to a Petition on Pay, shows that he was illiterate and was still working as a General Labourer. 7. Supply 5/221 dated the 8th May 1801 recorded that Thomas was a married man with two children. 8. Robert Coleman recorded in his Minute Book on the 23rd October 1801, that 24 men were required to work at Faversham or be discharged. Thomas Martin was one who agreed to go. However, the Faversham Gunpowder Personnel Register 1573-1840 does not record his name, and subsequent entries indicate that he was retained as a Labourer and then reinstated as a Refiner at Waltham Abbey. 9. Supply 5/227 dated the 8th May 1804, recorded that Martin was working as a Labourer at 2/-d per day, and in addition, he was allowed to watch in turn, on average every 5 days, for which he was allowed 1/-d. 10 Supply 5/224 dated the 31st January 1806, stated that Thomas Martin was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner and was paid 2/-d per day. At that date he had 16 years' service. 11 An entry in Supply 5/227 dated the 23rd August 1808, confirmed that Mr. Martin was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner earning 2/-d. per day, and "when not working extra, they are allowed to watch in turn." 12 Supply 5/228 dated the 1st September 1810, confirmed Martin was employed as a Saltpetre Refiner who was paid 2/-d day, and allowed to watch in turn. 13 List of Employees dated the 29th August 1812 (Supply 5/229) recorded that Thomas was still a Saltpetre Refiner who then earned 2/8d per day, and in addition, when not working extra, was allowed to watch in turn. The same pay and conditions applied according to Supply 5/230 dated the13th February 1814. 14 A letter dated the 23rd May 1818 reads :- "Mr. Lovell presents his compliments to Mr. Middleton and begs to acquaint him that the bearer, Thomas Martin, is the person who is to receive extra pay for bags during the period he was employed providing articles for the Corn Mill at Waltham Abbey" (Supply 5/202). 15 List of Employees dated the 25th June 1818 (Supply 5/231) states that Thomas Martin was still a Saltpetre Refiner; he was a married man, aged 48, with 8 children living in Waltham Abbey and earning 2/4d per day, as well as being allowed to watch in turn, for which he was paid 1/-d per night. 16 A Return of Employees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people who were to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December, 1818. Thomas Martin's name was included with his pay remaining unchanged, but he was not then allowed to watch. 17 List of employees dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) recorded that Thomas Martin was employed as Brimstone Refiner, that he was a married man aged 49 with 8 children. He lived in Waltham Abbey, and was paid 2/4d per day as well as being allowed to watch in turn, for which he received 1/d per night. 18 List of Officers in Employment dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Thomas Martin, Snr., was then 50, still lived in Waltham Abbey, still earned 2/4d per day, but as a Saltpetre Refiner, and that he was then in receipt of 1/6d per night whilst on watch. 19 List of Employees dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Thomas then 51 with 8 children, and still employed as a Saltpetre Refiner; all other entries remained the same as in Note 9 20 List of Employees (Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822) gave the age of Thomas Snr., Saltpetre Refiner, as 53, with 32 years' service and pay per day of 2/4d. 21 Return dated the 6th February 1822 (Supply 5/232) recorded length of service and other full details of those persons employed by the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821. This appeared to be a more detailed Return than that of the 23rd January 1822. Thomas Martin Senior, a Saltpetre Refiner, was appointed a Labourer at Waltham Abbey on the 11th January 1793; this would seem to be an incorrect statement and possibly a clerical error, since there are entries for T Martin from 1791 onwards, and at least two other documents recorded his starting date as the 21st September 1790. Orders of the Board dated 4th September 1818 and the 4th October 1819, confirmed that he was on the Establishment as a Saltpetre Refiner. He was allowed to watch in turn to guard the works, for which he received an additional 2/-d per night, giving him total annual pay of £41.14.4d. According to this Return, at 31st December 1821 he had 29 years' service, was 53 years old, was married with eight children and lived in Waltham Abbey. 22 List dated the 21st March 1822 (Supply 5/232) of persons to form an Establishment at Waltham Abbey to regenerate 2000 barrels of gunpowder as well as to make 100 or 200 barrels of gunpowder annually, retained Thomas Martin as a Saltpetre Refiner. 23 WO54/542 dated the 1st April 1823, confirmed that Martin was still a Saltpetre Refiner, that his pay for the year was £39.0.0d, which included an allowance for watching in turn of 2/-d per week. His family and service details remained the same, except that his children are listed as 7, so, possibly, one had died. 24 According to a document dated the 1st April 1823 (WO54/542 - Alteration in Return B) Thomas Martin, Snr. had his pay reduced by £2.12.0d per annum, in accordance with the Board's Orders dated the 27th December 1822 and the 15th January 1823. 25 Return dated the 1st October 1824 (WO54/546) confirmed that Thomas Snr., Saltpetre Refiner, still earned a total of £39 per annum, which included an allowance for watching in turn amounting to 2/-d per week. His period of service was given as nearly 32 years, he was then aged 55, was married and had 7 children. 26 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825 related that Thomas started at the Mills on the 4th January 1793 and had 32 years' service, so he was not transferred or discharged. This start date would appear to be a recurring error. 27 Return dated the 1st October 1825 (Winters, pp. 93-95) confirmed previous information given, and recorded that he had been in continuous service with the Board since the 11th January 1793. His pay was £33.16.0d. per annum. 28 WO54/550 dated the 1st April 1825, confirmed he was still a Saltpetre Refiner and gave his basic pay as £33.16.0d per annum. He was allowed to watch in turn which gave him, on average, 2/-d per week, making his total remuneration £39.0.0d per annum. It also confirmed his previous family and service details. All of these details were repeated in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. 29 WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826 confirmed the basic information given in WO54/550 dated the 1st October 1825. WO54/554 dated the 1st October 1826, confirmed the information given in WO54/554 dated the 1st April 1826. 30 WO54/558 dated the 1st April 1827 recorded "no alteration since the last report dated the 1st October 1826." 31 WO54/558 dated the 1st October 1827, gave the same information as in the previous notes. At that date Thomas had nearly 35 years' service and he was then 57 years of age. 32 Return dated the 1st April 1828 (WO54/562) recordedthe same information as in previous , except that he had now served just over 35 years. 33 Return dated the1st October 1828 (WO54/562) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unchanged. 34 Return dated the 1st April 1829 (WO54/566) updated his age and length of service, with family details and pay remaining unaltered. 35 Return showing employees at the 1st October 1829 (WO54/566) recorded that Thomas Martin, Snr. earned in total £39.0.0d per annum, that his service was nearly 37 years, that he was 58 years of age, was married and had 7 children. 36 According to Return WO54/570 dated the 1st April 1830, all details remained the same for Thomas, Snr. as in Note 25, except that his service was given as nearly 38 years, and he was then aged 59. 37 Return WO54/570 dated the 1st October 1830, gave the same information as that provided at the 1st April 1830. 38 According to the Return WO54/575 dated the 1st April 1831, Thomas, Senior, was now 60 years of age and had served just over 38 years. He replaced Isaac Webb, deceased, as a Stoveman on the 24th December, 1830, with a basic wage of £39 per annum, and was allowed to watch in turn at an average of 2/-d per week, giving him a total of £44.4.0d annually. WO54/545 dated the 1st October 1831, updated his age and period of service in the April 1831 Return, with all other details remaining the same. 39 WO54/581 dated the 1st April 1832 updated his age and period of service in the October 1831 Return, with all other details remaining unchanged. 40 WO54/581 dated the 1st October 1832 updated his age and period of service in the April 1832 Return, with all other details remaining the same. 41 WO54/587 dated the 1st April 1833 confirmed that at that date Thomas Snr. was still earning the same £44.4.0d annually. His period of service was given as just over 40 years, and his age as 62. 42 WO54/587 dated the 1st October 1833 confirmed that LL details were the same as in the previous Return, except that Thomas Snr. had then served nearly 41 years, and he was 63 years of age. 43 WO54/593 dated the 1st April 1834, recorded that although Thomas was still employed as a Labourer attending the stoves, etc., his basic pay had been cut to £32.12.6d per annum. However, he was still allowed to watch in turn, which increased his annual pay to £37.16.6d. His age and service details were updated. 44 WO54/593 dated the 1st October 1834, confirmed the basic information given in Note 37. However, Thomas was then 64 years of age, and had served just over 41 years.WASC 1382
552HenryMartinReport on Explosion in the New Corning House1. Henry Martin, according to a letter to the Board, was working in the new Corning House when it blew up on the 18th April 1801, with a tremendous explosion. Nine men in the building including Henry Martin, were killed, along with four horses (Supply 5/220 dated the 19th April 1801). 2. Supply 5/194, a Petition dated the 24th April, 1801, stated that Henry's mother, Mary, requested, along with the other widows and mothers, "relief in their distress." 3. Supply 5/220 dated the 29th April 1801 - a report on ages of children and circumstances of widows and children - recorded that Mary Martin, the deceased's mother, was aged 54. Her husband had left her "several years ago" and she had been supported by her son, Henry, who lived with her.Supply5/220
553Thomas Jnr or (2)Martin00/00/1802List of Employees1. In a letter dated 6th September 1814 (Supply 5/230) John Lockyer, Snr., stated that his son and Apprentice, John Lockyer, Junior, had served the legal time of his Apprenticeship, and humbly solicited The Honourable Board to grant him another Apprentice. Messrs. Matthews, Breeze and Wright confirmed in the letter that the facts were as stated, and requested the Board direct the Assistant to the Ordnance Solicitor to prepare the usual kind of Indentures for Apprenticing a Thomas Martin, Junior, son of Thomas Martin, Senior, to be Mr. Lockyer's new Apprentice. Master Thomas Martin, Junior, was described therein as a "stout lad about thirteen years old". 2. Thomas Martin (2) was, therefore, Apprenticed to the Master Refiner of Brimstone. He was a single man aged 15 who lived in Waltham Abbey and earned 6/-d per week (Supply 5/231 dated the 25th June 1818). 3. A List of Empoyees dated the 28th August 1818 (Supply 5/231) recorded the names of people to be retained between the 3rd September and the 31st December, 1818. Thomas Martin's name was included, with his pay increased to 6/2d per week. 4. Return dated the 19th May 1819 (Supply 5/231) confirmed that Thomas Martin was still Apprenticed to the Master Refiner of Saltpetre, and recorded that he was then 17 years of age; He lived in Waltham Abbey, and was paid 6/2d per week. 5. List of Employees dated the 13th September 1820 (Supply 5/232) confirmed that Martin was still an Apprentice, but that his pay had increased to 6/4d per week. 6. Return dated the 9th April 1821 (Supply 5/232) recorded that Thomas was now 19, apprenticed to the Master Refiner of Brimstone, and that his wage had increased to 6/8d per week. 7. Return (Supply 5/232 dated the 23rd January 1822) gave Thomas's age as 19 and confirmed that he was still an Apprentice who had served for over 6 years. He was then earning 7/-d per week. 8. Return (Supply 5/232 dated the 6th February 1822) showing the pay, allowances and length of service and every drescription of the persons in the pay and employment of the Ordnance at Waltham Abbey as at the 31st December 1821, confirmed that Thomas was appointed as an Apprentice to the Master Refiner of Brimstone on the 8th September 1815, and then as a Gunpowder Maker, with total pay for the year amounting to £17.13.0d. He was aged 18 years, a single man living in Waltham Abbey, with over 6 years' service. 9. Return dated the 1st October 1822 showing the alterations made since the Return dated the 1st February 1822 (WO54/536) recorded that Thomas Martin, Apprentice, had completed his Aprenticeship with the Master Refiner of Brimstone, and had been discharged by the Board's order dated the 22nd May 1822.Supply 5/231
554MichaelMartin00/00/1745List of Employees1. Michael Martin was Office Keeper in the Engineers' Department, and was paid 2/8d per day. (WO54/512 dated September 1812). 2. WO54/516 dated February 1816, confirmed he was employed as the Office Keeper in the Engineers' Office earning 2/8d per day, and that he was first employed by the Board on the 29th March 1806. He was a 60-year-old widower living in Waltham Abbey with four married children, and had had no other trade. 3. Updated by WO54/520 dated the 28th February 1817, Michael Martin's pay was then 2/4d per day. All other details remained the same. 4. WO54/524 dated the 11th April 1818, confirmed he was still employed as the Office Keeper in the Engineers' Department and still paid 2/4d per day. This was also the case in 1819 (WO54/528 dated the 19th May 1819).WO54/512
555WilliamMartin00/00/1796List of Employees1. William Martin was first employed as an occasional Labourer in the Engineers' Department on the 30th June 1815, earning 2/8d per day. He was a 19-year-old bachelor living in Waltham Abbey (WO54/516 dated the 19th February 1816).WO54/516
556JamesMashWinter's Centenary Memorial (p.29)1. James Mash was a Labourer by trade set to work by Daniel Cornish in October 1787 at 9/- per week, possibly renovating the Mills following their purchase from Mr Walton by the Government . However, he does not appear to have been retained (Winters' Centenary Memorial, p.29).
557JohnMasonReport on personnel in the Storekeeper's Dept.1. John Mason was "an occasional Labourer at Royal Laboratory in last war" (American War of Independence) according to Supply 5/217 dated the 20th June 1795. He came to the Mills on the 13th April 1789, and was paid 1/6d per day. Mason was at the Mills working as a Refiner in April 1789, according to Winters, p.33. 2. A Report on Personnel working in the Storekeeper's Department dated the 27th March 1790 (Supply 5/214) confirmed that he was refining Salt Petre under Thomas Baker. 3. Mason was working in the Corning House from August to September 1790 (Supply 5/215). 4. He was "Setting & drawing stoves & in the punts" in April to June 1791 (Supply 5/215 dated 16th April